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You are on page 1of 32

Pipe Lines

By

Dr.Eng. Ahmed Abo-Habsa

1. THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

1.1 Basic Equations

Mass Conservation

For a fixed control volume enclosed by a surface S, a general statement of mass

conservation is

generally referred to as the Continuity Equation, and it is written

Hence

Energy Conservation

For the steady one-dimensional flow of a liquid in a pipe, per unit weight of fluid, the

Energy Equation can be written between two sections as

In this equation v2/2g is the velocity head or kinetic energy, p/g is the pressure head or

flow work, and Z elevation head or potential energy, all per unit weight. The head loss

term, or the accumulated energy loss per unit weight, SHL,1-2 is the sum, between

sections 1 and 2, of the individual head losses in the reach caused by frictional effects.

HP is the mechanical energy per unit weight (work) added to the flow by a pump. HT is the

mechanical energy per unit weight extracted from the flow by a turbine. If the head loss

and work terms were absent, the equation would be the classical Bernoulli.

Fluid power P, is the product of the energy gain HP or loss HT per unit weight and the

weight rate of flow gQ

Momentum Equation

in which the net force on the contents of the control volume, fluid and solid, which can

be divided into surface forces and body forces, is equal to the rate of accumulation

of momentum within the control volume plus the net flux of momentum through the

surface of the control volume. In a steady flow the first term is again zero. For steady,

incompressible, one-dimensional flow through a pipe, the component momentum

equation along the direction of flow is:

in which we assume flow into the pipe at the left section, section 1, and flow from the

pipe at the right section, section 2. If the pipe cross-sectional area is constant

between the end sections and the pipe is straight, then the velocities are equal, and

the equation simplifies further to Fnet = 0

1.2 Energy & Hydraulic Grade Lines

The Energy Grade Line, also called the Energy Line or simply EL, is a plot of the sum

of the three terms in the work-energy equation, which is also the Bernoulli sum:

The Hydraulic Grade Line, or HGL, is the sum of only the pressure and elevation

heads. The sum of these two terms is also called the piezometric head, which can be

conveniently measured by a piezo-meter tube inserted flush into the side of a pipe.

2. Friction loss in pipelines

2.1 Darcy-Weisbach equation

The fundamentally most 2

sound and versatile equation fL

hL k

v

for estimating frictional head

loss in a pipe : d 2g

Where

hL the head loss in [m]

f the pipe friction factor

L the pipe length in [m]

v the average flow velocity in the pipe 4Q

v

[m/s] d 2

d the inside diameter of the pipe [m]

K friction coefficient of the pipe fittings

(elbow, tee, valve, ………)

Q the flow rate [m3/s]

The friction factors f =f (Re, e/d) are presented in the following Moody diagram.

The friction factor f is a function of the pipe Reynolds number

Re = ρvd/µ and the relative roughness factor e/d. The following

table presents common values of the absolute roughness e for

several pipe materials.

Pipe Material Smooth Average Rough

Glass, drawn tubing -- 0.0015 --

PVC -- 0.035 --

PE, GRP, Cast Iron cement lined -- 0.040 0.09

Seamless Steel -- 0.045 --

Galvanized Steel -- 0.15 --

Cast iron -- 0.25 --

Wood stave 0.18 0.54 0.9

Concrete 0.3 1.65 3

Riveted Steel 0.9 4.95 9

Swamee & Jane developed the flowing equation for calculating the friction

factor f=f (Re, ε) for all kinds of flow; laminar, turbulent and transition zone.

