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# Overview of Energy Consumption

Chapter 1
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Contents
 Basics concepts on energy
 Energy generation and consumption
 Fossil fuels and nuclear energy
 Issues of fossil fuels energy consumption and climate change
 The need for alternative energy sources - Green-tech
 Types of renewable energy
 Energy accessibility, distributed generation, self-consumption,
microgrid and smart grid
 Energy efficiency and Green Building Index
 Recycling

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Basic Concepts on Energy
 Energy, E, is defined as the ability to do work. W, Work is
the consequenc of the expenditure of energy.
 Forms of Energy
 Kinetic energy (e.g. moving automobile)
 Potential energy (e.g. water in reservoir)
 Thermal Energy (e.g. in a pot of boiling water)
 Chemical Energy (e.g. stored in a gram of gasoline)
 Nuclear Energy (e.g. stored in a gram of uranium)
 Electrical Energy (e.g. used to light bulb)
 Electromagnetic Energy (e.g. associated with light)

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Basic Concepts on Energy
1 1
 Kinetic Energy E  mv2 E  I 2
2 2
 I is the moment of inertia of the object, o is its angular velocity

##  Potential Energy E  mgh

3
 Thermal Energy E  nRT
2
 R is the universal gas constant, R = NAkB = 8.315 J/(mol.K)
 Chemical Energy
(106 J / MJ )  M  (Q / m)
E (eV ) 
(103 g / kg)  (6.022 1023 mol 1 )  (1.602 1019 J / eV )
 M is molecular mass (given in g/mol), energy released per unit
mass, Q/m
C  O2  CO2  32.8MJ / kg

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Basic Concepts on Energy
 Nuclear Energy Eexo  mc2
 c is the speed of light
 Electrical Energy P  VI
 Energy is the integration of power over time, unit in kWh.
 Electromagnetic Energy E  h
 h is Planck's constant, 6.626 x 10-34 Js, or 4.136 x 10-15eVs
 ν is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation.

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The Importance of Energy
• Industrial
Electricity • Commercial
• Residential

• Air-conditional
Heating and • Hot water
Cooling • Cooking

• Land Vehicle
Transportation • Sea Freight
• Aviation

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Types of Conventional Resources for Power
Generation
 Coal, Thermal Generation
• the fuel is burned to produce
 Oil, heat, which is used to produce
steam, which, in turn drives a
turbine.

##  Natural Gas, Combustion Turbine

• use the hot gas produced by
the combustion itself to drive
 Diesel the turbine.

## Fission + Thermal Generation

 Nuclear • nuclear fission is used to produce heat

Potential + Mechanical
 Hydroelectric • Renewable

Power
Generation -
Coals

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Power Generation - Oil

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Diesel Generation

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Nuclear Power Plant
Hydroelectric Generation

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World Energy Consumption

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World Net Electricity Generation

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Malaysia Total Primary Energy Supply
by Fuel Type
Source: Energy Commission 2016, Malaysia
Energy Statistics Handbook 2016

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Malaysia Total Primary Energy Supply
by Fuel Type
Source: Energy Commission 2016, Malaysia
Energy Statistics Handbook 2016

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Malaysia Energy Consumption by
Sector
Source: Energy Commission 2016, Malaysia
Energy Statistics Handbook 2016

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Energy Consumption by Sector
Source: Energy Commission 2016, Malaysia
Energy Statistics Handbook 2016

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Malaysia Electric Generation

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Installed Capacity Source: Energy Commission 2016, Malaysia
Energy Statistics Handbook 2016

Sabah
Sarawak

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Energy Consumption Per Capita in
ASEAN

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Per capita energy consumption versus gross national product
(GNP) per capita for a number of countries

Energy consumption
per capital GDP is
relevant to factors
such as
• Climate
• Population density
• Type of industries

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Energy usage and standard of living
 The developed countries (US, Japan, UK etc) use more
energy per capita than the less developed countries
(Mexico, Indonesia etc)
 For the industrialized countries, the GNP per capita is
from US\$15,000-25,000 while the energy consumption
per capita is from 150 GJ to 325 GJ.
 US and Canada have the highest energy consumption
per capita

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Energy Consumption Growth
 Global energy consumption grows exponentially
due to:
 Increasing of population exponentially
 Improvement of living standard and infrastructure
 Technology advancement in harnessing energy

