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Mataria Faculty of Engineering

Mechanical Power Department

Pipe Lines

By
Dr.Eng. Ahmed Abo-Habsa
1. THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
1.1 Basic Equations
Mass Conservation
For a fixed control volume enclosed by a surface S, a general statement of mass
conservation is

For steady incompressible flow of a liquid in a pipe, the conservation of mass is


generally referred to as the Continuity Equation, and it is written

Hence
Energy Conservation
For the steady one-dimensional flow of a liquid in a pipe, per unit weight of fluid, the
Energy Equation can be written between two sections as

In this equation v2/2g is the velocity head or kinetic energy, p/g is the pressure head or
flow work, and Z elevation head or potential energy, all per unit weight. The head loss
term, or the accumulated energy loss per unit weight, SHL,1-2 is the sum, between
sections 1 and 2, of the individual head losses in the reach caused by frictional effects.
HP is the mechanical energy per unit weight (work) added to the flow by a pump. HT is the
mechanical energy per unit weight extracted from the flow by a turbine. If the head loss
and work terms were absent, the equation would be the classical Bernoulli.

Fluid power P, is the product of the energy gain HP or loss HT per unit weight and the
weight rate of flow gQ
Momentum Equation

in which the net force on the contents of the control volume, fluid and solid, which can
be divided into surface forces and body forces, is equal to the rate of accumulation
of momentum within the control volume plus the net flux of momentum through the
surface of the control volume. In a steady flow the first term is again zero. For steady,
incompressible, one-dimensional flow through a pipe, the component momentum
equation along the direction of flow is:

in which we assume flow into the pipe at the left section, section 1, and flow from the
pipe at the right section, section 2. If the pipe cross-sectional area is constant
between the end sections and the pipe is straight, then the velocities are equal, and
the equation simplifies further to Fnet = 0
1.2 Energy & Hydraulic Grade Lines
The Energy Grade Line, also called the Energy Line or simply EL, is a plot of the sum
of the three terms in the work-energy equation, which is also the Bernoulli sum:

The Hydraulic Grade Line, or HGL, is the sum of only the pressure and elevation
heads. The sum of these two terms is also called the piezometric head, which can be
conveniently measured by a piezo-meter tube inserted flush into the side of a pipe.
2. Friction loss in pipelines
2.1 Darcy-Weisbach equation
The fundamentally most 2
sound and versatile equation  fL 
hL     k 
v
for estimating frictional head
loss in a pipe : d  2g
Where
hL the head loss in [m]
f the pipe friction factor
L the pipe length in [m]
v the average flow velocity in the pipe 4Q
v
[m/s] d 2
d the inside diameter of the pipe [m]
K friction coefficient of the pipe fittings
(elbow, tee, valve, ………)
Q the flow rate [m3/s]
The friction factors f =f (Re, e/d) are presented in the following Moody diagram.
The friction factor f is a function of the pipe Reynolds number
Re = ρvd/µ and the relative roughness factor e/d. The following
table presents common values of the absolute roughness e for
several pipe materials.

Recommended values for the absolute roughness e


Pipe Material Smooth Average Rough
Glass, drawn tubing -- 0.0015 --
PVC -- 0.035 --
PE, GRP, Cast Iron cement lined -- 0.040 0.09
Seamless Steel -- 0.045 --
Galvanized Steel -- 0.15 --
Cast iron -- 0.25 --
Wood stave 0.18 0.54 0.9
Concrete 0.3 1.65 3
Riveted Steel 0.9 4.95 9
Swamee & Jane developed the flowing equation for calculating the friction
factor f=f (Re, ε) for all kinds of flow; laminar, turbulent and transition zone.

 16  0.125
 64 8  ε 5.74 2500 6  
f  ( )  9.5 ln (  )( )  
 Re  3.7d R e Re  
0.9

 
For Re= 2000 to 5x106 the Swamee & Jane formula can be simplified to:

2

  e   1 
0.9  


f  1.325ln o.27   5.74 

  D  Re   
  
where
Re is the Reynolds Number Re 
rvd
m
ε the absolute roughness of the pipe wall
r the fluid density for water at 20 C = 1000 kg/m3
m the absolute viscosity of the fluid; for water at 20 °C = 0.001 kg/m/s
2.2 Hazen Williams Formula
1.852
 Q
hL  10.675  
L
Where C  D 4.8704
hL the head loss in [m]
Q the flow rate [m3/s]
L the pipe length in [m]
d the inside diameter of the pipe [m]
C friction coefficient of the pipe