16 0.125

64 8 ε 5.74 2500 6

f ( ) 9.5 ln ( )( )

Re 3.7d R e Re

0.9

For Re= 2000 to 5x106 the Swamee & Jane formula can be simplified to:

2

e 1

0.9

f 1.325ln o.27 5.74

D Re

where

Re is the Reynolds Number Re

rvd

m

ε the absolute roughness of the pipe wall

r the fluid density for water at 20 C = 1000 kg/m3

m the absolute viscosity of the fluid; for water at 20 °C = 0.001 kg/m/s

2.2 Hazen Williams Formula

1.852

Q

hL 10.675

L

Where C D 4.8704

hL the head loss in [m]

Q the flow rate [m3/s]

L the pipe length in [m]

d the inside diameter of the pipe [m]

C friction coefficient of the pipe

Pipe Type C

Very smooth pipes 150

Recommended PVC, GRP, Cement- lined Ductile Iron 140

C Values

Commercial steel and PE tubing 130

Welded steel 120

Old cast iron 100

In general the head loss in a pipe line can be expressed as

p k1 Leq Q p

hL

g dr

Where K1, n and r are constants depending on the formula used for

estimating the head loss

for Darcy-Weisbach equation Where:

p=2 Q The rate of flow [m/s]

r=5 d the pipe inside

diameter [m]

k1 = 8 × f /(g × π2) Leq the equivalent length of

For Hazen Williams formula the pipe & fittings [m]

p = 1.852 Leq = Lpipe + Lfittings

= Lpipe + Sk × d /f

r = 4.8704

k1 = 10.675/ (C)1.852

3. STEADY PIPE FLOW ANALYSIS

3.1 Simple Pipe Problems

The basic tools for analysis here are the continuity, work-energy and Darcy-

Weisbach equations. All simple pipe flow problems fit one of the following

three computational categories:

3.2 Series Pipe Flow

Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q 3

HL = HL1 + HL2 + HL3

= R1 Q12 + R2 Q22 + R3 Q32

= R Q2

Hence:

R = R1 + R2 + R3

3.3 Parallel Pipe Flow

Q = Q 1 + Q2 + Q3

HL = HL1 = HL2 = HL3

= R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32

Hence:

= R Q2

3.4 Branched Pipe Flow

Q1 = Q 2 + Q3

HL1 = R1 Q12 = Z1 – (HB + ZB)

Solution

HL2 = R2 Q22 = (HB + ZB) – Z2 Assume HB

Calculate Q1, Q2 and Q3

HL3 = R3 Q32 = (HB + ZB) – Z3

Reassume HB and recalculate

Unknown Q1, Q2, Q3 and HB Q1, Q2 and Q3 until the

continuity is fulfilled.

4. Distribution Piping

4.1 Manifolds

A manifold consists of one pipe with numerous ports, all allowing flow from the

manifold, and usually relatively closely spaced but not so close that the flow at

adjacent ports interacts.

The line flow rate of each manifold segment Qi = i q

Segment length = L

Manifold total length LM = n L

Inlet flow rate to manifold = Qn = n q

Head loss reduction factor rf for a manifold with n outlets

8 fL

Segment loss hL,i Qi

2

kLQi

2

g 2 d 5

n n n n

Total loss hL,T hL,i kLQi2 kLiq kLq i 2

2 2

i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1

n n n 1 2n 1

i

2

i 1 6

n

hL,i

i 1 n n 1 2n 1

kLq 2

Reduction rf

factor kLM Qn k L n n q

2 2 2 6

n 1 2n 1

rf 2

Where:

6n n = number of outlets

4.2 Telescopic pipelines

The water distribution system comprises several pipe segments connected in

series having an outlet at the end of each pipe segment. With known inlet water

head and permissible residual head at the extreme end of the distribution

pipeline, it can be designed by the following three methods:

1- Constant velocity in all pipe segments.

2- Constant HGL gradient in all pipe segments.

3- Least cost of all pipe segments.

The Figure shows a long irrigation distribution pipeline comprising (n) segments

with (n) outlets. Each pipe segment has a length Li , a diameter di and an outflow

of qi at the end of each segment. The flow rate in each segment is Qi.