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Resources of Energy - Fossil Fuels
 Fossil fuels originates from ancient organic matter that
has been subjected to high temperatures and pressures
inside the earth over periods from millions to hundreds
of millions of years.
 They are formed as a result of the decomposition of
organic plant or animal during prehistoric time.
 Thus, it cannot be renewed. Fossil fuel used produces a
net release of carbon into atmosphere
 Depending on the details of the starting material and
the formation conditions, fossil fuel can be solid (coal),
liquid (oil) or gas (natural gas).
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Fossil Fuels – Oil and Natural Gas
 Oil and its derivative (e.g. gasoline) are the largest single energy
source at present, due to there is an enormous infrastructure for
extracting them, processing them, and using them.
 They remain inexpensive compared with most other sources.
 Rapid increase in oil use during past century is a result of the
development of automobile for transportation, because of their
high energy density and the convenience of their liquid or
gaseous form.
 Typical oil deposit are about 500 mil years old, when life existed
primarily in salt-water oceans. Therefore, oil deposits are located
in regions that were once at the bottom of the seas.

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Fossil Fuels – Oil and Natural Gas
 During the decomposition process, much of the carbon content of
the organic material was lost to the atmosphere in the form of
CO2. In fact, about 20 tones of organic matter is needed to
produce one liter of oil.
 Light hydrocarbon molecules are the constituents of natural gas,
and heavier one make up the oil.
 As the oil and gas form, they can move through the layers of
sedimentary rock and eventually collect together in deposits.
 As a result of the continental drift, some petroleum deposits have
remained under oceans while others have ended up underneath
land.

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Fossil Fuels – Oil and Natural Gas
 Natural gas is a mixture of light hydrocarbons (typically about 85%
of methane and 15% of ethane)
 The formation of natural gas from organic matter is slightly less
efficient than the formation of oil, any only about 0.085% of the
carbon in the original organic matter becomes a component of
natural gas.
 Natural gas typically contains fewer impurities than heavier
hydrocarbons and burn more efficiently, thus creating less
pollution. The ideal combustion of methane is
CH4  2O2  CO2  2H 2O  55.5MJ / kg

##  Transportation of natural gas across oceans has to be gone

through liquidification at -165oC where size becomes 1/600th

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Fossil Fuels - Coal
 Coal is also formed over extended periods of elevated
pressure and temperature, started earliest 350 mil years
ago. However, the organic material originates from
terrestial plant matter.
 Coal formation is relatively more efficient, typically
about 0.8% of the original carbon in the plant matter
ends up as coal.
 About half the coal that occurs on land is not
economically recoverable because it is either too deep
or occurs in very thin veins.

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Fossil Fuels – Shale Oil and Gas
 Shale oil comes from a sedimentary rock (oil shale) and results
from hydrocarbon deposits (about 50 mil years ago) prodcued
from decaying aquatic life in ancient lakes.
 The hydrocarbons are in the form of kerogens. They also tend to
contain more impurities, such as sulfur. Heating the kerogens
breaks down the chains and yields petroleum-like molecules.
 The actual use has been minimal. US has the vast majority of oil
shale resources worldwide. 80% global shale oil production from
Estonia.
 Cost of producton is about \$70~\$95 per bbl.

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Improvement in Energy Extraction
 Improvement in fossil fuels energy extraction includes:
 Refining technology
 Enhanced oil recovery during mining – use steam with
chemicals injected to the well
 Fracking – a controversial method
 Coal liquefaction and gasification
o The use of coal as a fuel for transportation is problematic.
o The process involves three steps:
◦ Pyrolysis
◦ Combustion
◦ Gasification

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Issues of Energy
 The world’s current energy systems have been built
around the many advantages of fossil fuels
 We now depend overwhelmingly upon them.
 The current use of fossil & nuclear fuels has many
 Non renewable - limited resources - depletion of natural
resources
 Pollution during mining – water resource contamination, oil
spills
 Thermal pollution
 Chemical and particulate pollution
 Greenhouse gas emission
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Non-renewable
 Fossil and nuclear fuels are often termed non-renewable
energy sources
 Although the quantities in which they are available may be
extremely large, they are nevertheless finite and so will in
principle “run out” at some time in the future.
 Nuclear fuels are controversial source of energy
 abundant but dangerous with pollution – nuclear waste and
disaster.

