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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Highfield Training Presentation


Your tutor is:

Prakash, Sajid, Maricel

24 January 2018 quality, value, service & integrity


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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Welcome to:

Level 3 Award in
Supervising Food
Safety (PIC)
Highfield House
Sidings Court, Lakeside
Doncaster
South Yorkshire, UK
DN4 5NU
Tel: 0845 2260350

© Highfield.co.uk limited 2011

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inconsistent with this paragraph are hereby expressly excluded. 7/1/2011
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Food
Safety

Highfield HACCP

Health &
Safety
● Offices in UK and Dubai
● Internationally recognised accredited First Aid

qualifications
● 7th largest Awarding Body operating in the QCF Nutrition

● Over 1000 Registered Centres and 2000 Tutors


Licensing
use HABC qualifications
● Internationally recognised experts. Fire

Allergens

Security

PTLLS
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Housekeeping

Location of:
● Fire Escapes As a courtesy to others
● Toilets please TURN OFF your
● Smoking mobile phone

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Highfield PowerPoint presentations

KEY

PIC Group/individual Class exercise/


responsibilities exercise questions

GE IE CE CQ
Handouts Dubai Assessment
Municipality law
#

The last point on a slide is denoted by a full stop.

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Timetable – day 1

09.00 Introduction to food safety


09.30 Microbiology (Multiplication and survival hazards)
10.45 COFFEE BREAK
11.00 Contamination hazards & controls
13.00 LUNCH
13.30 Contamination hazards & controls
14.30 Food poisoning
15.30 COFFEE BREAK
15.45 Food Poisoning
17.00 Close

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Timetable – day 2

09.00 Personal hygiene


10.15 Food premises & equipment
11.00 COFFEE BREAK
11.15 Food premises & equipment
11.45 Cleaning and disinfection
13.00 LUNCH
13.30 Pest management
14.30 HACCP
15.00 COFFEE BREAK
15.15 HACCP
17.00 Close

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Timetable – day 3

09.00 Dubai Rules and Regulations


10.00 Desktop Inspection
11.00 COFFEE BREAK
11.15 Desktop Inspection
13.00 LUNCH
13.30 Role of PIC - checklists
14.15 Exam technique
14.45 COFFEE BREAK
15.00 Examination
17.00 Close

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The UK’s leading supplier of food safety and compliance training materials

Please click on a module number to continue:

1 2 3 4
Introduction Microbiology Contamination Food poisoning
(multiplication & hazards & controls
survival)

5 6 7 8
Personal hygiene Premises Cleaning & Pest management
& equipment disinfection

9 10 11 12
HACCP Dubai Regs Desktop inspection Revision

Assessment Q&As

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 1

An introduction to food safety


and the Person in Charge (PIC)

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Course aim:

To help
owners/supervisors/managers
of a food business to effectively
manage food safety and comply
with food safety legislation.

This means the Person in Charge


(PIC).

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Delegates will be able to:

● Improve the standards and safety of their operation


● Establish and maintain prerequisite programmes
● Comply with food safety legislation
● Understand the roles and responsibilities of the PIC
● Apply the 7 HACCP principles
● Confidently deal with
food inspectors
● Successfully complete a
level 3 Award in Supervising
Food Safety and PIC examination
● Improve consistency of food
safety practices
● Reduce fines and violations.

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Person in charge

Protecting

P Profit

I Image

C Customer

Food Control Department


Dubai Municipality

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Who is a PIC?

The Person in Charge (PIC)


in any food establishment
will be the person who has
the overall responsibility for
running that location during
the entire time of operation.

A PIC will have an active role


in managing food safety in a
food establishment

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The 7 PIC Principles of Responsibility (CATCHES)

1. Cross-contamination (prevent)
2. Active Managerial Control (apply)
3. Time/Temperature Control (ensure)
4. Cleaning and disinfecting
5. Hygiene of personnel
6. Emergencies (complaints, recall,
power failure)
7. Sources (approved)

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2
GE What are the definitions of…?

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Food types

High-risk (cooked) foods


• Common food vehicles in food
poisoning, usually protein,
ready-to-eat without cooking,
stored under refrigeration or
above 60°C. Should not
contain pathogens

Raw foods to be cooked


• Major source of food
poisoning organisms and
cross-contamination. Keep
separate from all ready-to-eat
foods, surfaces and equipment

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Food types

Low-risk foods
• Acid foods pH < 4.0
• High sugar/salt/fat
• Dry products (low a w)
• Include preserved foods not
requiring refrigeration
• Ambient storage

Ready-to-eat raw foods


• Ready-to-eat raw foods such
as fruit and salad vegetables
should be thoroughly
washed before consumption,
to minimise the risk from
low-dose pathogens.

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Salad and produce washing

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Safe food storage

Foods are split into


Cooked food
groups so you can
handle and store them
safely.
Raw ready-to-eat

Cooked and raw foods


are stored under
Oysters
refrigeration to prevent
multiplication of
bacteria, but must be
stored correctly to Raw foods to be cooked
prevent contamination

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CQ Which food type?

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CQ Which food type?

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CQ Which food type?

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GE What are the advantages (benefits) of GOOD hygiene?

● A good reputation – customer confidence


● Improved food safety standards
● Compliance with food safety legislation
● Reduced risk of food poisoning
● Longer shelf life
● Good working conditions,
higher staff morale and reduced
turnover of staff
● Increased productivity 67oC
● Brand protection

INCREASED BUSINESS - HIGHER PROFITS

A food business has a LEGAL and MORAL obligation


to produce safe food and the PIC will hold the primary responsibility.

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GE What are the disadvantages (costs) of POOR hygiene?

● A bad reputation/brand damage


● Food contamination and customer complaints
● Fines and legal costs resulting from prosecution
● Closure of business, prohibition
of processes
● Civil action from ill or annoyed
customers
● Increased risk of food poisoning
deaths and suffering
● Increased risk of pest infestation
● Waste food due to spoilage
● Poor morale – high staff turnover

LOSS OF BUSINESS – LOWER PROFITS


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CE High-risk (tick) or not high-risk (cross)?
Hold up or X
 Margarine
 Toast
 Dried apricots

 Vacuum-packed

Bag of sugar
cooked meat 2 years old
 Wine

 Biscuits
 Pickled onions

 Coffee

 Curry
 Rice dish

 Raw milk

 Baked potato
 Prawn cocktail
in foil

 Raw egg products


 Breakfast cereals
 Oysters

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 2…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 2

Microbiology
(Multiplication and survival hazards)

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Bacteria – size, shape and structure

● Found everywhere
● A few cause illness (pathogens)
● Mostly harmless
● Some essential
● Some cause spoilage
● Microscopic

Detection – laboratory testing.


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Requirements for bacterial multiplication

Warmth 1-4°C prevents


(temperature) growth of most food
poisoning bacteria

Moisture aW 42.9oC
(available water)

Time

Oxygen
Nutrients
(food) pH 4.0 to 7.5

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Germometer

Dead!.

Destroys most pathogens


Too hot (start to
die)(60°C)

Multiply
(rapidly 20ºC – 50ºC)

Spoilage slow growth, most


pathogens no growth (<5°C)
Dormant (no growth –
spoilage or pathogens)

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Oxygen requirements of bacteria

Most pathogens grow with or


O2 without oxygen
O2 O2
Aerobes require oxygen for
growth

Anaerobes grow only in the


Anaerobic absence of oxygen.

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Preventing the multiplication of bacteria and food poisoning

Use of:
● Time – minimise time at
room temperature
● High temperatures
● Low temperatures
● Moisture reduction
(aw/dehydration)
● Salt/sugar
● Chemicals (preservatives)
● Acid
● Vacuum packaging
● Smoking.
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Spores

● Resistant resting phase – protect


bacteria against adverse conditions
● Survive:
● High temperatures,
e.g. boiling for up to 5 hours
● Chemicals
(disinfectants)
● Dehydration
(some for many years)

● Do not multiply
● Unaffected by freezing or
chilling.

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Bacterial spores – unsuitable conditions

Cell

Spore forms in cell

Cell disintegrates, releasing spore and


may release toxin (poison). 99.3oC

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Bacterial spores - suitable conditions

Spore germinates

Cell produced and multiplies

Toxin may be released in intestine or in food

Cool food rapidly to stop germination.


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Toxins (poisons produced by bacteria)

T
T
T T

T T

T
T

T T

Produced when bacteria grow in food


Many heat resistant and unaffected by freezing
Short incubation period
Also produced when bacteria die
or spores are formed.