Pipe Type C
Very smooth pipes 150
Recommended PVC, GRP, Cement- lined Ductile Iron 140
C Values
Commercial steel and PE tubing 130
Welded steel 120
Old cast iron 100
In general the head loss in a pipe line can be expressed as

p k1  Leq  Q p
hL  
g dr
Where K1, n and r are constants depending on the formula used for
estimating the head loss
for Darcy-Weisbach equation Where:
p=2 Q The rate of flow [m/s]
r=5 d the pipe inside
diameter [m]
k1 = 8 × f /(g × π2) Leq the equivalent length of
For Hazen Williams formula the pipe & fittings [m]
p = 1.852 Leq = Lpipe + Lfittings
= Lpipe + Sk × d /f
r = 4.8704
k1 = 10.675/ (C)1.852
3. STEADY PIPE FLOW ANALYSIS
3.1 Simple Pipe Problems
The basic tools for analysis here are the continuity, work-energy and Darcy-
Weisbach equations. All simple pipe flow problems fit one of the following
three computational categories:
3.2 Series Pipe Flow

Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q 3
HL = HL1 + HL2 + HL3
= R1 Q12 + R2 Q22 + R3 Q32
= R Q2
Hence:
R = R1 + R2 + R3
3.3 Parallel Pipe Flow

Q = Q 1 + Q2 + Q3
HL = HL1 = HL2 = HL3
= R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32
Hence:
= R Q2
3.4 Branched Pipe Flow

Q1 = Q 2 + Q3
HL1 = R1 Q12 = Z1 – (HB + ZB)
Solution
HL2 = R2 Q22 = (HB + ZB) – Z2 Assume HB
Calculate Q1, Q2 and Q3
HL3 = R3 Q32 = (HB + ZB) – Z3
Reassume HB and recalculate
Unknown Q1, Q2, Q3 and HB Q1, Q2 and Q3 until the
continuity is fulfilled.
4. Distribution Piping
4.1 Manifolds
A manifold consists of one pipe with numerous ports, all allowing flow from the
manifold, and usually relatively closely spaced but not so close that the flow at
adjacent ports interacts.

The discharge of each port = q


The line flow rate of each manifold segment Qi = i  q
Segment length = L
Manifold total length LM = n  L
Inlet flow rate to manifold = Qn = n  q
Head loss reduction factor rf for a manifold with n outlets

8 fL
Segment loss hL,i   Qi
2
 kLQi
2
g 2 d 5

n n n n
Total loss hL,T   hL,i   kLQi2   kLiq   kLq  i 2
2 2
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1
n n n  1 2n  1
i 
2
i 1 6
n
 hL,i
i 1 n n  1 2n  1
kLq 2
Reduction rf   
factor kLM Qn k L  n n q
2 2 2 6

n  1 2n  1
rf  2
Where:
6n n = number of outlets
4.2 Telescopic pipelines
The water distribution system comprises several pipe segments connected in
series having an outlet at the end of each pipe segment. With known inlet water
head and permissible residual head at the extreme end of the distribution
pipeline, it can be designed by the following three methods:
1- Constant velocity in all pipe segments.
2- Constant HGL gradient in all pipe segments.
3- Least cost of all pipe segments.

The Figure shows a long irrigation distribution pipeline comprising (n) segments
with (n) outlets. Each pipe segment has a length Li , a diameter di and an outflow
of qi at the end of each segment. The flow rate in each segment is Qi.
Applying the continuity equation

The total head loss H


1- Constant velocity in all pipe segments
• Assume a constant velocity between 1.5 to 2.5 m/s
• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment accordingly
• Correct to the standard inside diameters
• Estimate the head loss in each segment & the total head for the
distribution pipeline

2- Constant HGL gradient in all pipe segments


• Estimate the total head loss H = (pp- pr)/g - Z where: pp the initial
pressure (pump pressure) & pr the residual pressure at the end of the
pipeline. Z is the level difference along the pipe line, (+ve) pipe is
going uphill, (-ve) pipe is going downhill.
• Estimate the head loss in each segment hi = H Li / L where L =S Li
• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment di = (k1 Qp Li / hi ) 1/r
• Correct to the standard inside diameters
• Estimate the velocities in each segment vi = 4 Qi /  di2
3- Least cost of all pipe segments

