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Introduction to Science
Chapter 1: Introduction to Science
1.1 What is Science?

1) Science is the systematic study of natural Phenomena and

how it effects us and the environment.

2) Science is studied through observation and scientific


3) Natural Phenomena that happen in the environment can be

explained through science.
a) the melting of ice
b) the birth of a baby
c) lightning
d) Earthquake (gempa bumi)
4) Science has the following uses and benefits:
a) it helps us to understand things around us.
b) it make our lives easier, healthier and comfortable.
c) it helps us to improve the environment.
d) it trains us to think logically and creatively.
5) Science covers a very wide area of study:

a) BIOLOGY- The study of living things.

b) PHYSICS- The study of interaction of motion and forces.
c) CHEMISTRY- The study of chemical properties, their
reactions and uses.
d) GEOLOGY- The study of rocks and minerals.
e) ASTRONOMY- The study of the stars and planets.
f) METEOROLOGY - The study of weather and climates.
Innovation in Technology

* Robots help to clean house

* Unleaded petrol to reduce air pollution

* Internet easy to communicate with other person and get

many information
1.2 Science Laboratory

*The apparatus and their functions

(See text book pg 10 and 11).
• Outline drawing for laboratory apparatus
(Pg 10)

Retort stand and

clamp Gas jar Test tube

To Round-bottom
hold bigger flask
of liquid and chemicals
Conical flask
To hold small amount of liquid and chemical
To measure volumes of liquid
To hold or support apparatus
Use together with a filter paper to filter a mixture
of solid and liquids
To provide a flame for heating
To support apparatus during heating
To support apparatus and ensure even heating
•ToThold boiling tube / test tube during heating
For heating small amounts of liquid
Hazard symbols
1) Hazard symbols are recognizable symbols designed to
warn about hazardous materials or locations


Do not touch, it will burn your skin. If contact with

the skin, wash the affected part with lots of water
Examples: concentrated acid and alkali
Highly flammable
(mudah terbakar)
Easily vaporises and flammable,
keep away from fire/heat.
Examples: alcohol and petrol

(mudah meletup)
Explosive chemical, according to
the instructions carefully.
Examples : hydrogen gas and
butane gas
Do not drink, eat, smell or taste.
Examples : mercury and chlorine

Chemical which irritate give out
vapour or fumes, hurt eyes, nose and
throat. Avoid inhaling the vapour or
fumes. Use inside a fume chamber.
Examples: chloroform and ammonia
Radioactive materials thet
emit radioactive rays can
cause cancer. Examples :
uranium and plutonium
Rules and safety measures in the
• To prevent unwanted incidents
a) Laboratory rules
See text book page 13

b) Safety measures when using

chemicals and apparatus
See text book page 13 and 14
1.3 Physical Quantities and Their Units
1) A physical quantity is a quantity which can
be measured.

Physical quantity SI Unit/symbol Measuring instrument

Length Metre (m) Metre rule
Mass Kilogram (kg) Beam balance
Time Second (s) Stop watch
Temperature Kelvin (K) Thermometer
Electric current Ampere (A) Ammeter
Table 1.1: The SI units and measuring instruments
2) Physical quantities are measured in SI units.
3) SI units is the abbreviation of the French term
“Le systeme International d unite”
= International System
4) SI units are used as standard units all over the
5) Prefixes are used in the SI unit to state a very
small or a very big value.
symbols and values for prefixes (Pg 16)
Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Value
Giga G 1 000 000 000 9
mega M 1 000 000 6
kilo k 1 000 3
deci d 0.1 -1
centi C 0.01 -2
milli m 0.001 -3
micro µ 0.000001 -6
nano n 0.000 000 001 -9

Value of physical quantity Prefix form

• 5 000 000 k = 5 Mk

• 3 300 g = 3.3 kg

• 0.081m = 8.1 mm

• 0.000 006 A = 6µm

Try it!

