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Current and Current density

 The current (in amperes) through a given area is the electric charge passing
through the area per unit time

 If current ΔI flows through a surface ΔS, the current density is

 The total current flowing through a surface S is

 Depending on how current is produced, there are different kinds of current


densities: convection current density, conduction current density and displacement
current density
EXAMPLE
CONVECTION CURRENT

 Convection current occurs when current flows through an insulating medium such
as liquid, rarefied gas, or a vacuum. Convection current does not involve conductors
and consequently does not satisfy Ohm's law.

 Convection current density

Where ρv is charge density and u is charge velocity

PROOF
Consider a filament with flow of charge, of density ρv , at velocity u, the convection
current through the filament is

convection current density J is given by


CONDUCTION CURRENT
 Conduction current requires a conductor. A conductor is characterized by a large
amount of free electrons that provide conduction current due an impressed electric
field.

 Conduction current density is

Where is the conductivity of the conductor, m is electron mass, τ is the


average time interval between electron’s collisions and n is number of electrons per
unit volume
PROOF
When an electric field E is applied, the force on an electron with charge -e is

F = -Ee

If the electron with mass m is moving in an electric field E with an average drift
velocity u, the average change in momentum of the free electron must match the
applied force. Thus,
or

where τ is the average time interval between electron’s collisions


If there are n electrons per unit volume, the electronic charge density is given by

conduction current density is

where is the conductivity of the conductor. This relationship is


known as the point form of Ohm's law.
ENERGY AND ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

 If there are n point charges, energy present in an assembly of charges,

 If, instead of point charges, the region has a continuous charge distribution,
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
If the field exists in a region consisting of two different media, the conditions that the
field must satisfy at the interface separating the media are called boundary conditions.

The boundary conditions will be dictated by types of material the media are made of.

1. The tangential components of E are the same on the two sides of the boundary. In
other words, E undergoes no change on the boundary and it is said to be
continuous across the boundary
E1t = E1t

PROOF
For closed path abcda

at boundary so above equation become


2. D1N - D2N = ρs

Where ps is the free charge density placed deliberately at the boundary.


It is based on the assumption that D is directed from region 2 to region 1 and this equation must be
applied accordingly.

If no free charges exist at the interface (Dielectric-Dielectric Interface), ρs = 0 and this equation
becomes

PROOF
By Gauss theorem

For the pillbox (Gaussian surface) of given fig at boundary

or

Where ρs is the free charge density


placed deliberately at the boundary.
The boundary conditions can be consider at an interface separating
• Dielectric (εr1) and Dielectric (εr2)
• Conductor and Dielectric
• Conductor and free space

A. Dielectric-Dielectric Boundary Conditions


(1)

(2) (ρs =0)


The tangential component of E and normal components of D are the same on the two sides of the
boundary.

B. Conductor-Dielectric Boundary Conditions

(1) E1t =E2t=0 (E2t, Tangential component of E in second medium (conductor) = 0)


(2) Din = ρs (D2n, Normal component of D in second medium (conductor) = 0)

C. Conductor-Free Space Boundary Conditions

(1) E1t =E2t=0 (E2t, Tangential component of E in second medium (conductor) = 0)


(2) Din = εo Ein =ρs (D2n, Normal component of D in second medium (conductor) = 0 and ε1=εo)
EXAMPLES OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
EXAMPLE-1
EXAMPLE-2
1

2
3. The Normal components of B are the same on the two sides of the
boundary i.e.
B1N = B2N
PROOF
Consider the boundary between two magnetic media 1 and 2, characterized by μ1
and μ2.

Applying Gauss's law for magnetic


fields to the pillbox (Gaussian surface)
and allowing Δh —> 0, we obtain
4. H1t – H2t = K

Where K is surface current on the boundary (In the plane of boundary and outward
to paper). If both medium are dielectric then K=0 and H1t = H2t

PROOF
By applying ampere circuit
Law for loop abcda
POISSON AND LAPLACE EQUATION

 Poisson equation

 For Cartesian coordinates

 For cylindrical coordinates

 For spherical coordinates

 For a charge-free region (Laplace Equation)


PROOF OF POISSON EQUATION

By Gauss's law

and

or
GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR SOLVING POISSON OR LAPLACE EQUATION

1. Solve Laplace (if ρv = 0) or Poisson (if ρv ≠0) equation using either


(a) direct integration when V is a function of one variable, or
(b) separation of variables if V is a function of more than one variable.

Solution at this point is not unique but expressed in terms of unknown integration
constants to be determined.

2. Apply the boundary conditions to determine a unique solution for V. Imposing


the given boundary conditions makes the solution unique.

3. Having obtained V, find E using E = - ▼V and D from D = ε E.


EXAMPLE-1
EXAMPLE-2
EXCERCISE
In general, when the method of images is used for a system consisting of a point charge
between two semi-infinite conducting planes inclined at an angle Ø (in degrees), the
number of images is given by

This charge and its images all


lie on a circle
EXAMPLE

1. A point charge Q is located at point (a, 0, b) between two semi-infinite


conducting planes intersecting at right angles as in Figure . Determine the potential
at point P(x, y, z) and the force on Q.

Solution:
The potential at point P(x, y, z) is superposition of
the potentials at P due to the four point charges;
that is,
EXCERCISE