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Destruction of bacteria in food

HEAT
Effective cooking
(centre temperature at least 75°C destroys pathogenic bacteria but
not spores)
Pasteurisation
(destroys pathogens and some spoilage bacteria)
Sterilisation
(destroys all bacteria,
spores and toxins)
UHT
(ultra heat treated)
Canning
(commercially sterile)
Chlorine(water)/irradiation
U/V light.

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Viruses

● Smaller than bacteria


● Multiply in living cells of body – not food
● Low infective dose
● Person to person spread common
● Environmental spread
● Destroyed by thorough
cooking.

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Food spoilage

Food deterioration resulting in bad smells, taste and change


in appearance

The main causes of spoilage:


Moulds and Yeasts (T & SR)
Enzymes (T & B)
Bacteria (T & SR)

Control Measures
T = low temperature
B = blanching
SR = stock rotation.

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GE What are the signs of food spoilage?

Unlike pathogens, spoilage is detected by our senses

● Off odours (smells)


● Discolouration
● Slime/stickiness
● Mould
● Texture change
● Taste deterioration
● Pest evidence
● Rancidity
● Blown cans or packs
● The production of gas.

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Rotten egg and maggots

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CE Where should I store it?
Hold up or X
Sterilised milk (unopened) 
Vacuum-packed pasteurised meat 
Pasteurised canned meat (unopened) 
UHT milk (unopened) 
Bananas 
Cut melon 
Dry ice-cream mix 
Bottle of tomato sauce (opened) 
Jar of mayonnaise (unopened) 
 = Refrigerator  = Dry Store

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 3…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 3

Contamination hazards and


controls

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Types of contamination hazard

Contamination – something objectionable or harmful in food

Microbiological
(pathogens/spoilage bacteria)

Physical
(foreign bodies)

Chemical

Allergenic

May be present in raw materials or introduced (delivery - service).


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CQ What are the sources of food poisoning bacteria?

● People/sewage
● Raw food
● Insects
● Rodents
● Soil/dust
● Refuse/waste
● Animals/birds
● Contaminated
packaging.

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Sources, vehicles and routes of microbiological
contamination

Route
The path taken by
bacteria from sources
to ready to eat foods

Sources
(Origins of pathogens –
that bring them into
food premises)
Vehicles
(Transfer bacteria from
sources to ready-to-eat food)
Hands, cloths, food- and
hand-contact surfaces Ready-to-eat foods.
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Cross-contamination

Direct contact

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Cross-contamination

Raw
Indirect

Surface

Cooked.

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Cross-contamination

Drip
(Direct contamination)

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What are the control measures for microbiological
GE contamination hazards?

Remove sources

● Purchase food from DM


approved suppliers
● Check delivery vehicles
● Inspect food on arrival
● Immediate storage
● Integrated pest management
● Good personal hygiene
(exclusion policy)
● Visitor policy
● Training.

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What are the control measures for microbiological
GE contamination hazards?

Break routes

● Effective instruction, supervision and training


● Good design of premises and equipment
● Good hygiene practices
● Protect food
● Minimise handling
● Segregate high-risk and raw food (colour coding)
● Effective cooling and defrosting systems
● Discard unfit food immediately or segregate fit and unfit
● Cleaning schedules/systematic cleaning
● Satisfactory waste management.
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3 Answers – Sources, vehicles, routes and controls for
GE microbiological contamination hazards

Raw meat Cooked meat


Knife Separate
Refuse Cake
Fly Cover food
Raw meat Lettuce
Chopping board Clean & disinfect
Intestine Sandwich
Hands of food handler Thoroughly wash hands
Raw preparation area High-risk food areas
Cloth Clean & disinfect
Drain Onion bhaji
Cockroach Effective pest control
Sewage Soft cheese
Rodent Effective pest control
Undercooked raw poultry Cooked poultry
Probe thermometer Clean & disinfect
Sick customer (vomiting) Cooked rice
Hands of food handler Thoroughly wash hands
Boil on hand Dessert
Hands of food handler Exclude infected food handler.
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CE Match the control measures to the source of the hazard

CONTAMINATION IN
A B INTRODUCED DURING
DELIVERED PRODUCT UNPACKING
2 2
Physical Hazards
FROM PREMISES/ FROM PEOPLE/VISITORS
EQUIPMENT/PESTS
7 C D 2
Approved suppliers Effective pest management/control

Satisfactory design/construction Visitor policy Care when de-boxing

Staff training to use equipment properly and report if defective

Check deliveries Have a glass/wood policy Care with waste disposal

Good personal hygiene Care with maintenance/repairs out of hours

Avoid temporary repairs Keep food in sealed containers


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CE Match the contaminant to the source of the hazard

CONTAMINATION IN
A B INTRODUCED DURING
DELIVERED PRODUCT UNPACKING
Physical Hazards
FROM PREMISES/ FROM
EQUIPMENT/PESTS PEOPLE/VISITORS
C D
Wood, nuts, bolts, screws, plaster,
Staples, cardboard, string, fibres, glass, paint flakes, rust, oil, bristles,
cloth, glass, plastic, wood & paper drawing pins, pests, droppings, bait,
eggs & larvae

Jewellery, fingernails, buttons,


Pebbles, snails, stalks, leaves,
combs, pen tops, sweet papers,
wood, glass, metal & pests.
cigarette ends, hair & sabotage

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Physical contamination risks

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Contamination risk from wood/soil

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Contamination risk from notice board

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Ready-prepared mouse sandwich and lizard in beans

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GE What are the sources of chemical hazards?

Present in raw materials


● Pesticides/herbicides/fungicides/fertilisers
(fruit/vegetables/cereals)
● Metals (fish, vegetables and acid fruit)
● Antibiotics/hormones (meat)
● Natural toxins (red kidney beans)
● Industrial chemicals

Contamination during production


● Fumes (paint/diesel)
● Cleaning chemicals
● Pesticides
● Poisonous metals (acid fruit)
● Excess additives
● Migration from packaging.
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Food stored in chemical container

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GE What are the controls for chemical hazards?

Approved suppliers / safe packaging

Training of cleaners

Separation of chemicals from food


Don’t store food in
x
old chemical containers

Don’t store chemicals in unmarked containers

Follow correct dilution procedures

Rinsing following chemical cleaning

Protect food – cleaning and pest control

Don’t clean above open food

Use approved food-grade chemicals.

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Allergenic hazards

● Increasing problem
● Immune system reacts – minutes/hours – anaphylaxis which
results from a susceptible person eating food containing an
allergen
● Symptoms
● Flushing of skin/nettle-rash
● Swelling of throat and mouth
● Difficulty in swallowing/speaking
● Severe asthma
● Burning sensation
● Weakness
● Fall in blood pressure
● Abdominal pain/nausea/vomiting
● Collapse/unconsciousness/death

www.anaphylaxis.org.uk - www.allergyaction.org.uk.
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Most important allergenic foods

● Peanuts
● Groundnuts
● Tree nuts
● Walnuts
● Hazelnuts
● Brazil nuts
● Milk/lactose
● Eggs
● Fish
● Shellfish (molluscs)
● Sesame seeds
● Soya (tofu and bean curd)
● Cereals containing gluten
● Mustard, celery and celeriac
● Lupin.

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GE What are allergenic control measures?

Cannot be controlled or removed by temperature, chemicals or by


washing/filtering
● Application of Good Practices
and HACCP
● Avoid contamination
● Segregation
● Separate utensils/cloths
● Colour coding
● Clear labelling
● Effective cleaning
● Staff:
● Handwashing before preparation
● Communication
Effective communication
● Symptoms
Customer ↔ waiter ↔ chef.
● Response.
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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 4…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 4

Food poisoning and


foodborne disease

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4
GE What are the definitions of…?

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People who are most at risk of food poisoning

● Elderly
● Very young children/babies
● Pregnant women and their unborn babies
● Immunocompromised
● Ill people.

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Causative agents of food poisoning

Microbiological
● Pathogenic bacteria/ toxins
(most common)
● Pathogenic viruses
● Moulds (mycotoxins)

Non-microbiological
● Poisonous metals/chemicals
Cu
● Poisonous plants/fish, e.g.
toadstools/red kidney beans

NOT ALLERGENS

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Common food vehicles

Poultry Desserts

Cooked meat & meat products

Salads, vegetables & fruit


(low-dose organisms)

Shellfish and fish.

Milk & milk products.

Egg products & eggs


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General characteristics of food poisoning

● Incubation period
1 to 36 hours
● Duration
1 to 7 days
● Large numbers of bacteria
to cause illness.

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CQ What are the symptoms of food poisoning?

● Abdominal pain
● Diarrhoea
● Vomiting
● Nausea
● Fever
● Collapse
● Dehydration.

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Non-microbiological food poisoning

Poisonous chemicals
Fungicides, weedkillers, pesticides, cleaning
chemicals, additives, etc.

