Wireless Communications Sheldon Lou

What is Wi-Fi? 
The standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs). It¶s like a common language that all the devices use to communicate to each other. If you have a standard, people can make all sorts of devices that can work with each other.  It¶s actually IEEE 802.11, a family of standards.

The IEEE (Eye-triple-E, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.) is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 175 countries. The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance started the Wi-Fi--wireless fidelity--certification program to ensure that equipment claiming 802.11 compliance was genuinely interoperable.

US Frequency Bands
Band UHF ISM S-Band S-Band ISM C-Band C-Band satellite downlink C-Band Radar (weather) C-Band ISM C-Band satellite uplink X-Band X-Band Radar (police/weather) Frequency range 902-928 MHz 2-4 GHz 2.4-2.5 GHz 4-8 GHz 3.7-4.2 GHz 5.25-5.925 GHz 5.725-5.875 GHz 5.925-6.425 GHz 8-12 GHz 8.5-10.55 GHz

11g 54 Mbps 2.11b 11 Mbps 2.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz 802.Wi-Fi Standards Standard Speed Freq band  802.4 GHz 802.4 GHz 802.11 2 Mbps 2.4 GHz Notes (1997) (1999) .

Perhaps the most familiar ISM-band device is the microwave oven. The ISM bands are license-free. .4-GHz ISM band. which operates in the 2. scientific. provided that devices are low-power.ISM Band ISM stands for industrial. ISM bands are set aside for equipment that is related to industrial or scientific processes or is used by medical equipment. You don't need a license to set up and operate a wireless network. and medical.

Wireless LAN Networks .

Generally not used for business networks.WLAN Architecture²Ad Hoc Mode  Ad-Hoc mode: Peer-to-peer setup where clients can connect to each other directly. .

. the participants of a meeting in a conference room may create an ad hoc network at the beginning of the meeting and dissolve it when the meeting ends. For example.  It¶s set up for a special purpose and for a short period of time.Ad Hoc Structure  Mobile stations communicate to each other directly.

WLAN Architecture--Mesh  esh: Every client in the network also acts as an access or relay point. . unlikely to be in homes.  Not yet in widespread use. creating a ³selfhealing´ and (in theory) infinitely extensible network.

WLAN Architecture²Infrastructure Mode To Wired Network .

If a Mobile Station (MS). which becomes the hub of a ³star topology.  Used by the majority of WLANs in homes and businesses. like a computer. then AP sends it to the destination MS  Multiple APs can be connected together and handle a large number of clients. .Infrastructure network  There is an Access Point (AP). or a phone. it needs to send the information to AP first.´  Any communication has to go through AP. a PDA. wants to communicate with another MS.

Comparison of Two Structures Expansion Flexibility Control Routing Coverage Reliability Infrastructure X X X X X Ad hoc X .

Extended Service Area .

a mobile station (MS) can roam from one BSS (Basic Service Set) to another. the MS keeps checking the beacon signal sent by each AP and select the strongest one and connect to that AP.Roaming  In an extended service area.  Two BSSs coverage areas can largely overlap to increase the capacity for a particular area. the service will be interrupted.  If the BSSs overlap. the connection will not be interrupted when an MS moves from one set to another. as we will explain later. If not.  Roughly speaking. the two access points will use different channels. . If so.

but some select products will let you attach secondary antennas that will significantly boost range. .Antennas All WLAN equipment comes with a built-in omni-directional antenna.

continued  Antennas come in all shapes and styles: Omni-directional:  Vertical Whip  Ceiling mount Directional:  Yagi (³Pringles can´)  Wall mounted panel  Parabolic dish .Antennas.

A user sends information when no one else is sending.How Can Several Users Communicate Simultaneously? As we have discussed.) For data exchange. as we will discuss in this course. For voice conversations. New technologies try to accommodate both voice and data transmissions. (3G and 4G cell phones are somewhat different. each person has a dedicated channel during the entire conversation. there is a difference between a network designed for voice conversation and one for data exchange. . as we will explain later. many users can share one channel. like telephone and cell phone calls.

. they will not start sending simultaneously.) don¶t communicate simultaneously. since their waiting times are randomly generated and thus not equal.Share one channel in data communication  In data communication. It¶s like they are sharing one single cable (the air in this case).  Devices (phones. Thus collision (two or more MSs sending signals simultaneously) is avoided. only one person can use it at one time. it checks to see if someone else is sending information.  It¶s called Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). computers. Each packet/frame contains a number of bits of information.  If some station is sending or receiving signal. Only when the medium is free can an MS sends packets. data are grouped into packets/frames. the MS that intends to send will generate a random waiting time and wait for its turn. If several MSs are all waiting for their turns. etc.  Before an MS (mobile station) sends its packets.