The relationship of head loss hi in a pipe segment (i) and the flow through
Qi it can be given as:

The capital cost of a pipe segment (i) can be expressed as a function of the
diameter :

Where Yi is the capital cost of the pipe segment (i) of length Li and diameter di. k
and m are constants, its values vary from country to country depending on the
pipe material and the market conditions.
Combining Head Loss Eq. with the Cost Function yields,

Hence the cost of a pipe segment (i) will be,

Let Yk, hk the cost and the head loss in the kth pipe segment respectively, the
ratio of the head losses hi & hk in both pipe segments will be,
For minimum cost of the piping system the following relation should be
realized

then

and

Putting Yk/Y= Rk = hk/H and Yi/Y= Ri = hi/H , yields


Taking in consideration that the summation of the Ri values of all pipe
segments should be equal to 1.0

And finally:
Design Procedure
• Estimate the total head loss H = (pp- pr)/g - Z where: pp the initial
pressure (pump pressure) & pr the residual pressure at the end of
the pipeline. Z is the level difference along the pipe line, (+ve) pipe
is going uphill, (- ve) pipe is going downhill.
• Estimate the head loss in each segment hk = Rk x H
where: 1/Rk =S (Qi/Qk) pm/(m+r) (Li/Lk)
• Estimate the inside diameter of each segment dk = (k1 Qp Lk / hk ) 1/r
• Correct to the standard inside diameters
• Estimate the velocities in each segment vk= 4 Qi /  dk2
5. Pump & Piping System

Energy and hydraulic grade liens


5.1 The System Curve
Applying the energy equation between
the inlet point (1) and the exit point (2)
45
in any piping system
40

35

30

System Head [m]


25

Where H is the energy per unit weight, v2/2g+ S hL


20
which should be added to the fluid to
move it from (1) to (2). H = HSYS = HP 15

SHL1-2 = (SfL/d + SK)) v2/2g 10


Zp/g
= (SfL/d + SK)) (4Q/d)2/2g 5
= RQ2
0
R is the piping system resistance 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Flow rate Q [m3/h]
5.2 Pump Curve

Typical Performance Curve for A Centrifugal pump


5.3 Operation Point

The pump operates at the Hp Hsys Eff.

intersection point between 50.0 2.00

the pump H-Q curve & the 45.0 1.80

Overall Efficiency
system curve. It is a stable 40.0 BEP 1.60
operation point. 35.0 Operation Point 1.40

Head H [m]
Good selection
30.0 1.20

The operation point is


25.0 1.00

near from the best 20.0 0.80

efficiency point PEP. 15.0 0.60

10.0 0.40

Bad selection 5.0 0.20


The operation point is far 0.0 0.00
from the BEP 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Flow rate Q [m3/h]
Case 1 Hp Hsys-2 Hsys-1 Hsys-3

The System head losses were over 50.0

estimated before purchasing the 45.0

pump. The pump will operate at 40.0 BEP


low eff.

Head H [m]
35.0
Case 2 30.0
The System head losses were
25.0
exactly estimated before
purchasing the pump. The pump 20.0

will operate at BEP. 15.0

Case 3 10.0

The System head losses were under 5.0

estimated before purchasing the 0.0


pump. The pump will operate at 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Flow rate Q [m3/h]
low eff.
Other problems resulting from not operating at BEP
• Excessive wear due to incidence of separation & vortices.
• Motor overloading (radial flow impellers)
• The required flow rate is not fulfilled
6. System Optimization
In any piping system optimization process the following costs should be considered:
Cost of the piping system + cost of the pumping station + energy cost
Annual Piping System Cost Y

Where
Y the total piping cost including jointing, installation, testing and handing over.
CRF the Capital Recovery Factor CRF = i x (i+1)n/((i+1)n-1)
i the annual interest rate
n the life time of the project in years.
Annual Energy Cost YE

Where
h Wire to water efficiency = hP hM hT
t Daily operation time [h/day]
s Annual operation time [days/year]
j The energy cost [EGP/kWh]
Distribution line serving 12,000 fedddns
7,000,000

6,000,000

Annual Pipe
Cost
5,000,000 [EGP/year]
Anual Cost [EGP]

An. Energy
Cost [EGP/y]
4,000,000

Total Annual
Cost
3,000,000 [EGP/year]

2,000,000

1,000,000

0
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00

Head Loss [m]