Poisonous metals
Antimony, cadmium, copper, iron, lead,
mercury, tin, zinc, etc.

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Non-microbiological food poisoning

Poisonous plants

Deadly nightshade, death cap,


daffodil bulbs, toadstools,
rhubarb leaves, red kidney beans, etc.

Poisonous fish/shellfish

Scombrotoxin
Paralytic shellfish poisoning

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Foodborne diseases

● Campylobacter enteritis ● Low-dose organisms


● Escherichia coli O157 ● Small numbers
● Norovirus ● Do not need to multiply
in food
● Listeria (refrigerator) ● Multiply in body
● Typhoid/paratyphoid
● Hepatitis A
● Dysentery
● Parasites

Faecal-oral route
Pathogens → faeces → hands → food → eaten

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GE How can we prevent food poisoning?

● Break the food poisoning chain


● Food poisoning rarely occurs
because of a single isolated
mistake
● Control involves the
implementation of good
hygiene practices and HACCP
● Remove sources
● Prevent contamination of food
● Prevent multiplication of
bacteria
● Destroy bacteria.

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GE Food poisoning investigation

What is the role of the PIC?


● Advise manager and Dubai Municipality
● Suspend Production/Despatch –if strong
evidence
● Remove and isolate
● Exclude staff
● Specimens from ill staff
● Foods implicated
● Complaints
● Food history
● Answer questions
● Provide records for audit
● Sampling NOTE: All serious investigations will be conducted
● Clean and disinfect by the Food Safety Department with the assistance
Of the PIC.
● Arrange for restock.
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Which records may be required by a food inspector when
GE investigating an alleged food poisoning outbreak?

● Staff attendance/excluded/ill
● Training records of staff
● Temperature monitoring
(refrigerator/cooking/hot-hold)
● Deliveries – traceability
(checking of deliveries,
temperature, etc.)
● Complaint records
● Cleaning schedules
● Audit reports.
● Occupational Health Cards

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 5…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 5

Personal hygiene
(high standards essential to prevent food
contamination and food poisoning)

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Responsibilities of food handlers

Food handlers must:


● Have high standards of personal hygiene
● Have an occupational health card
● Wear clean protective clothing
● Not work if ill (contaminate food) Report to PIC.

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Food handlers – Sources and causes of hazards

● Contaminated hands (M)(A)


● Food handler ill or/and
diarrhoea & vomiting (M)
● Boil/septic cut (M)
● Cuts and abrasions (M)
● First aid dressing (M)(P)
● Poor hygiene (M)
● Contaminated
clothing (M)(P)(A)
● Jewellery (M)(P)
● Body parts (P) M – Microbiological
● Smoking (M)(P) A – Allergenic
P – Physical.

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CQ What are the facilities required for handwashing?

● Clean wash-hand basin


● Not used for food or equipment
● Sinks for food or equipment
not used for hands
● Non-hand operated taps
recommended
● Hot and cold running water
(mixed 40/45°C)
● Liquid soap (disposable cartridge)
● Soft, heat-resistant, clean nailbrush
● Hygienic hand-drying facilities,
preferably paper towels.

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CQ When is it critical to wash the hands?

BEFORE entering AFTER using the AFTER handling AFTER dealing with
a food room toilet a dressing an ill person.

AFTER handling
AFTER handling AFTER handling soiled AFTER cleaning up
raw food BEFORE handling
contaminated packs nappies/clothing animal accidents
ready-to-eat food

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CQ When is it important to wash the hands?

AFTER touching the AFTER washing up


OFTEN and ALWAYS mouth/face or cleaning

AFTER combing AFTER blowing AFTER handling


your hair your nose waste.

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Effective handwashing

Wet hands Apply 1 shot of


under warm liquid soap
running water to hands

Rub hands
vigorously together,
…… especially the
under running water,
nails and fingertips.
cleaning all parts of
hands…

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Effective handwashing

Rinse off all Dry hands


the lather completely using
a paper towel or
(and bacteria!) warm air dryer

Dispose of paper
Use paper towel to
towel in a foot-
turn off tap
operated container.

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What is the PIC’s role for ensuring
GE effective hand washing?

● Train, instruct, motivate and effective supervision


● Lead by example/demonstration
● Systems in place for soap/towel replenishment/
running warm water
● Facilities clean and
satisfactory (check)
● Monitor – visual checks/
Glo-germ/hand swabbing
● Evaluate controls
● Corrective action, e.g.
retrain/warn/dismiss.

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GE What are the properties of protective clothing?

● Protects food from contamination


● Clean/easy to clean
● Comfortable
● Light coloured/colour-coded?
● No external pockets
● Press studs/velcro
● Good repair
● Laundered in-house
● Cover ordinary clothing
● Hair covering/hairnet
● Not worn outside food rooms
● Suitable lockers
● Remove when visiting WC(FP ONLY)
● Staff and visitors.

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Which of the following illnesses or conditions must be
CE reported to the PIC?
Hold up or X
Eaten suspect food  Broken finger 
Septic cuts/boils  Skin infection 
Back ache  Muscle pain 
Bruised arm  Diarrhoea, vomiting
or food poisoning 
Sore foot  Bad cold/flu 
Ill whilst on holiday  Close family contact
has diarrhoea,


vomiting or
Sun burn food poisoning

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What is the PIC’srole in securing high standards of
GE personal hygiene of staff?

● Train, instruct, motivate (provide feedback) and effective


supervision
● Effective communication (policy & rules), e.g. one-to-
one/groups/written instruction/posters
● Lead by example esp. handwashing and wearing clean protective
clothing/use of lockers
● Adequate resources/facilities (clean & satisfactory)
● Systems in place for soap/towel/first aid replenishment &
protective clothing provision and replacement
● Monitor – visual checks/competency testing/swabbing
● Exclude food handlers (send to doctor) if food exposed to risk of
contamination
● Corrective action, e.g. refer to manager for retrain/warn/dismiss.

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6
GE Personal hygiene – fill in the gaps

Food handlers can be both a source and vehicles for a hazard. Food
handlers may have c……………………….
contaminated hands or clothing.

The law states that food handlers must have high standards of
p……………….
personal h……………….
hygiene and to report to their managers before
working if suffering from s…………………..
symptoms of f………
food p………………
poisoning

The PIC must ensure that a clean w……..


wash - h………
hand b………
basin is available
only for handwashing. There must be …….
hot water available (approx
40ºC), l…………
liquid s………
soap and a method of hand drying, preferably
p………….
paper t…………
towels

posters, liquid soap, communication, training, lead by example, effective


supervision, personal hygiene, instructing, contaminated, corrective action,
motivating, paper towels, wash-hand basin, food poisoning, hot, symptoms.

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6
GE Personal hygiene – fill in the gaps

The PIC must l…….


lead b…
by e…………
example and check that all members of staff
follow the rules of personal hygiene at all times by t………………,
training
i………………….,
instructing m…………………..,
motivating and e…………
effective s………………….
supervision

Effective c…………………
communication must take place using meetings (both
formal and informal), written instruction and the use of p………………
posters

C….…………………
Corrective a……………
action must take place when the need arises
to ensure standards are maintained.

Posters, liquid soap, communication, training, lead by example, effective


supervision, personal hygiene, instructing, contaminated, corrective action,
motivating, paper towels, wash-hand basin, food poisoning, hot, symptoms.

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The role of the PIC in securing food safety

Aims and objectives

Food safety policy

Standards & procedures Provide


HACCP and legal resources
compliance

Monitoring
Corrective action Responsibility Communicate
(notify manager) of the PIC. to staff
Discipline

Instruct
Motivate
Train
Lead by example

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GE What are the objectives and benefits of food safety training?

Objectives
● Positive attitude
● Reduce risk
● Legal compliance
Benefits
● Safe food
● Reduce wastage
● Reduce complaints
● Increased job satisfaction
● Increased productivity
● Good company image/
brand protection
● Reduced supervision.

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 6…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 6

Food premises and


equipment

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Properties of food premises

● Is the layout approved by Dubai Municipality


● Clean, in good repair and condition
● Good design, layout and construction
● Permit cleaning & disinfection
● Protect against contamination
● Permit good food hygiene
practice, especially pest control
● Provide suitable temperature
controlled conditions.

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Design of food premises to reduce risk of contamination

General principles of design

● Segregation of clean and


dirty processes
● Linear workflow reduces
cross-contamination risk
● Personal hygiene facilities
● Washing and disinfection
facilities (suitable and
sufficient)
● Readily cleanable surfaces.

