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25 November 2016

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)

Dr. Irfan Ullah
Assistant Professor
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Management and technology

Renewable Electrical Energy Resources EE407

1. Requirements for solar concentrators
2. Solar thermal versus photovoltaic concentrator
3. Irradiance uniformity
4. Concentrated solar power
5. Solar thermal
Requirements for solar concentrators

Factors that influence the design of concentrators for
solar energy
1. Cost and ease of manufacture on an appropriate
2. Extent of guidance required for following the sun
3. Durability and maintenance
4. Required working temperature of absorber
5. Preferred geometry of absorber in relation to the Solartron Energy Systems Inc.
a parabolic solar concentrator that
mode of utilization of the energy tracks the sun throughout the day,
providing up to 12kW of thermal heat
6. Susceptibility to contamination and durability per hour
under ultraviolet irradiation
Solar thermal versus photovoltaic

• the cell temperature must be kept as low as possible
• the cell conversion efficiency decreases with temperature. the
photovoltaic system should be designed to provide a temperature at the
cell p - n junction smaller than 65°C at standard operating conditions
(ambient temperature = 25°C; wind speed = 1m/s; irradiance =
850W/m2) Photovoltaic

• the active surface of the solar cell is always flat, typically with a round or
squared contour of the active area
• medium- to high-temperature solar thermal systems operate with the
absorber at a temperature over 300°C
• In this situation, the optics cannot be in touch with the receiver to avoid
conduction losses and high thermal stresses
• there is a wider variety of receiver geometries
Solar thermal
Irradiance uniformity

Uniform irradiance over solar cell

CPV system using Fresnel arrays

Irradiance distribution over the receiver
Central receiver (Cg = 500-1000)

Advanced molten salt technology with storage offers
• Solar/EPGS decoupling
• Load following capabilities
• Capacity factors to 60%

Concentrated solar power using thermal
Central receiver (Cg = 500-1000) cont’d..

• The use of secondary
concentrators to attain high flux
at the receiver
• Advantage of allowing the
power block also to be on the
• Weizmann Institute of Science
in Rehoveth

Schematic of Weizmann “beam down” central receiver plant
Central receiver (Cg = 500-1000) cont’d..

19.9 MW Gemasolar solar plant, Spain The IVANPAH solar thermal power, CA
• 15 hours of storage and can supply power 24 hours a • Size: Approx. 3,500 acres
day • Power Production: 370-392 MW
• Net electrical production expected: 110 GWh/year
• Solar field: 2,650 heliostats on 185 hectares
• The plant will supply clean, safe power to 25,000
homes and reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions by
more than 30,000 tons a year.