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•When a binding material, a fine aggregate and
water are mixed together in suitable proportions,
they form an easily workable paste or mix which
is termed as Mortar.

•When a binding material, a fine & a coarse
aggregate and water are mixed in suitable
proportions, they form an easily workable mix
which is termed as plastic, wet or green concrete.

•When this plastic concrete becomes hard like a
stone, this is termed as hardened concrete or
simply Concrete.

•For preparing mortars and concretes, cement and
lime are generally used as binding materials;
o sand and surkhi as fine aggregates and
o crushed stone and crushed bricks as coarse

 To form a homogenous mass of the structure so as to resist all the loads coming over it without disintegration. . MORTAR Mortars are usually named according to the binding material used in their preparation. They are essentially required for masonary work. plastering and pointing etc. FUNCTIONS OF MORTAR:  To bind together the bricks or stones properly so as to provide strength to the structure.

 To provide a weathering resistance i. a durable layer between the different courses of masonry in the structure.e. The mortar used for such purposes is a thin liquid mortar which is termed as grout and the process is known as grouting. The mortar used in a concrete is termed as matrix.  To do pointing and plastering to the structure.  To hold coarse aggregate together in any concrete so as to form a solid mass.  To fill up empty joints in brick and stone masonry. The mortar used for plastering is known as plaster. ..

. or water from puddles or ponds. such as soft not use dirty water.PREPARATION OF MORTARS: MIXING MORTAR:  The sand and the cement has to be thoroughly mixed by hand or in a mechanical mixer before adding any water . keep sugar-containing liquids.  Similarly. as this could impair the final strength of the mortar. as even in small amounts it seriously impairs the setting ability of cement. well away from the mix.

. and no clumps of pure sand or pure cement.  The color of the dry mix will change as the cement is distributed throughout .  Once the dry ingredients are mixed. the water can be added.there should be no 'streaking' of cement. the sands and cement are heaped up on a mixing board or in a wheelbarrow and repeatedly turned over and over until thoroughly mixed. When mixing by hand.

 More water is added a bit at a time and folded in until the required consistency is attained. such as a plasticizer or a frost-proofer. water added to it and then folded in.  A "well" is formed in the center of the mixed heap. they are normally added to the water. . and then mixed in. rather than being directly added to the dry ingredients. If any additives are being used.

Dry sand and cement in Begin to mix sand and cement Mix to evenly distribute cement wheelbarrow The dry mix should be all one Add water and plasticiser Mix to required consistency colour .

the water is added to the revolving drum once the dry ingredients are thoroughly blended. . This ensures a more thorough mix than adding. a bit at a time until the required consistency is achieved. then another cement and so on until the required quantity is in the mixer. Add 4 measures of sand then 1 of cement.When using a mechanical mixer. followed by 4 sand. Again. 20 measures of sand and then 5 measures of cement. add half a bucket (2 or 3 liters) of clean cold water to the empty drum before adding the dry ingredients in sequence. say.

•This type is used for all engineering works where high strength is desired such as load bearing walls.TYPES OF MORTAR & THEIR USES: Cement mortar •The paste is prepared by mixing cement and sand in suitable proportions in addition to water. before initial setting time of the cement. .e. deep foundations. •The general proportion is 1 part of cement to 2-8 parts clean sand. i.. flooring etc. •These mortars must be use within half an hour.

Lime mortar •The paste is prepared by mixing lime and sand or surkhi in suitable proportions in addition to water. •This type is used for construction work above ground level i. •These mortars are inferior to cement mortars in strength as well as water tightness. •If surkhi is to be added in lime mortar the equal proportions of sand and surkhi should be mixed with lime.e. •These mortars should not be used for underground works as they set in the presence of carbon dioxide and break up in damp conditions. exposed positions. .

•These mortars are used for brickwork of ordinary buildings and for plastering walls in rural areas.Mud mortar •The paste is prepared by mixing suitable clayey soil with water. •The soil which is used for preparing mud mortar should be free from grass. . pebbles etc. •These are the cheapest mortars but weakest in strength.

•It helps in making mortars and concretes of desired strength by varying its proportions with the binding material. . •It prevents development of cracks in the mortar on drying.FUNCTION OF SAND IN MORTARS •It reduces shrinkage of the building material. •A well graded sand adds to the density of mortars and concretes.

FUNCTION OF SURKHI IN MORTARS: •It provides brick color and make the mortar economical .