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Design of food premises

● Pest precautions
● Yards and roads well surfaced
● Staff welfare facilities
● Good lighting
● Suitable ventilation
to reduce temperature
and control humidity
● Satisfactory drainage.

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Construction of food premises

● Ceilings
● Walls
● Ventilation
● Extracts cooking fumes and
grease/steam
● Reduces temperature
● Do not need to open windows
● Reduces condensation
● Lighting
● Doors
● Windows
● Floors
● Services.

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Unsatisfactory ceilings

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Properties of surfaces

Wall surfaces
● Waterproof
● Hard wearing, non-flaking
● Easy to clean
● Smooth
● Light coloured
● Cleansable joints/fixings
Floor surfaces
● Hard wearing
● Easy to clean
● Waterproof
● Jointless or cleansable joints
● Anti-slip

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CQ Why replace chipped/damaged surfaces?

● Difficult to clean/disinfect
● Risk of physical
contamination
● Legal requirement
● Build-up of dirt/grease
● Harbourage for
insects/bacteria.

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CQ What washing, waste and welfare facilities should be provided?

● Personal hygiene
● Food and utensil washing
● Hot & cold water supplies
● Cleaning and disinfection
● Toilets
● Changing rooms, lockers
and staff dining
● Waste disposal
(internal and external)
● Drainage

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Storage and disposal of waste

Internal:
● No accumulations
● Emptied frequently
● Refuse collectors
● Care when siting
Containers:
● Cleanable or disposable
● Strong
● Waterproof
● Foot-operated lid
● Polythene sacks
● Waste disposal units
● Emptied frequently.
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Storage and disposal of waste

External:
● Separate from food rooms
● Pest proof/resistant
● Stored off ground
● No accumulations
● Waterproof base
● Good drainage
● Covered
Containers:
● Cleanable/waterproof
● Tight-fitting lids
● Strong/secure
● Cleaning facilities
● Emptied regularly
● Suitable size.
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What are the recommended standards for food
GE equipment?

● Well designed and constructed


● Easy to clean and disinfect
● Smooth/waterproof/hard wearing
● Suitable materials – not softwood
● No crevices/recesses
● Non-toxic/non-flaking
● Non-tainting
● Colour-coded
● Corrosion resistant.

No painted equipment
Defective equipment must
not be used

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Dirty seal on refrigerator door

Defective
chiller floor

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Dirty equipment

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Dirty equipment

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Temporary repairs

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 7…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 7

Cleaning & disinfection

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CQ What is cleaning?

‘Cleaning is the systematic


CLEAR-AND-
application of energy to a surface or
CLEAN-AS
-YOU-GO substance with the intention of
removing dirt’.

CQ What are the hazards from cleaning?

● Cross-contamination
● Chemical contamination
● Physical contamination
● Allergenic contamination
● Failure to remove/destroy
micro-organisms.
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Poor storage of cleaning cloths

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8
GE What are the definitions of…?

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GE What are the benefits of cleaning?

● REDUCES THE RISK OF FOOD POISONING


● Removal of the bacteria’s food supply
● Allows disinfecting
● Removes material which encourages pests
● Removes ‘physical’ contamination
● Removes dirt and grease
● Promotes a favourable image
● Complies with the law
● Will reduce customer complaints
● Provides safe and pleasant
environment for staff.

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Poor cleaning

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Poor cleaning

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Energies in cleaning

Kinetic
● Physical – scrubbing/brushing
● Mechanical – machines
● Turbulence – running water
Thermal
● Hot water
Chemical
● Detergents
● Remove grease and other soiling
Available as:
● Powders
● Liquids
● Gels
● Foams.

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Disinfection

The reduction of micro-organisms to a safe level


…can be achieved by using
● Hot water
● 82°C for 30 seconds
● Steam
● Dishwasher
● Cloths can be laundered at 65°C
for 30 minutes
● Chemicals
● Bleach (hypochlorite)
● Quaternary Ammonium
Compounds (QACs)
● Alcohols
● Sterilisation is not necessary
or achievable in a food business.
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CQ What requires cleaning and disinfection?

● HAND-contact surfaces
● FOOD-contact surfaces
● Cleaning materials and equipment

What prevents effective


CQ disinfection?

● Presence of food scraps,


soil and detergent
● Inadequate contact time
● Wrong concentration/dilution

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CE What to clean and disinfect
Hold up or X
ITEM C&D ITEM C&D

Shelves used for packaged dry


Knives and forks  goods 
Inside an oven  Shelves of display chillers 
Can opener  Juice extractor 
Kitchen or store floors  Mixer 
Chopping board  Sweeping brush 
Ceiling tiles  Cleaning cloths 
Wash-hand basin  Brushes used for wet cleaning 
Drawer handle  Buckets used for cleaning floors 
Fridge door handle  Protective clothing 
Pans for use in cooking  Windows 
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Foodpoint Cleaning Programs

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How can you tell if a surface has been
CQ effectively disinfected?

● Effectiveness of disinfection determined by bacteriological


monitoring (swabbing) and ATP, not by visual inspection

Why should food-contact surfaces be cleaned and


CQ disinfected as soon as possible after use?

● To prevent a build-up of
difficult-to-remove food
debris and prevent a
multiplication of bacteria.

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Six-stage cleaning

1 = PRE-CLEAN

2 = MAIN CLEAN

3 = RINSE.

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Six-stage cleaning

4 = DISINFECTION

5 = FINAL RINSE

6 = AIR DRY

and storing to prevent contamination.

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Dishwashers - 6 stage cleaning

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Three/four-stage sanitising

1 = PRE-CLEAN

2 = SANITISE.

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Three/four-stage sanitising

3 = RINSE(optional)

4 = AIR DRY

and storing to prevent contamination.


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Cleaning schedule

● Essential to ensure effective cleaning and disinfection

Surface
● What
● How
● When
● Time allowed

● Cleaning schedules
must be clearly written
and verified by the PIC.

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Cleaning schedule

Person
● Who
● Protective clothing
● Safety procedures
● Check/record.

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Cleaning schedule

Chemical
● Type
● Dilution
● Contact time
● Storage
● Only chemicals approved
by DM can be used

What equipment should be used?

Wet cleaning equipment/cloths should be


CHECK cleaned, disinfected and dried after use.

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What is the role of a PIC in monitoring satisfactory
GE cleaning?

● How can a PIC ensure cleaning procedures are


satisfactory?
● Providing clear instruction, suitable training,
provide/check cleaning schedule, suitable materials,
equipment and time, motivate, then observing and
monitoring staff undertaking the cleaning activities
● How can a PIC monitor standards of cleanliness?
● Daily visual checks/white
paper tissue
● How can a PIC verify effective
disinfection (safe cleaning)?
● Microbiological swabbing.

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 8…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 8

Pest management

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CQ What is a food pest?

● ‘An animal, insect or bird which lives in or on our food. It


contaminates food and is noxious, destructive or
troublesome’

CQ How do pests contaminate food?

● Breeding in decaying matter


● Feeding (vomit back
previous meal)
● Faeces
● Walking on it/
work surfaces
● Laying eggs on
uncovered food
● Dead bodies.

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Food pests

● Rodents
● Rats
● Mice
● Insects
● Flies
● Wasps
● Cockroaches
● Stored product
insects
● Birds
● Dogs
● Cats.

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Life cycle of flying insects, eg flies, wasps

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Life cycle of cockroaches

EGG CASE

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Food pests - mouse and mouse nest

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Food pests - fly maggots and fly eggs

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GE What are the signs of rodent infestation?

● Bodies Rat smears


● Droppings
● Smears
● Footprints/tail marks
● Runs
● Holes
● Chewed packaging
● Chewed food/paper
● Gnawing damage
● Nests (paper, wool, wood)
● Bait takes
● Noise
● Hair/fur.

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Pest damage

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Mouse damage to packaging

Mouse droppings and urine


stains in box

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GE What are signs of insect infestation?

● Bodies/nymphs
● Larvae/pupae
● Eggs
● Egg cases
● Smell
● Dust piles
● Webbing
● Noise
● Holes in food e.g.
biscuits.

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GE What are the reasons for pest control?

To prevent:
● Bacterial and physical
contamination
● Disease incl. food
poisoning
● Wastage
● Damage
● Lost custom
● Complaints
● Staff losses

Rat damage
To comply with the law.

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CQ How can you avoid attracting pests?

● Premises clean and tidy (especially refuse areas)


● Remove unwanted items (harbourage)
● Remove spillages immediately
● Store food in pest proof
containers
● No food left outside.

These are all part of good


housekeeping.

