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JAIN ARCHITECTURE

SAHIL ALI
II YEAR. III SEM.B.ARCH
INTRODUCTION

• JAIN ARCHITECTURE IS AN OFFSHOOT OF


HINDU AND BUDDHIST STYLES.
• IN THE INITIAL YEARS,MANY JAIN
TEMPLES WERE MADE ADJOINING THE
BUDDHIST TEMPLES FOLLOWING THE
BUDDHIST ROCK-CUT STYLE.
• INITIALLY THESE TEMPLES WERE MAINLY
CARVED OUT OF ROCK FACES AND THE
USE OF BRICKS WAS ALMOST
NEGLIGIBLE.
• IN LATER YEARS JAINS STARTED
BUILDING TEMPLES-CITIES ON HILLS
BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF ‘MOUNTAINS
OF IMMORTALITY.
ELEMENTS OF JAIN ARCHITECTURE

• JAIN TEMPLES HAVE NUMEROUS PILLERS HAVING A WELL DESIGNED


STRUCTURE, FORMING SQUARES.
•THE SQUARES THUS FORMED CREATE CHAMBERS, USED AS SMELL
CHAMPELS AND CONTAINS THE IMAGE OF A DEITY.
•FROM THESE PILLERS, THESE ARE RICHLY CARVED BRACKERS THAT
EMERGE AT ABOUT TWO THIRDS OF THEIR HEIGHT.
ELEMENTS OF JAIN TEMPLES
• THE ROOF OF THESE TEMPLES HAVE
POINTY DOMES AND WHEREVER
THERE IS A DOME, THE PILLERS ARE
OMITTED TO CREATE AN OCTAGONAL
SPACE WITHIN
• THE ONLY VARIATION IN
ARCHITECTURE SPECIFIC TO JAIN
TEMPLES IS THE FREQUENTLY SEEN
FOUR-FACED OR CHAUMUKH DESIGN.
• IN THESE FOUR FACED TEMPLES, THE
IMAGES OF A TIRTHANKAR FACES
BACK TO BACK TO FACE FOUR
CARDINAL DIRECTONS.
• ENTRY INTO THESE TEMPLES IS ALSO
FROM FOUR DOORS THAT FACE THE
CARDINAL DIRECTIONS
JAIN TEMPLES

INTRODUCTION
• THE FOUNDER OF JAINISM IS
VARDAMANA OR MAHAVIRA(GREAT
HERO) BUT IT IS SAID THAT HE IS
THE LAST TIRATHANKARA OR JINA
• (VICTOR) AND THE FIRST ONE TO
ADINATHA. ALL OF JAIN TEMPLES
ARE DEDICATED SO ONE OF THE 24
TIRATHANKARA.
• IN JAIN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE,
BRICKS WERE HARDLY USED, AND
THE SYSTEM OF CARVEING OUT OUT
TEMPLES FROM ROCK FACES WAS
ADOPTED
THE ADINATHA TEMPLE at RANAKPUR
• THIS MUST BE THE GREATEST WORK
OF INDIAN ARCHITECTURE.
• THIS TEMPLE, DEDICATED TO THE
FIRST TIRTHANKARA ADINATHA
• WHICH IS A PLACE LOCATED IN THE
DEPTHS OF THE MOUNTAINS, NEITHER
A CITY NOR A VILLAGE.
• IT STANDS ON A BASEMENT OF 60M X
62M (*1) , WHICH LOOKS LIKE A
STRONGHOLD.
• THERE IS A THREE-STORIED
"BALANAKA" (ENTRANCE HALL), WHICH
HAS A DOMED ROOF.
• A LARGE NUMBER OF COLUMNS ARE
CARVED ELABORATELY, AND IT IS SAID
THAT NO TWO PILLARS ARE ALIKE IN
DESIGN.
• LIGHT IS ABUNDANTLY COMING INSIDE
THROUGH GAPS BETWEEN CEILINGS AND
FROM COURTYARDS, HIGHLIGHTING THE
INTERTWINED SPACES AND FINE
CARVINGS ALL AROUND.
• THE SPLENDOR OF THE SPACE IS SO
PURE AS THE ENTIRE TEMPLE FROM THE
FLOORS TO THE CEILINGS IS MADE OF
WHITE MARBLE.
NEMINATH TEMPLE

• NEMINATH TEMPLE IS SITUATED ON MOUNT


GIRNAR (ALSO KNOWN AS GIRINAGAR OR
REVATAK PRAVATA)
• A COLLECTION OF MOUNTAINS IN THE
JUNAGADH DISTRICT OF GUJARAT. AN
IMPORTANT RELIGIOUS CENTRE, GIRNAR IS AN
ABODE TO 16 JAIN TEMPLES.
• A COLLECTION OF MOUNTAINS IN THE
JUNAGADH DISTRICT OF GUJARAT. AN
IMPORTANT RELIGIOUS CENTRE, GIRNAR IS AN
ABODE TO 16 JAIN TEMPLES.
• A COLLECTION OF MOUNTAINS IN THE
JUNAGADH DISTRICT OF GUJARAT. AN
IMPORTANT RELIGIOUS CENTRE, GIRNAR IS AN
ABODE TO 16 JAIN TEMPLES.