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Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 20, 2010.

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Thermal Pollution
 The heat produced through combustion/burning. When it is
converted to mechanical energy, it is limited by Carnot efficiency,
e.g., 17% for automobile and 40% for electric generation.
 Waste heat is disposed to cold reservoir (to the water or
atmosphere), which can in turn cause undesirable environmental
effects, such as change of ecology in the rivers and lakes.
 The effects could be:
 Change of oxygen content resulting from temperature changes – biological
processes in organisms affected
 Changes in temperature can affect chemical reaction rates
 Changes in temperature profile can affect the natural seasonal mechanisms
that mix the water in the lake.

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Chemical and Particulate Pollution
 Carbon monoxide
(CO)
 Nitrogen-oxygen
compounds (NOx)
 Hydrocarbons
 Sulfur dioxide and
compounds (SO2, SOx,
H2S)
 Particulates (PM)

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Carbon Monoxide (CO)
 CO is a colorless, ordorless, and
tasteless, but highly toxic gas.
 CO is mainly emitted from the
exhaust of internal combustion
engines (e.g. vehicles) and
incomplete combustion of various
fuels.
2C  O2  2CO
 CO would combine with hemoglobin
to produce carboxyhemoglobin, a
level of 50% carboxyhemoglobin
may result in seizure, coma, and
even fatality

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Nitrogen Compounds (NOx)
 NOx are formed during the combustion
of fossil fuels when the temperature is
N2  O2  2NO
NO  O3  NO2  O2
 NO2 is a highly toxic brown gas.
 NO2 is the main source of nitrate
aerosols, which form an important
fraction of PM2.5 and ozone.
 NO2 combines with water to form nitric
acid, which is the major component of
atmospheric acidification.

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Hydrocarbons
 Hydrocarbons (HC) are
released during the
burning of fossil fuels as
result of incomplete
combustion, particularly
from vehicles (35%)
 It is a respiratory and eye
irritant and in higher
concentrations, can cause
lung disease.

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Sulfur Compounds
 SO2 results primarily from the combustion
of sulfur-containing fuels, especially coal.
 SO2 is a colorless gas with sharp odor.
2SO2  O2  2SO3
SO3  H 2O  H 2 SO4  O2

##  The formation of sulfuric acid in the

atmosphere results in so-called acid rain.
 SO2 can affect the respiratory system and
the functions of the lungs, and cause
irritation of the eyes.

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Particulate Matter (PM)
 Particulates are basically dust particles that appear as
smoke during the burning of some fossil fuels, especially
combustion of coal.
 PM affects more people than any other pollutant.
 It consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid
particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended
in the air (sulfate, nitrates, ammonia, black carbon,
sodium chloride, mineral dust and water)
 The most health-damaging particles are those with an
aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5),
which can penetrate and lodge deep inside the lungs.
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Particulate Matter (PM)
 Chronic exposure to particles contributes to the risk of developing
cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as of lung cancer.
 1.2 million death in China in 2010.

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Example: air quality in Beijing highly deteriorate by excessive
consumption of fossil fuel

BBC report:
Air pollution in Beijing is severe
because of the many factories, coal plants and cars,
but weather patterns make the situation even worse

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Global Mean of PM2.5

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Documentary
 “Under the Dome” video

##  Everyone should watch, related questions may be

raised in Test or Final Exam.

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Greenhouse Effect
 The surface temperature of the earth establishes itself at an
equilibrium level where the incoming energy from the sun
balances the outgoing infrared energy re-radiated from the
surface back into space.
 If the earth had no atmosphere its average surface temperature
would be –18C.
 But its atmosphere includes principally water vapour and
“greenhouse gasses” (GHG), such as CO2, methane.
 These act like the panes of a greenhouse, allowing solar radiation to
enter but inhibiting the outflow of infrared radiation.
 The natural “greenhouse effect”
 Their cause is essential in maintaining the earth’s surface
temperature at a level suitable for life at around 15C.