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Environmental control to prevent infestation

Good housekeeping
● Protection of food
● Cleanliness
● Remove spillages
● Remove harbourage
● Manage waste
● Staff training
Prevent access (entry)
● Proofing – openable windows
– cleansable screens
● Maintenance of drains/buildings
● Keep doors closed (A & I)
● Keep windows closed (I)
● Air curtains (I)
● No gaps under external doors (A & I) A – Animals, I – Insects.
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Eradication

(When good housekeeping and proofing fail)

PHYSICAL CONTROL
U/V fly killers – best method
(electric or sticky)
(Siting critical)
Cockroach monitoring traps
Rodent traps (live or dead)
Hormone traps
Sticky flypapers

Preferred to chemical control as


PEST CAUGHT DEAD or ALIVE.

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Eradication

CHEMICAL CONTROL
● Rodenticides – solid blocks, paste, bait and powders
● Insecticides (acute or chronic) – knockdown and
residual, dusts, baits, gels and sprays
● Fumigation
● Narcotising

RISK OF CONTAMINATION
● Dead pests
(inaccessible places)
● Pesticides

Use reputable contractor.

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GE What is the role of the PIC in pest management?

● Proactive pest management


● Inspect vulnerable areas
● Signs (advise and instruct staff)
● Ensure deliveries checked
● Notify contractor if evidence of infestation
● Ensure contractor does not contaminate food
● Ensure necessary cleaning undertaken following
contractor’s visit
● Ensure necessary cleaning undertaken following pest
activity.

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GE What is the role of the PIC in pest management?

● Only use a DM approved contractor


● Report defects
● Accompany contractor
● Maintain high standards of hygiene
● Deal with bait/dead pests
● Implement contractor’s recommendations
● Record bait box positions
● Check bait boxes regularly
● Ensure contractor’s visiting records are maintained
● Follow up complaints - Instructing staff on pest
problems and there action
● Managing pest Service Report.

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CQ How can you evaluate the effectiveness of pest control?

● Absence of pests/signs of
pests - pest service report
(use traps to monitor)
● EFK tray empty
● Evidence of
proofing/maintenance
● Good housekeeping
● Visual check – food storage
● No complaints – staff/public.

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What should the PIC do if they find evidence of mice in a food
GE room?

● Stop any food being produced


and isolate any contaminated
food so there is no risk to
other food (may need to
immediately dispose of food,
although evidence may be
required for contractor)
● Call contractor
● Ensure area is thoroughly
cleaned and disinfected
● Act on recommendations of
contractor, especially
regarding proofing.

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10
IE Pest control quiz

1. Common food pests are:


wasps, bees, ants, rats, mice, flies, red squirrels,
cockroaches

2. Signs of rodent infestations are:


smears, eggs, dead/live bodies, larvae, droppings,
feathers, webbing, damage to packaging

3. Which of the following are examples of physical


methods for eradicating pests?
Insecticides, rodenticides, rodent traps,
U/V fly killers, sticky flypapers, fumigation.

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10
IE Pest control quiz

4. Why are physical control methods preferred to


chemical methods?
a) There is no risk of chemical contamination
b) The dead pest may end up in an inaccessible place
c) There is less damage to property
d) The pest is caught dead or alive

5. Which of the following are most effective at preventing


rodent infestations?
Kick plates, lids on internal waste bins, filling up holes,
disinfecting drains, good housekeeping,
inspecting deliveries.

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 9…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 9

HACCP and food safety


management systems
(Developed to ensure safe food produced)

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CQ What are HACCP & food safety management systems?

HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical
Control Point
A food safety management
system which identifies and
controls hazards which are
significant for food safety

Food safety
management system
The policies, practices and
documentation that ensure
the food sold is safe to eat.

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11
GE What are the definitions of…?

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11
GE What are the definitions of…?

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CQ What are prerequisite programmes?

Prerequisite programmes
Are the good hygiene practices a
business must have in place before
implementing HACCP

Prerequisite programmes
ensure the HACCP plan
concentrates on the most
significant hazards.

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CQ What are the prerequisites for HACCP?

Management commitment/adequate resources

Prerequisite programmes
● Approved suppliers
● Good design
● Equipment calibration
● Preventive maintenance
● Personal hygiene/competency
● Stock rotation
● Cleaning and disinfection
● Pest management
● Good housekeeping
● Waste management
● Labelling and traceability
● Contingency plans.

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7 Principles of HACCP

a) Conduct a hazard analysis (includes controls)


b) Determine critical control points (CCPs)
c) Establish critical limits
d) Establish monitoring system at CCPs
e) Establish corrective actions
f) Establish verification procedures
g) Establish documentation

Review annually, if there are changes,


e.g. to menu or justified complaint of hazard
such as food poisoning.

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CQ What are the benefits of HACCP?

● Reduces the risk of food poisoning and food


complaints
● Compliance with the law (due-diligence defence)
● Resources concentrated at critical points
● Reduced costs, e.g. waste/recall
● Generates a food safety culture/all staff involved
● Proactive not reactive
● Safety introduced in product development
● Demonstrates management commitment
● More effective than end-product testing
(rarely used in catering but is used in Foodpoint).

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CQ What is a flow diagram and hazard analysis?

A flow diagram
Is a pictorial representation of the steps involved in a
particular process

Hazard analysis
Collecting information on hazards to determine which are
significant for food safety.

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12
GE Organise the boxes to create a linear workflow

EKFC Linear Delivery & unload


Flow

Refrigerate

Preparation (raw)

Cook

Preparation (high risk)

Hot Hold

Serve.
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Hazard analysis (Principle 1)

● A hazard is anything with the potential to cause harm


● Risk is the likelihood of the hazard occurring

(Micro) biological (C M S ) Physical (C)


Cuts to mouth, choking,
Foodborne illness broken teeth, internal injury, burning

e.g. Salmonella e.g. Glass, nails/bolts, string, jewellery

Chemical (C) Allergenic (C)

Food poisoning, chronic illness Immune reaction, anaphylactic shock

e.g. Cleaning chemicals, pesticides e.g. Peanuts, milk, eggs, shellfish,


weedkillers, additives, poisonous foods gluten, soy, sesame seeds.
Key: C = Contamination M = Multiplication S = Survival
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CQ What are control measures (principle 1)?

‘Actions required to
prevent or eliminate a
food safety hazard or
reduce it to an
acceptable level’

Controls can be applied to:


Temperature Time

pH aw

Size/shape/weight Additives
Appearance/
texture/colour.
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What are the hazards being controlled by these generic
CE controls?

Contamination A Multiplication B Survival C

Approved suppliers
A
(prerequisite)

Staff vigilance and training


A B C
(prerequisite)

Cleaning and disinfection


A C
(prerequisite)

Stock rotation B
(prerequisite)

Colour coding
A
(prerequisite)

Effective maintenance
(prerequisite) A B C

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What are the hazards being controlled by these generic
CE controls?

Contamination A Multiplication B Survival C

Segregation of raw and ready-


A
to-eat foods (Prerequisite)

Salt/sugar/acid/adjust pH/
B
keep dry

Size, weight and shape of joint/ B


time management/storage
temperature C

Cooking/processing C

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CQ What is a critical control point (principle 2)?

Critical control point


‘A step in a process where
control is essential to prevent
or eliminate a food safety
hazard, or reduce it to an
acceptable level’.

Effective control
procedures must be
provided at all CCPs

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CQ What are critical limits?

Critical limits
“values of monitored
actions which separate
the acceptable from the
unacceptable”.

Critical limit
Critical limits
Chiller 5°c must be unambiguous
and measurable
Cooking temperature 75°c

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CQ What is the monitoring of controls (principle 4)?

Monitoring
“The planned observations
and measurements of control
parameters to confirm the
process is under control and
critical limits are not
exceeded”.

Rapid detection and correction


Automatic or manual.

62oC

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Types of monitoring

Measuring Observation/ Visual inspections


(temp/weight/volume) (of premises,
e.g. refrigerator supervision vehicles or practices)

Competency Organoleptic
Testing (senses)

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Checking and recording temperatures

● Use a clean, disinfected, calibrated tip-sensitive


thermometer or infrared (not for core temps.)
● Take the core temperature
● Allow minimum of 30 seconds contact time
(ensure dial temperature has stabilised)
● Avoid fat, bone or gristle or container sides
● Use food substitute in fridges
● Record the temperature in accordance with HACCP plan

Bimetallic coil thermometers


should not be used as they
are not tip sensitive.

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Validation/calibration of thermometers

Thermocouple thermometers

Melting ice Boiling water


-1°C to 1°C 99°C to 101°C
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Validating a thermometer with a test cap

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CQ What mistakes can be made using a probe thermometer?

● Not
validated/calibrated
● Not in centre
(warmest/coolest
point)
● Not cleaned and
disinfected
● Not allowing
sufficient time
(not stabilised)
● Touching bone/
container.

