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You are on page 1of 37

The current (in amperes) through a given area is the electric charge passing

through the area per unit time

densities: convection current density, conduction current density and displacement

current density

EXAMPLE

CONVECTION CURRENT

Convection current occurs when current flows through an insulating medium such

as liquid, rarefied gas, or a vacuum. Convection current does not involve conductors

and consequently does not satisfy Ohm's law.

PROOF

Consider a filament with flow of charge, of density ρv , at velocity u, the convection

current through the filament is

CONDUCTION CURRENT

Conduction current requires a conductor. A conductor is characterized by a large

amount of free electrons that provide conduction current due an impressed electric

field.

average time interval between electron’s collisions and n is number of electrons per

unit volume

PROOF

When an electric field E is applied, the force on an electron with charge -e is

F = -Ee

If the electron with mass m is moving in an electric field E with an average drift

velocity u, the average change in momentum of the free electron must match the

applied force. Thus,

or

If there are n electrons per unit volume, the electronic charge density is given by

known as the point form of Ohm's law.

ENERGY AND ENERGY DENSITY IN ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

If, instead of point charges, the region has a continuous charge distribution,

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

If the field exists in a region consisting of two different media, the conditions that the

field must satisfy at the interface separating the media are called boundary conditions.

The boundary conditions will be dictated by types of material the media are made of.

1. The tangential components of E are the same on the two sides of the boundary. In

other words, E undergoes no change on the boundary and it is said to be

continuous across the boundary

E1t = E1t

PROOF

For closed path abcda

2. D1N - D2N = ρs

It is based on the assumption that D is directed from region 2 to region 1 and this equation must be

applied accordingly.

If no free charges exist at the interface (Dielectric-Dielectric Interface), ρs = 0 and this equation

becomes

PROOF

By Gauss theorem

or

placed deliberately at the boundary.

The boundary conditions can be consider at an interface separating

• Dielectric (εr1) and Dielectric (εr2)

• Conductor and Dielectric

• Conductor and free space

(1)

The tangential component of E and normal components of D are the same on the two sides of the

boundary.

(2) Din = ρs (D2n, Normal component of D in second medium (conductor) = 0)

(2) Din = εo Ein =ρs (D2n, Normal component of D in second medium (conductor) = 0 and ε1=εo)

EXAMPLES OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

EXAMPLE-1

EXAMPLE-2

1

2

3. The Normal components of B are the same on the two sides of the

boundary i.e.

B1N = B2N

PROOF

Consider the boundary between two magnetic media 1 and 2, characterized by μ1

and μ2.

fields to the pillbox (Gaussian surface)

and allowing Δh —> 0, we obtain

4. H1t – H2t = K

Where K is surface current on the boundary (In the plane of boundary and outward

to paper). If both medium are dielectric then K=0 and H1t = H2t

PROOF

By applying ampere circuit

Law for loop abcda

POISSON AND LAPLACE EQUATION

Poisson equation

PROOF OF POISSON EQUATION

By Gauss's law

and

or

GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR SOLVING POISSON OR LAPLACE EQUATION

(a) direct integration when V is a function of one variable, or

(b) separation of variables if V is a function of more than one variable.

Solution at this point is not unique but expressed in terms of unknown integration

constants to be determined.

the given boundary conditions makes the solution unique.

EXAMPLE-1

EXAMPLE-2

EXCERCISE

In general, when the method of images is used for a system consisting of a point charge

between two semi-infinite conducting planes inclined at an angle Ø (in degrees), the

number of images is given by

lie on a circle

EXAMPLE

conducting planes intersecting at right angles as in Figure . Determine the potential

at point P(x, y, z) and the force on Q.

Solution:

The potential at point P(x, y, z) is superposition of

the potentials at P due to the four point charges;

that is,

EXCERCISE

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