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CO2 Emission by Fossil Fuels
Greenhou Emission factors of fossil fuels (kg/kWh)
se gases Coal Petrol Gas
CO2 1.18 0.85 0.53
SO2 0.014 0.0164 0.0005
NOx 0.005 0.0025 0.0005

~0.77
kg/kWh CO2
emission

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CO2 Emission Calculation
Not Malaysia case https://people.exeter.ac.uk/TWDavi
es/energy_conversion/Calculation

LPG: Liquid
Petroleum Gas

Different composition of
fossil fuels used in daily
energy mix will produce
different CO2 emission
factor.

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Greenhouse Effect
 Since industrial revolution,
human activities have
greenhouse gasses (CO2,
CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs) to
the atmosphere.
 The principal
contributor to these
increased emission is
CO2 from the
combustion of fossil Source: E&T
magazine, vol 11
fuels issue 11, Dec 2016

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Greenhouse Effect
 Scientist estimate (IPCC, 2001) that these human-induced
emission caused a rise in the earth’s global mean surface
temperature of 0.6C during the 20th century
 The surface temperature is predicted to rise by 1.4 to 5.8C by
the end of 21st century.

## The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific

and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations set up at
the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the
world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and
economic impacts

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GHG concentrations in atm. during
1979~2010

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Global land-ocean temperature index

## Global mean land-ocean temperature index change from 1880-2013, relative to

the 1951-1980 mean. The black line is the annual mean and red line is the 5-year
running mean. The green bars show uncertainty estimates. Source: NASA GISS

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Sea-level Changes

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Climate Change
 The gradual increase in average world temperature over the past
150 years is manifested in several ways:
 A reduction in the size and number of glaciers.
 A reduction in the area and thickness of Artic sea ice.
o Reduction in area of about 9% in the past decade and reduction of
15~40% in thickness over the past 30 years.
 An increase in sea level.
o Means sea levels are likely to rise by around 0.5 m by the end of the
century.
 Biological changes: serious disruption to agriculture and
natural ecosystems
 Increased geographical ranges of certain plants and animals.
 Thawing of the permafrost in the Artic
 Weather changes, such as more frequent El Nino events,
droughts , floods
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Climate Change Conference, COP 21
 The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP
(Conference of the Parties) 21 was held in Paris,
 The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a global
agreement on the reduction of climate change.
 The first universal climate agreement was unanimously approved
by the 196 delegations (195 States plus the European Union) on
12 Dec 2015.
 It confirms the core aim of limiting the increase in the average
temperature to 2 degrees and endeavouring to limit the increase
to 1.5 degrees in order to reduce the risks and impacts associated
with the consequences of climate change.
 The 1.5˚C goal will require zero emissions sometime between
2030 and 2050, according to some scientists.

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Why is 1.5˚C?
 The world already nudging 1˚C above
pre-industrial levels.
 Climate impacts are not distributed
evenly over the globe and tropical
regions would bear the brunt of the
differences between 1.5˚C and 2˚C.
 Tropical coral reefs would be wipe
out, while 1.5˚C limit could still
provide room for recovery.
 Agricultural production fall by
doubling at 2˚C compared to 1.5˚C

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Climate Change Effect

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Climate Change

20 years
Now later ?

Climate Change

=Rfo233Q6aOg

## Video on polar bear eat its

cub
playlist?list=PLeLHlPZtbVd
EPwUMKoP8cL_k_eVsVHm
UE
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Source: E&T magazine, vol 11 issue 11, Dec 2016

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Climate Change Vulnerability

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Climate Change Vulnerability

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Effect of Climate Change to Malaysia
TORNADO IN MALAYSIA FLOODS IN MALAYSIA

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Reduction of CO2 Emission
 The threat of global climate change caused by CO2
emissions from fossil fuel combustion is one of the main
reasons why there is growing consensus on the need to
reduce such emissions.
 Reduction in the range of 60-80% may be needed by the end of
the 21st century
 And ultimately, a switch to low- or zero-carbon energy sources
such as renewable.