• THE TEMPLE IS RECTANGULAR IN SHAPE
BEHOLDING THE IDOL OF LORD NEMINATH MADE
OUT OF BLACK GRANITE WITH JEWELLED EYES,
SITTING IN THE LOTUS POSTURE.
• THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TEMPLE IS SYMBOLIC
OF A BYGONE ERA.
• THE CEILINGS ARE DECORATED WITH SCULPTURES
OF DANCING GODDESSES.
• MOUNT GIRNAR COVERS TEMPLES FROM THE
DIGAMBER AND SHWETAMBER SECTS OF JAINISM
• THE PILLARS ARE DESIGNED WITH INTRICATE
CARVINGS DEPICTING THE HISTORY OF JAINS.
VIMALVASAHITEMPLE

• THE VIMAL VASAHI TEMPLE IS A FAMOUS JAIN


TEMPLE. IT IS SITUATED IN TOWN MOUNT ABU
OF SIROHI DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN.
• VIMAL SHAH WAS CONSTRUCTED THE VIMAL
VASAHI TEMPLE, WHO WAS THE MINISTER OF
BHIMA DEV 1 AND SOLANKI RULER OF
GUJARAT.
• THIS TEMPLE WAS DEDICATED TO LORD
ADINATH, WHO WAS THE 1ST JAIN
TIRTHANKAR.
• THIS TEMPLE TOOK 14 YEARS TO BUILD BY
USING BY 1,500 ARTISANS AND 1,200
LABOURERS.
• .THIS TEMPLE HAS A GUDHA MANDAP,
NAVCHOKI, RANG MANDAP, AND A CORRIDOR,
WHICH HAS 57 CELLS. JAIN TIRTHANKARA IS
FIXED IN EACH CELL.
• RANG MANDAP IS THE MAJOR ATTRACTION
OF THIS TEMPLE.
• IT CONTAINS A HUGE HALL, WHICH HAS
TWELVE ORNAMENTED PILLARS.
• THE NINE RECTANGULAR CARVED CEILINGS
IS ALSO THERE, IT IS THE ANOTHER
ATTRACTION OF THIS TEMPLE. THIS IS
CALLED AS NAVACHOKI
• THE VIMALA VASHI TEMPLE IS
SURROUNTED BY A NUMBER OF SMALLER
CELLS.
• THIS TEMPLE HAS A LARGE NUMBER OF
FEATURES.
• THE DEITY OF THIS TEMPLE WAS MADE BY
USING BRASS AND GOLD.
• THE FLORAL PAINTINGS, THAT INCREASE
THE BEAUTY OF THIS TEMPLE AND THE
CEILING HAS A WONDERFUL CARVED
DESIGN.
• THIS DESIGN CONTAINS LOTUS BUDS,
GEOMENTRICAL DESIGN AND PETALS OF
FLOWERS.
TEJPALA TEMPLE
• ALSO KNOWN AS LUN VASAHI TEMPLE
• THE LUNA VASHI TEMPLE IS DEDICATED TO
LORD NEMINATH.
• THIS MAGNIFICENT TEMPLE WAS BUILT IN 1230
BY TWO PORWAD BROTHERS - VASTUPAL AND
TEJPAL - BOTH MINISTERS OF A VIRDHAVAL,
THE VAGHELA RULER OF GUJARAT.
• THE TEMPLE BUILT IN MEMORY OF THEIR LATE
BROTHER LUNA WAS DESIGNED AFTER THE
VIMAL VASHI TEMPLE.
• THE MAIN HALL OR RANG MANDAP FEATURES A
CENTRAL DOME FROM WHICH HANGS A BIG
ORNAMENTAL PENDENT FEATURING
ELABORATE CARVING.
• ARRANGED IN A CIRCULAR BAND ARE 72
FIGURES OF TIRTHANKARS IN SITTING
POSTURE AND JUST BELOW THIS BAND ARE
360 SMALL FIGURES OF JAIN MONKS IN
ANOTHER CIRCULAR BAND.
• THE HATHISHALA OR ELEPHANT CELL
FEATURES 10 BEAUTIFUL MARBLE ELEPHANTS
NEATLY POLISHED AND REALISTICALLY
MODELLED.
• THE NAVCHOWKI FEATURES SOME OF THE
MOST MAGNIFICENT AND DELICATE MARBLE
STONE CUTTING WORK OF THE TEMPLE.
• EACH OF THE NINE CEILINGS HERE SEEMS TO
EXCEED THE OTHERS IN BEAUTY AND GRACE.
• THE GUDH MANDAP FEATURES A BLACK
MARBLE IDOL OF THE 22ND TIRTHANKAR
NEMINATHA.
• THE KIRTHI STAMBHA IS A BIG BLACK STONE
PILLAR THAT STANDS ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE
TEMPLE.
• THE PILLAR WAS CONSTRUCTED BY MAHARANA
KUMBHA OF MEWAR.
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