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CDMA Technology Overview

CDMA Basics

CDMA Technology Overview

Course Objectives Upon completion of this course, you will have an understanding of the following concepts: • CDMA and other access technologies • CDMA coding, forward, and reverse channels • Vocoding, multiplexing, and power control • Components that comprise a CDMA system • CDMA messaging and call flow

CDMA Technology Overview

Why CDMA? C ode D ivision M ultiple A ccess CDMA Technology Overview CDMA is extremely robust and provides excellent audio quality • CDMA is the technology of choice for both 800 MHz Cellular and 1900 MHz PCS service providers • CDMA satisfies CTIA Users’ Performance Requirements • CDMA provides high capacity (many times the capacity of AMPS) • CDMA provides privacy through its coding scheme .

Since the beginning of telephony and radio. . unaware that the other users exist.What is Multiple Access? Multiple Access: Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple. independent users. system operators have tried to squeeze the maximum amount of traffic over each circuit Types of Media • Twisted pair . private circuit through the transmission medium.copper • Coaxial cable • Fiber optic cable • Air interface (radio signals) Advantages of Multiple Access • Increased capacity: serve more users • Reduced capital requirements since fewer media can carry the traffic • Decreased per-user expense • Easier to manage and administer CDMA Technology Overview Transmission Medium Each pair of users enjoys a dedicated.

Multiple Access Technologies Channel: An individually-assigned. but mixed with different distinguishing code patterns − a channel is a unique set of code patterns CDMA Technology Overview e CDMA Power Tim e y nc ue q e Fr . dedicated pathway through a transmission medium for one user’s information FDMA Power Tim eq Fr cy en u The physical transmission medium is a resource that can be subdivided into individual channels according to different criteria depending on the technology used: Here’s how the three most popular technologies establish channels: e • FDMA (Frequency Division Multiplex Access) TDMA Power Tim Fre y nc ue q − each user on a different frequency − a channel is a frequency • TDMA (Time Division Multiplex Access) − each user on a different window period in time (“time slot”) − a channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency • CDMA (Code Division Multiplex Access) − each user uses the same frequency all the time.

BTS and itself •• Base Station Controller (BSC) provides data routing. administration and maintenance of the BSC. BTS and itself operations. voice coding Base Station Controller (BSC) provides data routing. BSC and BSM are identical for 800 and 1900 MHz products MTX.CDMA System Components T1s T1 or E1s DMS-MTX MAP BTS BSM BSC MTSO •• Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX) provides call processing functions for Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX) provides call processing functions for AMPS/TDMA/CDPD/CDMA cellular systems AMPS/TDMA/CDPD/CDMA cellular systems •• Base Station Manager (BSM) provides aaGraphical User Interface (GUI) for Base Station Manager (BSM) provides Graphical User Interface (GUI) for operations. voice coding and some hand-off functions and some hand-off functions •• Base Station Transceiver Subsystem (BTS) provides the RF link Base Station Transceiver Subsystem (BTS) provides the RF link to the subscriber to the subscriber •• MTX. BSC and BSM are identical for 800 and 1900 MHz products CDMA Technology Overview . administration and maintenance of the BSC.

25 MHz Reverse Link CDMA Forward Channel 1. Sync.25 MHz s CDMA Code Channel • Each individual stream of 0’s and 1’s contained in either the CDMA Forward Channel or in the CDMA Reverse Channel • Code Channels are characterized (made unique) by mathematical codes • Code channels in the forward link: Pilot.25 MHz • 1.25 MHz-wide bands of electromagnetic spectrum.25 MHz bands are 45 MHz apart • In 1900 MHz PCS they are 80 MHz apart s CDMA Forward Channel CDMA CHANNEL CDMA Reverse Channel 1. Paging and Forward Traffic channels • Code channels in the reverse link: Access and Reverse Traffic channels CDMA Technology Overview 45 or 80 MHz .Defining Our Terms s CDMA Channel or CDMA Carrier or CDMA Frequency • Duplex channel made of two 1.25 MHz Forward Link s CDMA Reverse Channel • 1. one for Base Station to Mobile Station communication (called the FORWARD LINK or the DOWNLINK) and another for Mobile Station to Base Station communication (called the REVERSE LINK or the UPLINK) • In 800 Cellular these two simplex 1.

