Presentation On Micromouse

By Divatia Vishrut S (04BEC027) Gosalia Meghal B (04BEC032) Buch Paryant K (04BEC009)


Introduction History Block Diagram of micromouse Mechanical Aspects Motors Sensors Microcontroller References

What is micromouse ? 

Completely autonomous robot Search/Navigate the given maze Takes shortest time path from start to centre  


16x16 cells Each cell 18cmx18cm Wall thickness 12mm Multiple paths from start to centre

Micromouse History   

In 1979, first micromouse competition held, organized by IEEE - 6000 initial entries - 15 mice ran - 10x10 maze - Dumb wall follower beats all other sophisticated mice Currently - A Japanese mouse runs diagonals during search. Intelligent One - Min4A, one of the fastest mice in the world. Min4A - 145gm, Acceleration: 5m/s/s , Top speed: 3m/s Indian History - Path Finder 2 - Acceleration: 2.5m/s/s , Top speed: 2.2m/s Pathfinder 2

What all is needed to make a Micromouse ?

Micromouse Block Diagram
Left Motor Motor Driver Opamps Analog Sensor Module

Right Motor

Micro controller
Motor Driver

LED Drivers Comparators

Top Down Sensor Module

Mechanical Aspects 
Stability - Static - Dynamic  Performance - Speed - Acceleration/Retardation - Turning - Accuracy


Material + Size => Weight Weight + Shape => Inertia Weight + Shape => Centre of Mass Wheel Size => Speed , Acceleration Wheel separation + CoM + Inertia => Stability


Stepper Motors 

Theory of Operation Different driving techniques Step calculations - For moving ahead - For taking turns

DC motor Vs Stepper Motor 


2. 3.

DC Motor Usually much lighter than stepper motor. Higher efficiency. Precise speed control is not easy and requires closed loop system . 


Stepper Motor Heavier than DC motors. Lower efficiency. Speed control is straightforward and precise.

2. 3.



What is a sensor ? - A device that measures or detects a physical condition. - An electronic sensor converts this measurements into an equivalent analog or digital electrical signal.

Sensors in a Micromouse 

Why does a Micromouse require sensors ? - Detect presence/absence of walls - To be able to run straight - To be able to position and orient itself in the maze

Distance Measuring 

How to measure distance ?  Measuring Reflected Intensity  Measuring Reflection Time  Measuring Reflection Position

Reflection Sensor Options  

Transmitter - IR LED s - Visible light LED s - Lasers Receiver - Photodiodes/Phototransistors - LDR - PSD (Position Sensitive Detectors)

IR Reflective Sensors 

Transmitter Options

- Constant - Pulsed 
Maximum Current limit in pulsed operations  What is advantage of pulsing at high currents ? 

Receiver Options

- Analog
- Digital 
Comparator based

Sensor Approaches For Micromouse
Top Down Sensing Approach Side Looking Sensing Approach  

Top Down Sensing Approach 

What type of sensors can be used ?
- Comparator based  

Usually easier to implement compared to side looking Measuring distance using side sensors Increases the mass and moment of inertia and limits the performance

Side Looking Sensing Approach 

What type of sensors can be used ?
- Analog Type  

Results in a very compact mouse design Angling the sensors

Navigating the Maze 

Forward Error
- When the mouse stops at wrong position in a cell 

Offset Error
- When the mouse is more closer to one wall than the other 

Heading Error
- When the mouse is pointing towards the wall rather than straight



What is a microcontroller ? - Definition: A computer-on-chip - Microprocessor + added stuff on a single chip - Use to control general purpose electronic devices

Inside a Microcontroller 

CPU Program Memory (EEPROM/Flash) Data Memory (RAM) Input/Output ports Interrupts Timers UART ADC SPI

ATmega 16 Microcontroller 

8 bit AVR Family of microcontrollers RISC architecture 16k Flash memory (Program) 1k RAM (Data) Four 8-bit i/o ports 8 channel ADC 3 Timers (Two 8-bit and one 16-bit) USART SPI



Workshops attended at IIT Bombay Electrical Technology B.L.Theraja Electronics Devices and Circuits A.P.Godse

Thank You

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