How does CSMA/CA (Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Work? (p. 189. Example 4.18) .

therefore the source terminal sends its packet with no contention.  The destination station responds with CTS packet.  After completion of the transmission.  The source terminal receives the CTS and sends the data. destination address. . and the length of the data to be sent. Fig. the destination station sends an ACK. 11.17 & p.14) to avoid collision when two MSs cannot hear each other (blocked by a wall «). Fig. 462. 4.  A terminal ready for transmission sends an RTS packet identifying the source address.RTS/CTS (Request-to-send/clear-tosend)  Use Request-to-send/clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) mechanism (p. 191-192. opening contention for other users.  Other terminals go to the virtual carrier-sensing mode (NAV signal on).

11.  We discuss two methods specified in 802. . FHSS and DSSS.Spread spectrum in 802.11  It is a requirement imposed by the regulatory authorities for devices in ISM band in order to reduce interference.  There is also limitations on transmitted power.

116).  Use Barker code (Example 3.  Chip rate = 11 Mcps  Resolution is on the order of 1/11 Mcps = 90 ns.11  Used by 802. For indoor applications this ensures that the system does not suffer from ISI.DSSS in 802.16.11b  Symbol transmission rate = 1Mbps  Multipath spread of up to 1/1 Mbps = 1 µs does not cause ISI. . p.

11.Complementary code keying (CCK)  Used to increase the data rate to 11 Mbps  Example 17.3. 457 . p. p.4. 119  Sec.

 These frequencies are divided into three patterns of 26 hops each corresponding channel numbers (0. (1. Canada.403 GHz.479 GHz (US. 11. 75). 3. 8.Frequency Hopping in 802. 7. that results in a threefold increase in the capacity of the cell. and so on up to Channel 77 at 2.  Hop rate = 2.5. 77). Channel 0. 76). The first channel. . 9.11  The frequency can hop over 78 hopping channels each separated by 1 MHz. «.5 hops per second. 454.404 GHz. 10. 11. 5. Channel 1 is at 2.  Three APs can coexist without any hop collision. (2. starts at 2. 2. 6. 4. «. and Europe standards). Fig. Channel 2. «.402 GHz. see p.

P.  The ISM band at 2. 16 users can talk simultaneously. . up to 8 users can use VoIP simultaneously through one access point.Frequency bands for DSSS  FHSS uses 1 MHz bandwidth (narrowband). But the two APs have to use non-overlapping channels. For example. 11.4 GHz is divided into 11 overlapping channels spaced by 5 MHz (see Fig.  The coverage areas of two access points (Basic Service Sets.  APs located close to each other can choose different channels to mitigate interference. DSSS uses a chip rate of 11 Mcps which occupies around 26 MHz of bandwidth (wideband).6. With two overlapping APs. BSS) may overlap to increase capacity. but the center frequency hops over 76 MHz. 455).

p. 97).Modulation  Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) is used (Sec.1. 3.6. .

Wi-Fi network services  Distribution and integration  Association. re-association. and disassociation  Authentication and deauthentication  Providing privacy .

Once a frame has been accepted by an access point. Any communication that uses an access point travels through the distribution service. it uses the distribution service to deliver the frame to its destination. . including communications between two mobile stations associated with the same access point.Distribution  This service is used by mobile stations in an infrastructure network every time they send data.

. The integration function is specific to the distribution system used and therefore is not specified by 802. it allows the connection of the distribution system to a non-IEEE 802.11 network.11.Integration  Integration is a service provided by the distribution system. except in terms of the services it must offer.

. The distribution system can then use the registration information to determine which access point to use for any mobile station.Association  Delivery of frames to mobile stations is made possible because mobile stations register. or associate. with access points.

Reassociation  When a mobile station moves between basic service areas within a single extended service area. they are never initiated by the access point. it must evaluate signal strength and perhaps switch the access point with which it is associated. Reassociations are initiated by mobile stations when signal conditions indicate that a different association would be beneficial. the distribution system updates its location records to reflect the reachability of the mobile station through a different access point. After the reassociation is complete. .

.Disassociation  To terminate an existing association. it is as if the station is no longer attached to the network. Disassociation is a polite task to do during the station shutdown process. designed to accommodate stations that leave the network without formally disassociating. When stations invoke the disassociation service. Once disassociation is complete. any mobility data stored in the distribution system is removed. stations may use the disassociation service. however. The MAC is.

a side effect of deauthentication is termination of any current association. . and therefore must depend on additional authentication routines to ensure that users accessing the network are authorized to do so. (In practice. Wired network¶s equipment can be locked inside offices. Because authentication is needed before network use is authorized. however. Authentication is a necessary prerequisite to association because only authenticated users are authorized to use the network.)  Deauthentication terminates an authenticated relationship. many access points are configured for "open-system" mode and will authenticate any station. though.Authetication/deauthentication  Physical security is a major component of a wired LAN security solution. Wireless networks cannot offer the same level of physical security.

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