0.02 m = 2 cm
4 000 g = 4 kg
0.007 A = …………….
9 500 m = …………….
0.008 m = …………….
9.5 km
8 mm
• Accuracy – The ability of measuring
instruments to obtain a value closest to the
actual value
• Consistency- The ability of measuring
instruments to give the same reading s with
repeated measurements.
• Sensitivity – The ability of measuring
instruments to detect small change in the
measurement quantity
Measuring length

1) Length is the distance between 2 points

2) The SI unit for length – metre (m)
3) Short lengths are measured in cm or mm while long
distance measured in km
a) Measuring the length of straight line

1) A metre ruler can be used.

2) The correct reading obtained only when the eyes
vertically above the mark on ruler

3) Parallax error occurs if the position of the eye

is wrong when taking the reading

4) Measuring tape can be used to measure

The length of long straight lines
b) Measuring the length of curved line

1) A piece of thread and a metre ruler can be used.

2) using opisometer

Measuring curve line

Measuring curve line using an opisometer
Measuring Mass
Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.
 S.I Unit – Kilogram (kg)
 Measured using beam balance , triple beam
balance and lever balance

Beam balance Triple beam balance Lever balance

Measuring Time
A stopwatch is used
to measure time with
an accuracy of 0.1s
or 0.2s

S.I Unit – second (s)

Other units – Minute (min), hour (hr) , day ,

month, year and decade
Measuring temperature
 Temperature is the degree of heat of
an object
 S.I Unit – kelvin (K).
 Measured using : Convert from degree
celsius to kelvin
0ºC +273 = 273 K

Clinical thermometer
laboratory thermometer measure temperature
measure temperature with an accuracy of
with an accuracy of 1ºC 0.1ºC
Measuring Electric current

Ammeter is used to measure

electric current in a circuit.

S.I unit – ampere (A)

Measuring Volume of water

Parallax error occurs when the reader’s eyes

are not perpendicular to the reading scale
How to read the volume of

The right way to take a reading
Using Measuring Instruments with
Higher Accuracy
Measuring Length
Vernier Calipers

 Measure the thickness or outer diameter,

inner diameter and depth of an object
 Smallest division of the reading of a vernier
calipers is 0.01cm or 0.1mm much more
accurate than ruler which can only measure
the smaller reading up to 0.1cm/1mm
Micrometer screw Gauge
 To measure the thickness and diameter of
small objects like paper and hair
 The smallest division of the micrometer
screw gauge’s reading is 0.001cm /0.01mm
 More accurate than the vernier calipers
Measuring Mass

A digital electronic balance can read

measurement of mass more accurately and
Measuring Time
A digital stopwatch is more accurate than
a normal stopwatch because it can
measure time accurately up to 0.01second
whereas the normal stopwatch can only
measure up to 0.1 second
Measuring temperature

A digital thermometer more accurately and

precisely because it can measure
temperature with an accuracy up to 0.1ºC
Measuring electric current

A digital ammeter can measure

electric current with an accuracy up
to 0.01 A
2) Measuring the diameter of object
- The diameter of an object can be measured using
calipers and ruler

- The external calipers is used to measure the external

diameter of an object

- The internal calipers is used to measure the internal

diameter of an object

External calipers Internal calipers

Measurement area

Mark (/) on each square that is fully covered,

half covered or more than half covered
12 unit2
Measuring Volume of the object
= Water displacement method

45 ml

30 ml stone

What is the volume of the stone?

Volume of the stone = (45 - 30)

= 15 cm3
Measuring Volume object less dance than water

55.5 cm3

Object x
45 cm3

30 cm3

What is the volume of x?

Volume of object x = (55.5 -45)

= 10.5cm3
of stone
Measurement Skill
1) The measurement is accurate if it is very close
to the actual value
2) Inaccurate measurement may lead a scientific
investigation to make a wrong conclusion to
an experiment.
3) We can increase the accuracy:
a) using suitable measuring tools
b) using right technique – avoid parallax error
c) taking several readings – take the average