CDMA Is a Spread-Spectrum System TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband Slow Information Sent TX Signal Slow Information Recovered • Traditional technologies try to squeeze the signal into the minimum required bandwidth • Direct-Sequence Spread spectrum systems mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal • The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming wideband signal to recover the original data • The de-spreading gives substantial gain proportional to the bandwidth of the spreading signal • CDMA uses a larger bandwidth but then uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity RX SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered Fast Spreading Sequence Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain CDMA Technology Overview .

Spread Spectrum Principles MA T HAM H ME R Power is “Spread” Over a Larger Bandwidth MATH HAMMER 30 KHz 1.25 MHz CDMA Technology Overview .

Spread Spectrum Principles Many code channels are individually “spread” and then added together to create a “composite signal” CDMA Technology Overview .

Spread Spectrum Principles Using the “right” mathematical sequences any Code Channel can be extracted from the received composite signal UNWANTED POWER FROM OTHER SOURCES CDMA Technology Overview .

the original data stream is recovered intact CDMA Technology Overview . We Can Undo ORIGINATING SITE Input Data (Base Band) Spread Data Stream (Base Band + Spreading Sequence) DESTINATION Recovered Data (Base Band) Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence s Any data bit stream can be combined with a spreading sequence s The resulting signal can be de-spread and the data stream recovered if the original spreading sequence is available and properly synchronized s After de-spreading.Anything We Can Do.

“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA Shipping Receiving FedEx Data FedEx Mailer Mailer Data s Whether in shipping and receiving. or in CDMA. and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order s CDMA “containers” are spreading codes CDMA Technology Overview . packaging is extremely important! s Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing s The shipper packs in a certain order.

CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data X Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence A B C Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence C B A s CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique. robust channels s The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link s The sequences are applied in succession at the sending end and then reapplied in opposite order to recover the original data stream at the receiving end CDMA Technology Overview .

each 64 chips long a chip is a binary digit (0 or 1) Each Walsh Code is Orthogonal to all other Walsh Codes • It is possible to recognize. and therefore extract. a particular Walsh code from a mixture of other Walsh codes that are “filtered out” in the process • Two same-length binary strings are orthogonal if the result of XORing them has the same number of 0s as 1s EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 XOR 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 Correlation Results: 32 1’s.Walsh Codes • • 64 Sequences. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! CDMA Technology Overview .

50% no-match) CDMA Technology Overview . 50% no-match) (50% match.Correlation and Orthogonality Correlation is a measure of the similarity between two binary strings Code #23 Code #59 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 –(Code #23) 1001011010010110011010010110100110010110100101100110100101101001 #23 #23 #59 #23 –(#23) #23 PARALLEL PARALLEL XOR: all 0s XOR: all 0s Correlation: 100% Correlation: 100% (100% match) (100% match) ORTHOGONAL ORTHOGONAL XOR: half 0s. half 1s Correlation: 0% Correlation: 0% ANTI-PARALLEL ANTI-PARALLEL XOR: all 1s XOR: all 1s Correlation: –100% Correlation: –100% (100% no-match) (100% no-match) (50% match. half 1s XOR: half 0s.

384 0’s CDMA Technology Overview . (75 repetitions in 2 sec. any sequence) correlates with itself perfectly if compared at a timing offset of 0 chips • Each Short PN Sequence is special: Orthogonal to a copy of itself that has been offset by any number of chips (other than 0) 32. as a matter of fact.384 1’s + 16.768 chips long • Each Short PN Sequence (and. each 32. are 32.The Short PN Sequences The two Short PN Sequences. I and Q.768 chips long • Together they can be considered a two-dimensional binary “vector” with distinct I and Q component sequences. Itself @ Any Offset I Q I Q Orthogonal: 16. Itself @ 0 Offset I Q I Q 100% Correlation: All bits = 0 Short PN Sequence vs.768 chips long 26 2/3 ms.) I Q Unique Properties: Short PN Sequence vs.