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Using thermometers

62.2oC 32.5oC

67.6oC 26.1oC

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What would be included in PIC’s opening and closing
CQ checks?

Opening checks
● Condition and temps of fridges
and equipment
● Staff fitness/clothing
● Cleanliness/condition of surfaces
● Adequate cleaning materials
● Absence of pests/hazards
Closing checks
● No food left out
● Condition/shelf life of food
● Dirty cloths replaced
● All waste removed
Demonstrates commitment
● Windows closed
to food safety
● Records completed.
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CQ What is corrective action (principle 5)?

Corrective action
The action to be taken when
a critical limit is breached
Remedial action should be
taken before a critical limit
is breached

Corrective action should


bring the CCP under control
and deal with any affected
product.

42.9oC

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Product outside critical limit

Corrective action should specify the treatment of affected product


(quarantine, testing, reprocessing, disposal and recall)

Continue process, e.g. extend cooking time

Change shelf life, e.g. use immediately

Release after examination/


sampling/testing
Use for different purpose

Release

Destroy.

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CQ What is verification?

Verification
The methods, procedures,
tests, and other evaluations, in
addition to monitoring, to
establish if the HACCP system
is functioning as planned

Audits
Analysis of complaints
Microbiological/chemical tests.

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CQ What is review?

A reassessment of the HACCP system to


ensure its continued validity.

The HACCP system should


be reviewed:

● If things go wrong,
e.g. food poisoning
● If there are significant
changes, e.g. new ingredients,
law, process or product.

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Documentation

● Essential to the application of the HACCP system


● Appropriate to the size and nature of the business
● Demonstrates importance of CCP monitoring to staff

CQ Why is it required?

● Company policy
● Verification/internal audits
● Complaint/illness investigation
● Due-diligence
● Legal compliance
● External auditors/Food Inspector
● Prove business is well managed.
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HACCP records

Records include:
● CCP monitoring activities
(only CCPs to minimise
excessive paperwork)
● Corrective actions and
recalls
● Modifications to
the HACCP system
● Audit reports
● Customer complaints/
investigation results
● Calibration of instruments
● Prerequisite programme
● records
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CQ What are the control measures for delivery and unloading?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

CONTROL MEASURES
Approved supplier
Protect/cover food,
Chilled <5°C, frozen – 18ºC
De-boxing area
Transfer 15 minutes

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In between the pack checking of deliveries

4.8oC

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CE Accept or reject?
Hold up or X
1. Delivery of cracked eggs 
2. Frozen poultry at -17°C 
3. Rusty cans in the dry store 
4. Torn outer packaging on sandwiches 
5. Food on display after expiry date 
6. Blown pack of bacon 
7. Biscuits with insects 
8. Raw beef delivered with raw poultry 
9. Unlabelled cans in store 
10. Cheese delivered with bleach 
11. Unwashed fruit 
12. Delivery of crisps, mouse seen in vehicle 
13. Unwrapped cream cakes delivered 
14. Fish delivered on ice 

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CE Accept or reject?
Hold up or X
15. Shellfish delivered from unknown source 
16. Lettuce delivered at 8°C 
17. Cooked meat delivered with raw meat 
18. Cooked meat delivered at 9°C 
19. Potatoes in store sprouting 
20. Frozen ice cream delivered frozen solid 
21. Oysters from an unapproved supplier 
22. Unrefrigerated sterilised milk 
23. Delivery of dirty eggs 
24. Hot food stored above 60°C 
25. Unrefrigerated deliveries of vacuum-packed meat 
26. Delivery of covered cooked meat, an insect flying 
about in back of delivery vehicle

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CQ What are the control measures for dry food storage?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication
(Mould, spoilage and pests)

CONTROL MEASURES
Keep dry, cool, well ventilated
and clean. Off floor/away from
walls. Area for returns/de-boxing.
Protect & stock rotation.

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Small and large dry stores

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CQ Why is stock rotation important?

● Ensures older stock is used first


● Avoids spoilage, mould,
slime & unfit food
● Avoids wastage (loss of
stock/infestations)
● Guarantees a consistent quality
(customer satisfaction)
● Maintains correct stock levels
● Reduces risk of pest infestation

Effective storage slows down decomposition.

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Stock rotation – date coding

Expiry date

● Internal date coding


● 3 day shelf life if
satisfactory cooking
and cooling
● Shelf life depends
on satisfactory
● storage conditions.

● FIFO – First in First out.


● FEFO – First expiry date first out.

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CQ What are the control measures for chilled food storage?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

CONTROL MEASURES
Temp <5°C/maintenance
Separate raw and ready-to-eat
Cover/label
Stock rotation (new stock at
back)/keep clean
Don’t overload/keep tidy
Door closed
No hot food/no open cans.

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GE What are the refrigerator control measures?

Prevent multiplication Prevent contamination


● Temperature 1 to 4°C ● Cover food
(legal <5°C) ● Separate raw/ready-to-eat
● Don’t overload ● Store ready-to-eat above raw
● Don’t completely fill shelf ● Clean & disinfect
● Avoid high humidity ● Well constructed
● No hot food ● Staff training/supervision.
● Don’t leave door open
● Effective maintenance
● Seals in good condition
● Automatic defrosting
● Fridge sited away from oven
● Stock rotation
(food date coded)
● Staff training/supervision
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CQ What are the control measures for frozen food storage?

Correct freezing HAZARDS


temperatures stop the
multiplication of ALL Contamination &
micro-organisms multiplication (If it thaws)

CONTROL MEASURES
Store -18°C, load line,
Air circulation, no hot food
Packaging (freezer burn)
Segregation, stock rotation
Keep clean and tidy.

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Unsuitable domestic freezer

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CQ What would you do if chicken in the freezer was at -1°C?

Corrective action

● Continue controlled
thawing, cook and
treat as fresh
(if food had already
thawed, it should be
discarded and
maintenance called).

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Design a set of rules for the safe thawing and cooking of a 2kg
GE frozen chicken having regard to the main hazards

Main hazards: Cross-contamination of other foods


Survival as a result of undercooking or
inadequate thawing
Multiplication after cooking

Thaw completely, separate from


ready-to-eat food, in a cool room
or in the bottom of a refrigerator
(allow adequate time)

The bird is thawed when the legs


are pliable and there are no
ice crystals.

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GE Rules for the safe thawing and cooking of a 2kg frozen chicken

● Use fresh or portions


● Separate from high-risk foods
● Thaw completely at the
bottom of the refrigerator
separated from other
foods
● Remove giblets
● Cook thoroughly
(within 24hrs)
● Clean/disinfect area
● Eat immediately or cool rapidly
● Minimise handling of cooked bird.

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CQ What are the control measures for food preparation?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

CONTROL MEASURES
Minimise handling, good
hygiene practices, separate raw
& high-risk food, minimise time
in ‘Danger Zone’, colour coding
‘Clear-and-clean-as-you-go’
Use paper towels instead of cloth.

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Food contaminated & at ambient

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CQ What are the control measures for cooking/reheating?

HAZARDS
Survival and contamination

CONTROL MEASURES
Cook/reheat thoroughly > 75°C
Protect from contamination
Only reheat once.

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Ensure safe cooking

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CQ What are the control measures for hot holding?

35.5oC

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

CONTROL MEASURES
60°C (legal requirement)
Stir curries/sauces/soup
Protect/cover, minimum quantities
Preheat hot cupboards, etc.

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Hot holding

68oC

56oC

63.2oC

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Hot holding

52.5oC

65oC

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CQ What are the control measures for cooling of food?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

CONTROL MEASURES
Rapid cooling – blast chiller,
ice water, ice paddle, electric fan,
reduce bulk (<2.25kg), then refrigerate
Protect/cover/segregate

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Good cooling

7oC

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CQ What are the control measures for serving food?

HAZARDS
Contamination & multiplication

10.8oC
CONTROL MEASURES
Minimise time at ambient
temperature. No topping up,
serve quickly, protect/cover.
Minimise handling
Good hygiene practices.

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Good and bad display

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What now?

Assessment Q&A

Or continue to Module 10…

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 10

Dubai Regulations

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Regulatory Structure – FCD

Dubai Municipality

Health Safety and Environment Control Sector

Food Control Department

Food Studies & Animal Products Food Trade Food Inspection


Planning Section Control Section Control Section Section

Research and Analysis Departmental stores Food imports and Hotels


Layout approval Supermarkets exports Restaurants
Training programs Manufacturers Cafeterias
Consultancy work Groceries
Special permissions Cafes
Shelf life approval

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UAE Regulations

● Most food regulations are based on GCC standards


● Current regulations for import and export are based on GSO
standards issued in 2007
● In the absence of GCC standards, Regulations are set by
ESMA ( Emirates Standardization and Metrological Authority)
● Consistent with Codex standards
● Each Emirate has a separate enforcement body, e.g:
- Dubai Municipality in Dubai
- ADFCA in Abu Dhabi

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UAE Regulations

Federal Law:

Made by the ministries and applicable to all Emirates

Directives (Local Orders):

Issued either by ministries or by the council of directors

Administrative Orders, Codes of Practices, Guidelines:

Issued by each Emirate and approved by the Director General of


the respective Municipalities.