Applying the continuity equation

1- Constant velocity in all pipe segments

• Assume a constant velocity between 1.5 to 2.5 m/s

• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment accordingly

• Correct to the standard inside diameters

• Estimate the head loss in each segment & the total head for the

distribution pipeline

• Estimate the total head loss H = (pp- pr)/g - Z where: pp the initial

pressure (pump pressure) & pr the residual pressure at the end of the

pipeline. Z is the level difference along the pipe line, (+ve) pipe is

going uphill, (-ve) pipe is going downhill.

• Estimate the head loss in each segment hi = H Li / L where L =S Li

• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment di = (k1 Qp Li / hi ) 1/r

• Correct to the standard inside diameters

• Estimate the velocities in each segment vi = 4 Qi / di2

3- Least cost of all pipe segments

The relationship of head loss hi in a pipe segment (i) and the flow through

Qi it can be given as:

The capital cost of a pipe segment (i) can be expressed as a function of the

diameter :

Where Yi is the capital cost of the pipe segment (i) of length Li and diameter di. k

and m are constants, its values vary from country to country depending on the

pipe material and the market conditions.

Combining Head Loss Eq. with the Cost Function yields,

Let Yk, hk the cost and the head loss in the kth pipe segment respectively, the

ratio of the head losses hi & hk in both pipe segments will be,

For minimum cost of the piping system the following relation should be

realized

then

and

Taking in consideration that the summation of the Ri values of all pipe

segments should be equal to 1.0

And finally:

Design Procedure

• Estimate the total head loss H = (pp- pr)/g - Z where: pp the initial

pressure (pump pressure) & pr the residual pressure at the end of

the pipeline. Z is the level difference along the pipe line, (+ve) pipe

is going uphill, (- ve) pipe is going downhill.

• Estimate the head loss in each segment hk = Rk x H

where: 1/Rk =S (Qi/Qk) pm/(m+r) (Li/Lk)

• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment dk = (k1 Qp Lk / hk ) 1/r

• Correct to the standard inside diameters

• Estimate the velocities in each segment vk= 4 Qi / dk2

5. Pump & Piping System

5.1 The System Curve

Applying the energy equation between

the inlet point (1) and the exit point (2)

45

in any piping system

40

35

30

25

20

which should be added to the fluid to

move it from (1) to (2). H = HSYS = HP 15

Zp/g

= (SfL/d + SK)) (4Q/d)2/2g 5

= RQ2

0

R is the piping system resistance 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

5.2 Pump Curve

5.3 Operation Point

Overall Efficiency

system curve. It is a stable 40.0 BEP 1.60

operation point. 35.0 Operation Point 1.40

Head H [m]

Good selection

30.0 1.20

25.0 1.00

10.0 0.40

The operation point is far 0.0 0.00

from the BEP 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

Case 1 Hp Hsys-2 Hsys-1 Hsys-3

low eff.

Head H [m]

35.0

Case 2 30.0

The System head losses were

25.0

exactly estimated before

purchasing the pump. The pump 20.0

Case 3 10.0

pump. The pump will operate at 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

low eff.

Other problems resulting from not operating at BEP

• Excessive wear due to incidence of separation & vortices.

• Motor overloading (radial flow impellers)

• The required flow rate is not fulfilled

6. System Optimization

In any piping system optimization process the following costs should be considered:

Cost of the piping system + cost of the pumping station + energy cost

Annual Piping System Cost Y

Where

Y the total piping cost including jointing, installation, testing and handing over.

CRF the Capital Recovery Factor CRF = i x (i+1)n/((i+1)n-1)

i the annual interest rate

n the life time of the project in years.

Annual Energy Cost YE

Where

h Wire to water efficiency = hP hM hT

t Daily operation time [h/day]

s Annual operation time [days/year]

j The energy cost [EGP/kWh]

Distribution line serving 12,000 fedddns

7,000,000

6,000,000

Annual Pipe

Cost

5,000,000 [EGP/year]

Anual Cost [EGP]

An. Energy

Cost [EGP/y]

4,000,000

Total Annual

Cost

3,000,000 [EGP/year]

2,000,000

1,000,000

0

0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00

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