##  Greatest challenges during 21st century

sustainable energy supplies
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Nuclear Energy
 Although nuclear energy has never become “too cheap to meter”,
it has become economically competitive with many other
established energy technologies.
 Nuclear energy accounts for about 17% of the world’s production
of electricity. That corresponds to about 6% of all primary energy
consumption.
 Major concerns on using nuclear energy:
Safety: 3 accidents:
 Three Mile Island on Mar 28, 1979
 Chernobyl on April 26, 1986
 Fukushima Dai-ichi on March 11, 2011

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Chernobyl Disaster

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Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Following a major earthquake, a 15-metre tsunami disabled the power supply and
cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors, causing a nuclear accident on 11
March 2011
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The Chances to Revert

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The Chances to Revert

Green Tech

##  The need of alternative sources of energy and sustainable

development
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What is Green-Tech?
Environmental Clean Green
Technology Technology Technology
(Enviro-tech) (Clean-tech) (Green-tech)

Sustainable
Development
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Definition: Sustainability
 Sustainability and in particular sustainable development
 Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generation to meet their
needs.
o United Nation, 1987

##  In the context of energy, sustainability has come to

mean the harnessing of those energy sources:
 That are not substantially depleted by continued use
 The use of which does not entail the emission of pollutants or
other hazards to the environment on a substantial scale
 The use of which does not involve the perpetuation of
substantial health hazards or social injustices.

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Relative Sustainability
 Sustainability is a relative rather than an absolute
concept.
 Some energy sources, in certain context, are more sustainable
than others
 Determining the relative sustainability of energy systems
is usually a complex process
 Involving detail consideration of the specific processes and
technologies proposed
 The context in which they are being used, differing values and
interests of various parties involved.

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Suggestions in creating a sustainable
energy future
 It will be necessary:
1. To implement greatly improved technologies for harnessing
the fossil and nuclear fuels, in order to ensure that their use ,
if continued, creates much lower environmental and social
impact
2. To develop technologies on carbon capturing
3. To develop and deploy the renewable energy sources on a
much wider scale and
4. To make major improvements in the efficiency of energy
conversion, distribution and use.

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Major Divisions of Green-Tech
Minimize Use of renewable
pollution resources for
and power generation
Carbon
improve
RE & Storage & storage, heating
carbon
capture
Capturing and cooling,
transportation and
off-grid services to
Green reduce green
Tech house gas
emission (GHG)

Energy
Recycling Recycles of
Efficiency materials and
waste for
Efficiently use of energy for longer sustainable
availability of resources and resources
reduction of GHG

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Renewable Energy
 Twidell and Weir, 1986
 Renewable energy can be defined as “energy obtained from
the continuous or repetitive currents of energy recurring in the
natural environment”
 “energy flows which are replenished by natural processes at
the same rate as they are used”
 The origin of the earth’s renewable energy sources is solar
 Modern renewable energy is being used increasingly in four
distinct markets: power generation, heating and cooling,
transport fuels, and rural/off-grid energy services.
 Renewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy,
whereas the fossil and nuclear fuels are, in essence, stocks of
energy.

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Renewable Energy Justification
 Clean:
 A detailed life cycle assessment is beneficial in determine
whether technology is in fact, cleaner than fossil fuels.
 Unlimited:
 the greater the availability, the larger the contribution a
resource can make to our future energy needs.
 Renewable:
 Fossil fuels can fulfill nearly all our energy needs but it is not
renewable. Other resources, such as wave and tidal energy, are
renewable but limited in availability

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Renewable Energy Justification
 Versatile:
 We use different types of energy for different purposes.
Though one type of energy can be converted into another, but
there are conversion losses.
 Economical:
 Any new energy technology must compete with existing
technologies, particularly those that are well established,
reliable, and economical.

Types of

Ocean
Energy

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Types of Renewable Energy
 Hydropower
 Solar Power - PV, CPV, Solar Chimney
 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP)
 Solar thermal heating and cooling
 Wind Power – on shore, off shore
 Biomass(waste to energy) – biogas, biofuel for heat, power and transport
 Ocean Energy – Tidal, Wave, Thermal Gradient
 Geothermal – power and heat
 Cogeneration or Combined Heat & Power (CHP) – biofuels, CPVT, PVT,
Micro-CSP
 Hybrid of Renewable Systems - e.g. Solar-Wind

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Types of Renewable Energy
Are energy from such as
bicycle cycling, walking
steps etc., considered as Is magnetic energy
renewable energy? considered as
renewable energy?