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Dubai food legislation

● Local order No.23/1983 on Food Item Labels


● Federal law No.4/1989 on Curbing Fraud and Deception
● Local order No. 51/1990 on Food Control and
Regulation Dealing in Food Items
● Administrative Order No. 20. 2007on Requirements for
Sale of Food in Dubai
● Local order No. 11/2003 Concerning Public Health and
Community Safety in Dubai.

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Legislative overview - Local order No. 11/2003

Article 5 The licensing of food establishments

Article 6 Imported and exported foodstuff

Article 7 Fraudulent food stuff may not be dealt with in the


Emirate

Article 8 Spoiled or damaged or harmful food stuff

Article 9 Permissions relating to manufactured food stuff


and additives, including import and export

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Legislative overview - Local order No. 11/2003

Article 10 Packed or bottled food stuff and labelling

Article 11 Imported food stuff to have health certificates


approved by the country of origin, and slaughter
certificates in accordance with the Islamic Sharia.

Article 12
Prohibitions relating to food stuff in violation of
the Standard Specifications of Health (unfit) or
sharia conditions.
The Department may take samples of any food
stuff for laboratory testing to ensure fitness and
conformity with the conditions and standards.

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Legislative overview - Local order No. 11/2003

Article 17 Temporary permission for Food establishments to


imported into the Emirate pending laboratory
testing.

Article 19
• Food stuff safety and fitness for human
consumption
• Specification and storage
• Labels
• Permitted and restricted food additives
• Temporary entry of food stuff not confirming
with health conditions

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Food Inspection Scoring

● Food Inspectors conduct unannounced inspections of food


premises
● For each violation, the establishment loses points related to
risk)
● The maximum score is 100 points

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Grading

A
100 - 90%
B
89 - 75%
C
74 - 60%
D
59 - 45%
E
44 - 30%
Closure

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Grading of food premises

 According to the assessment, the inspection frequency


is determined as follows:

GRADE HIGH MEDIUM LOW


RISK RISK RISK
E 2 Weeks 3 Weeks 4 Weeks
D 4 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks
C 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 10 Weeks
B 12 Weeks 16 Weeks 18 Weeks
A 16 Weeks 20 Weeks 26 Weeks

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Inspection results

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Inspection Summary and Corrective Action

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Outcomes of Inspection

Corrective action:
● Critical violations must be addressed immediately
● Non-critical violations must be rectified before the next
inspection
● Repeated violations will result in penalties

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Non-Halal Foods

Special permission from FCD


is required to handle non-halal foods.

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Complaint reporting

● All complaints must be recorded in the format required


by the FCD
● Complaints from customers requiring immediate
reporting:
● Sale of out of date foods
● Complaints related to suspected food poisoning

● Other complaints may be notified to the FCD via e-mail.

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Illness Reporting

● The FCD requires sick


employees to report to
the PIC immediately
● Sick employees must be
excluded from direct
handling of food.

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Special permissions

Special permissions are required for


● Outdoor events
● Outdoor vending/cooking
● Mass catering (more than 500)
● Sale of food to schools
● Shelf life approvals for high-risk foods

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Food hygiene regulations used by the


Dubai Municipality Food Control Department

Article 2 Food inspectors empowered to enter food


premises at any time, conduct inspections and
take samples

Article 4 The traceability of food and ingredients

Chapter 1 General provisions

Article 6 Primary responsibility for food safety is with the


food business operator.
The cold chain must be maintained

Article 8 Glossary of terms.


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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 2 Food business operator’s (FBO’s) responsibilities

Article 12 FBO must implement HACCP based on Codex


Principles

Article 17 All business must have a valid trade licence

Article 18-20 Changes to establishments must be notified to


the Food Control Department. Premises must be
inspected before production starts

Article 23 Food handlers to be instructed


and formally trained in food
hygiene commensurate with
their work activity.

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Article 25 FEs must employ at least one full time, on site


Person In Charge (PIC) certified in Food Safety
and responsible for all operations that have an
impact on food safety

Chapter 3 Construction and design of facilities of buildings

Article 27 Food premises to be kept clean and in good


condition
Article 30 At least one hand wash station to be provided in
each food preparation area

Chapter 4 Food containers and equipment.

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 5 Food handling areas

Relates to walls, floors, ceilings, work


surfaces, equipment and pest control

Chapter 6 Disease control and personal


hygiene

Relates to fitness and exclusion.

Food handlers with diarrhoea/vomiting or infected


skin lesions must report to management and are
not allowed to enter food handling areas without
medical clearance.
They must not handle ready-to-eat food.

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 7 Temperature control

Relates to temperatures to be maintained and verified


to ensure that food is maintained at the correct
temperature.
Food to be kept below 5ºC or above 60ºC if necessary
to control growth of pathogens or formation of toxins.
Frozen food to be kept at or below -18ºC.
Minimum cooking and reheating
temperature 75ºC or its equivalent.
Cooling and thawing to be carried out
safely. Food to be cooled from 60ºC
to 20ºC in 2 hours and 20ºC to 5ºC
within a further 4 hours.

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 8 Food on display

Relates to protecting food from contamination


and removing date expired food.
Temperature less than 5ºC or above 60ºC.
Temperatures to be maintained and record maintained

Chapter 9 Food reception and storage

Raw materials to be unpacked, washed


or cleaned to remove soil/contamination

Chapter 10 Food packaging

Must not be hazardous or a source of contamination.


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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 11 Heat treatment of foods

Must conform to internationally recognised standards

Chapter 12 Transportation of foods

Relates to deadlines, repair and temperature control

Chapter 13 Supply of water

Includes ice & steam in direct contact with food

Chapter 14 Food Safety Management Systems

Includes length of time for which records must be


maintained.

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Administrative order relating to the preparation
and sale of food in Dubai

Chapter 15 Food waste control

Must conform to internationally recognised standards

Chapter 16 Temporary food premises

Must have a permit

Chapter 17 Food imports & exports.

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 11

Desk top inspection

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Cross-contamination

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Cross-contamination

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Cross-contamination

3 Sushi preparation

Frozen
chicken wings

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Cross-contamination

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Cross-contamination

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Active managerial control

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Active managerial control

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Active managerial control

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Active managerial control

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Active managerial control

10

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Temperature/time abuse

11

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Temperature/time abuse

12

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Temperature/time abuse

13

Cooked
rice

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Temperature/time abuse

14

21.2oC

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Temperature/time abuse

15

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Cleaning

16

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Cleaning

17

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Cleaning

18

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Cleaning

19

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Cleaning

20

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Hygiene of personnel

21

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Hygiene of personnel

22

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Hygiene of personnel

23

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Hygiene of personnel

24

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Hygiene of personnel

25

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Emergency complaints/power failure

26

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Emergency complaints/power failure

27

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Emergency complaints/power failure

28

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Emergency complaints/power failure

29

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Emergency complaints/power failure

30

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Approved source

31

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Approved source

32

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Approved source

33

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Approved source

34

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Approved source

35

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Assessment
Q&As
Module 12

Revision/exam technique

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Examination technique

Keep an eye
on the time!

Be prepared
(stationery & pens)

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
You always have a 25% chance of getting it right,
eliminate the ridiculous answer & this goes up to 33.3%.
So, if you don’t know, have a guess!

● Don’t speak to anyone once the paper is given out


● Try to allow some time at the end to check your answers.