12 minutes and 19.2288 Mcps. this sequence requires 41 days.2288 MCPS) • • • Each mobile station uses a unique User Long Code Sequence generated by applying a mask. to the 42-bit Long Code Generator which was synchronized with the CDMA system during the mobile station initialization Generated at 1.2288 MCPS) 1100011000 AND SUM PERMUT ED ESN Public Long Code Mask (STATIC) = Modulo-2 Addition User Long Code Sequence (@1.4 seconds to complete Portions of the Users Long Codes generated by different mobile stations for the duration of a call are not exactly orthogonal but are sufficiently different to permit reliable decoding on the reverse link CDMA Technology Overview . based on its 32-bit ESN.The Long PN Sequence Long Code Register (@ 1. 10 hours.

s A set of 64 mathematical codes is needed to differentiate the 64 possible forward code channels that can be contained in a Forward CDMA Channel.How Many Spreading Codes Do We Need? (Discriminating Among Forward Code Channels) Pilot FW Traffic (for user #1) Sync Paging FW Traffic (for user #2) FW Traffic (for user #3) s A Mobile Station tuned to a particular CDMA frequency receives a Forward CDMA Channel from a sector in a Base Station. The codes in this set are called “Walsh Codes” CDMA Technology Overview . s This Forward CDMA Channel carries a composite signal made of up to 64 forward code channels s Some of these code channels are traffic channels while other are overhead channels needed by the CDMA system to operate properly.

all of them transmitting on the same CDMA Frequency s Each Sector in each Base Station is transmitting a CDMA Forward Traffic Channel containing up to 64 distinct forward code channels s A Mobile Station must be able to discriminate between different Sectors of different Base Stations and listen to only one set of code channels s Two binary digit sequences called the I and Q Short PN Sequences (or Short PN Codes) are defined for the purpose of identifying sectors of different base stations s These Short PN Sequences can be used in 512 different ways in a CDMA system. Each one of them constitutes a mathematical code which can be used to identify a particular sector of a particular base station CDMA Technology Overview B .How Many Spreading Codes Do We Need? (Discriminating Among Base Stations) Up to 64 Code Channels Up to 64 Code Channels A s A mobile Station is surrounded by Base Stations.

#1837732008 RV Traffic from M. #223663748 CDMA Technology Overview . #8764349209 System Access Attempt by M. Each one of them constitutes a mathematical code which can be used to identify a particular user (and is then called a User Long Code) or a particular access channel (explained later in this course) RV Traffic from M.S.S.S.How Many Spreading Codes Do We Need? (Discriminating Among Reverse Code Channels) s The CDMA system must be able to uniquely identify each Mobile Station that may attempt to communicate with a Base Station s A very large number of Mobile Stations will be in the market s One binary digit sequence called the Long PN Sequence (or Long PN Code) is defined for the purpose of uniquely identifying each possible reverse code channel s This sequence is extremely long and can be used in trillions of different ways.S. #4348769902 (on access channel #1) RV Traffic from M.

Summary of Characteristics & Functions • • Each CDMA spreading sequence is used for a specific purpose on the forward link and a different purpose on the reverse link The sequences are used to form “code channels” for users in both directions 64 chips long Cell Type of Sequence How Forward Special Length Properties Link Many Function 64 64 chips 1/19. (75 repetitions in 2 sec.768 chips long 26-2/3 ms.) I Q AND SUM 2 32. Reverse Link Function Orthogonal Modulation (information carrier) 64 codes Walsh Codes Short PN Sequences Long PN Sequences Mutually Orthogonal User identity within cell’s signal 32.200 sec. Orthogonal with itself at any time shift value except 0 nearorthogonal if shifted Distinguish Cells & Sectors Quadrature Spreading (Zero offset) = 1 242 chips ~41 days Data Scrambling to avoid all 1’s or 0’s Distinguish users Modulo-2 Addition CDMA Technology Overview .768 chips 26-2/3 ms 75x in 2 sec.

Are all CDMA Walsh Codes orthogonal? Yes 4. Paging. access. sync. What sequence best describes this conversion relationship in CDMA: chips ⇐ symbols ⇐ bits 5. List the four overhead (support) channels. it is easier to detect at the receiver. pilot CDMA Technology Overview . What vocoder function stores a collection of arbitrary waveform segments? Code book 3. If a signal is deliberately transmitted using more RF bandwidth than required.Lesson Review 1. This “waste” is formally defined as what? Processing gain 2.

CDMA Technology Overview .