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Global Final Energy Consumption, end-
2015
Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Total Final Energy Consumption, 2015

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Growth in Global Renewable Energy Compared to
Total Final Energy Consumption, 2004-2014

Source: REN21,
Renewables
2017 Global
Status Report

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Global Electricity Production, End-2015
Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2016

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Global RE Growth and Share
 Renewable energy comprise 24.5% of global power generation
capacity
 Renewables accounted for an estimated nearly 62% of net
additions to global power generating capacity.
 Total RE power capacity: 2,017 GW by end of 2016, up 9%
compared to 2015.
 This proportion is likely to increase substantially throughout this
 climate change
 declining fossil fuel reserves

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Global RE Growth and Share
Source: REN21, Renewables 2017 Global Status Report

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Global RE Growth and Share for Power
Generation

## Note: Not including solar thermal and

biofuels for transportation

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Renewable Power Capacities in World, BRICS, EU-28 and Top 6 Countries, 2016

## Source: REN21, Renewables 2017 Global Status Report

Note: Not including hydropower. BRICS countries are Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa.

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Jobs in Renewable Energy

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Energy Access
 Recent assessments suggest that as many as 1.3 billion
than 2.6 billion people rely on traditional biomass for
cooking and heating.
 Energy/Electricity accessibility is primary enabler for
development.
 Only with the accessible to energy, education, health,
role of women in supporting family income etc. will be
feasible

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Kerosene issue
 Currently many people in Asia and
Africa without electricity use
kerosene lanterns as light source.
 Kerosene fuel is an inefficient
source of lighting providing very dim
and insufficient light. The output
light is only 2–4 lm compared to a
60 W bulb with 900 lm.
 The light is so faint that children can only see their books if they are
almost directly over the flame.
 They inhale a lot more of the toxic smoke. Besides being a barrier to
education and learning, it is unhealthy to do school work with a
kerosene lamp.
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Renewable Energy for Distributed
Generation and Off-grid Energy Source
 However, during 2013, people in remote and rural areas of the world
continued to gain access to electricity, modern cooking, heating and cooling as
the installation and use of distributed renewable energy technologies
increased.

##  Recent technical advances that enable the integration of renewables in mini-

grid systems, combined with information and communication technology (ICT)
applications for power management and end-user services, have allowed for a
rapid growth in the use of renewables-powered mini-grids.

 With the rising awareness that off-grid, low-income customers can provide
fast-growing markets for goods and services, and with the emergence of new
business and financing models for serving them, rural energy markets are
increasingly being recognised as offering potential business opportunities.

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 Diversification of energy sources - not limited to only coals,
petroleum etc.
 Allows collection of energy from many sources and may give
lower environmental impacts that reduce CO2 , NOx SOx emissions
 Improve energy efficiency: RE as distributed generation source
reduces the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity
because the electricity is generated very near where it is used,
perhaps even in the same building. This also reduces the size and
number of power lines that must be constructed.

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 Distributed generation plants are mass-produced,
availability in small modular generating unit, and less
site-specific. Smaller units offered greater economies
from mass-production and on-site construction. These
increased value—due to improvements in financial risk,
engineering flexibility, security, and environmental
quality—of these resources can often more than offset
 Improve reliability through technical aspects

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Energy Storage
 Most of the renewable energy resources are
intermittent.
 Energy storage could smoothen the energy consumption
profile, reduce the impacts to the grid, and as an
emergency backup.
 Types:
 Batteries
 Fuel Cells
 Thermal Energy Storage
 Hydrogen
 Biofuels

Microgrid

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Smart Grid and Transactive Energy

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Energy Efficiency
 Employment of renewable energy needs time to achieve
maturity or achieve grid-parity
 Fossil fuels and nuclear energy utilization are
continuously grow.
 It is essential to slow down the growing rate of non-
renewable resources utilization while promoting
renewable resources.

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Energy Efficiency
 Energy efficiency incorporated in:
 Industrial Sector
 Commercial Sector
 Residential
 Community
 Infrastructure
 Apart from industrial process, buildings consume large
amount of energy
 Green Building Index is implemented in Malaysia

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Recycling
 Despite the energy is renewable, the materials used is
not renewable.
 Especially global metals reserves are greatly reducing
over the last century.
 Recycling comes with cost, but it is the future trends

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Life Cycle Assessment