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16
IE Examination answers

1. High-risk foods are foods that:


A. are ready-to-eat
B. are stored at room temperature

A
C. are contaminated
D. are usually raw

2. Which of the following statements is false?


A. Food poisoning bacteria are a greater risk than spoilage
bacteria
B. Spoilt food may be detected when eaten
C. Spoilage is mainly caused by mould, enzymes
and bacteria

D
D. The quickest method of detecting spoilage
organisms is by microbiological sampling

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16
IE Examination answers

3. Which one of the following statements is true?


A. Carriers are people who have recovered from illness and do
not excrete pathogens
B. Carriers often exhibit symptoms of illness
C. Carriers show no symptoms of illness
but excrete organisms
D. Carriers are never likely to cause food poisoning
C
4. Which of the following is a benefit of good hygiene standards?
A. Reduced costs of maintenance

C
B. Reduced costs of training
C. Increased profitability
D. Increased number of food complaints

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16
IE Examination answers

5. Which of the following range of temperatures will allow the most


rapid growth of food poisoning bacteria?
A. 60ºC – 80ºC

B
B. 20ºC – 50ºC
C. 50ºC – 60ºC
D. 0ºC – 20ºC

6. Contamination is best described as the:


A. multiplication of bacteria in food
B. presence of harmful or objectionable matter

B
C. presence of toxins during cooling
D. spoilage of out-of-date food

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16
IE Examination answers

7. Which of the following are all common symptoms of food


poisoning?
A. Vomiting, diarrhoea and large bruises
B. Stomach ache, vomiting and swollen ankles

C
C. Diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal pain
D. Fever, shortness of breath and stomach ache

8. It is critical to wash your hands:


A. after cleaning a chopping board used for cooked meat
B. after going to the toilet

B
C. after eating food
D. before handling raw vegetables

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16
IE Examination answers

9. You have been instructed to clean work surfaces in the following


work areas using the same cleaning equipment. Where should
you start?
A. High-risk

A
B. Vegetable preparation
C. Raw meat
D. Raw fish

10. During normal cooking spores of bacteria:


A. multiply
B. produce toxin

D
C. expand
D. survive

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16
IE Examination answers

11. Food hazards are usually categorised into the following:


A. physical, chemical, allergenic and large

B
B. chemical, physical, microbiological, allergenic
C. small, microbiological, physical, chemical
D. allergenic, chemical, microbiological, removable

12. Which of the following are all factors which affect bacterial
multiplication?
A. Food, pH, warmth and dirt
B. Food, pH, light and warmth

C
C. Nutrients, pH, available moisture and temperature
D. Warmth, available moisture, light and pH

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16
IE Examination answers

13.Which of the following is a control measure used to prevent the


contamination of high-risk food with pathogens?
A. Cooking food to 75°C

C
B. Minimising the time of food preparation
at room temperature
C. Effective cleaning and disinfection
D. Adding sugar to food during production

14.Which of the following are most likely to cause food poisoning?


A. Toxins, moulds and allergens
B. Poisonous chemicals, mosquitoes and spores

D
C. Toxins, poisonous plants and worms
D. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and
poisonous chemicals

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16
IE Examination answers

15. How can a PIC monitor handwashing?


A. Check that all washbasins are clean and easy to use
B. Train the staff when to wash their hands
C. Observe staff washing their hands

C
D. Lead by example and wash hands properly

16. What is HACCP?


A. A system used to control pests
B. A food safety management system
C. A type of cleaning schedule
D. A microbiological testing system

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16
IE Examination answers

17. How long does food poisoning usually last?


A. 1 to 7 days
B. 10 to 70 minutes
C. 1 to 7 hours A
D. At least a month

18. Which types of food are most often implicated with food
poisoning?
A. High-sugar, protein-based and spoilt

C
B. Acid, protein-based and low moisture
C. Low acid, protein-based and moist
D. High-sugar, low-acid and moist

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16
IE Examination answers

19. Which of the following is true regarding low-risk foods?

A
A. They should be protected from damp
B. They must be stored in a refrigerator
C. They never cause food poisoning
D. They support the multiplication of food poisoning bacteria

20. Which of the following are all signs of a mouse infestation?


A. Droppings, dead bodies, gnawed pipes and holes in stainless
steel tables
B. Feathers, unusual smells, dead bodies and gnawed pipes
C. Droppings, dead bodies, gnawed pipes and damaged cans
D. Droppings, dead bodies, gnawed pipes

D
and empty bait boxes

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16
IE Examination answers

B
21. Which of the following are the best ways to stop rats getting
into a food premises?
A. Traps in the kitchen, proofing and maintenance of buildings
B. Proofing, maintenance of drains and maintenance of buildings
C. Checking deliveries, training staff to catch them and proofing
D. Proofing, clean equipment and training staff to report sightings

22. Which of the following statements is true?


A. Food handlers must wear protective clothing when leaving work
B. A supervisor can improve hygiene if they lead by example
C. Smoking by food handlers is banned to prevent chemical
contamination
D. Nail brushes should be used every time the hands are washed

B
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16
IE Examination answers

23. Which of the following all describe good practice


regarding the hands of food handlers?
A. Kept clean, long nails, no jewellery and wearing D
gloves
B. Kept clean, false nails, no jewellery and wearing gloves
C. Round nails, no rings, no nail varnish and kept wet
D. Short nails, kept clean, no false nails and no rings

24. Which of the following is most important to ensure effective


disinfection of a chopping board?
A. Removing food scraps and waste before disinfection
B. Mixing the detergent and disinfectant together
C. Microbiological testing of the surface

A
once a month
D. Rinsing off the disinfectant immediately

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16
IE Examination answers

25. Which of the following are all essential properties


for chopping boards?
A. Hard wearing, able to absorb liquids,
easy to clean and no joints C
B. Crevice free, waterproof, easy to clean
and open jointed
C. Hard wearing, waterproof, no joints and easy to clean
D. Smooth, durable, able to absorb liquids and easy to clean

26. Which of the following all cause spoilage?


A. Moulds, yeasts, enzymes and bacteria
B. Worms, viruses, enzymes and yeasts
C. Enzymes, bacteria, detergents and parasites A
D. Yeasts, moulds, pesticides and enzymes

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16
IE Examination answers

27. Which of the following describe the best conditions for a storage
area for sugar and dehydrated products?
A. Humid, cool, clean and rodent proof
B. Well ventilated, cool, clean and rodent proof
C. Dark, cool, clean and pest free

B
D. Dark, clean, warm and pest free

28. Why is salt used to preserve food?


A. It makes the food acidic
B. It destroys viruses and toxins
C. It reduces the water available to bacteria
D. It is non-toxic
C
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16
IE Examination answers

29. Which of the following are in the correct order?


A. Pre-clean, rinse, disinfect and dry

D
B. Main clean, pre-clean, disinfect and rinse
C. Main clean, rinse, pre-clean and disinfect
D. Pre-clean, main clean, rinse and disinfect

C
30. Which of the following statements is false?
A. Disinfectants need contact time to work
B. Effective hand cleanliness can reduce the risk of food
poisoning
C. Refrigeration may be used to destroy food poisoning bacteria
D. Good communication is an effective control measure for
allergens

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Thank you for attending this course

The important things to do now are……

1 To put into practice what you have learnt

2 To develop competency in your work


activities

3 To keep your knowledge up to date

4 To pass the examination.

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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Thank you for listening


Have a safe journey home!

quality, value, service & integrity


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The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Welcome to:

Level 3 Award in
Supervising Food
Safety (2 days)
Highfield House
Sidings Court, Lakeside
Doncaster
South Yorkshire, UK
DN4 5NU
Tel: 0845 2260350

© Highfield.co.uk limited 2009

Dubai version

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, added to, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without
prior written permission from Highfield.co.uk ltd. This publication is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by any way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-
sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the prior consent of highfield.co.uk ltd.
We, our employees nor our agents make any representation nor give any warranty, either express of implied as to the accuracy or fitness for any purpose of any
materials used in connection with this publication. Neither we nor our employees or agents shall have any liability whatsoever to either you or any third party for
any direct, indirect or consequential loss or damage, cost or expense, suffered or incurred, (whether arising in tort, contract or otherwise and whether arising
from the negligence of us, our employees or agents, arising out of the use or supply of the publication) and all warranties express or implied which are
inconsistent with this paragraph are hereby expressly excluded. 1/1/2011
302 Pause Menu Prev Next
The UK’s leading supplier of compliance training materials

Welcome to:

Level 3 Award in
Supervising Food
Safety (2 days)
Highfield House
Sidings Court, Lakeside
Doncaster
South Yorkshire, UK
DN4 5NU
Tel: 0845 2260350

© Highfield.co.uk limited 2009

Dubai version

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, added to, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without
prior written permission from Highfield.co.uk ltd. This publication is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by any way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-
sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the prior consent of highfield.co.uk ltd.
We, our employees nor our agents make any representation nor give any warranty, either express of implied as to the accuracy or fitness for any purpose of any
materials used in connection with this publication. Neither we nor our employees or agents shall have any liability whatsoever to either you or any third party for
any direct, indirect or consequential loss or damage, cost or expense, suffered or incurred, (whether arising in tort, contract or otherwise and whether arising
from the negligence of us, our employees or agents, arising out of the use or supply of the publication) and all warranties express or implied which are
inconsistent with this paragraph are hereby expressly excluded. 1/1/2011
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