. •These are generally used as fiber plasters in sound and heat proof construction.Admixture added mortars  Light weight mortar •The paste is prepared by mixing wood powder. •In such mortars fibers of jute or coir or asbestos fibers can also be used. wood sawing or saw dust with cement or lime mortar.

 Fire resistant mortar •The paste is prepared by mixing aluminous cement and finely crushed fire bricks in suitable proportions in addition to water. •The usual proportion are 1 part aluminous cement to 2 parts of finely crushed fire bricks. . ovens and fire places with fire bricks. •These are generally used for lining furnaces.

CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENTS Because of their relatively high cost. for various properties such as ultra-rapid strength development and controlled expansion are required. in refractory concretes. calcium aluminate cements are used in a number of restricted applications where performance achieved justifies costs: in construction concretes. as a protective liner against microbial corrosion such as in sewer infrastructure. where rapid strength development is required. even at low temperatures. . in sewer networks for their high resistance to biogenic sulfide corrosion. where strength is required at high temperatures. as a component in blended cement formulations.

Where plastic pipes pass through the mortar. Up to 4 hours at 100mm thickness. non combustible. 2 hours at 75mm thickness and 1 hour at 50mm thickness. Additional services can be easily added through the mortar and resealed with further mortar. DESCRIPTION FIRE RESISTANT MORTAR A one part synthetic mortar which when mixed with water produces a trowelable or pourable compound suitable for the sealing of openings in walls and floors to prevent the passage of fire and smoke. asbestos. fibres and silica and is non toxic. . Free of halogens. The seal is strong. Minimum waste. can be made load bearing. Tested to BS476: Part 20 Astroflame Fire Resistant Mortar can provide up to 6 hours fire resistance depending on depth/width. Life expectancy of over 20 years. Astroflame Pipe Wraps should be used. Load bearing up to 5kN and suitable up to spans of 4700mm.


broken bricks. cinder(igneous rock) are used as fine aggregates. and crushed stones.. fine aggregate. coarse aggregate and water in suitable proportions is called concrete. are used as coarse aggregates in preparing different types of concrete.  Cement and sand are generally used as binding materials whereas sand. surkhi. CONCRETE  An artificial stone resulting from hardening of a mixture of a binding material. . gravel. etc.

. accurate water measurements and adopting good workmanship in mixing. clean sand and strong coarse aggregates are necessary for making a good concrete.•A good Portland cement or lime . transportation. compaction. finishing and curing of concrete in the construction works. •The required strength of concrete can be obtained by careful selection of its ingredients. placing.

Basic ingredients of concrete Cement Aggregates Water .

 In modern cement kilns many advanced features are used to lower the fuel consumption per ton of clinker produced. aluminium and iron in forms which will react with water. aluminium and iron) and grinding this product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum). cement is the most expensive ingredient . Of all the various ingredients in concrete.Cement  Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient of concrete. It consists of a mixture of calcium silicates. mortar and many plasters. silicon. aluminates and ferrites . Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone (a source of calcium) with clay or shale (a source of silicon.compounds which combine calcium.

Aggregates  Fine and coarse aggregates makes the bulk of concrete mix. . In addition to being decorative. Aggregate with even size distribution has gaps whereas adding aggregate with smaller particles tends to fill these gaps. Recycled aggregates are increasingly used as partial replacement for natural aggregates  The size distribution of the aggregate determines how much binder is required.  The aggregate is nearly always stronger than the binder.  Decorative stones such as quartzite. exposed aggregate may add robustness to a concrete. small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative "exposed aggregate" finish. so its use does not negatively affect the strength of concrete.


Consequently CLC behaves. like conventional concrete. For structural (steel-reinforced) application. gravel. the wall produced would have to measure 5 times thicker and therefore also use 10 times more material (sand. CLC. cement) to produce. which. CLC infinitely increases its strength by hydration (forming of crystals in cement) as long as exposed to humidity in the atmosphere. .PROPERTIES Cellular Lightweight Concrete (CLC) is conventional concrete.400 kg/m³. namely air. where natural aggregate (gravel) is exchanged for the best insulation medium available.200 to 1. CLC structures in hot climatic zones require only 1/5th energy for air- conditioning when compared to traditional clay-brick structures. If a wall of conventional concrete should offer the same thermal insulation as CLC. embedded in an organic and bio-degradable foam that offers no chemical reaction but solely serves as wrapping material for the air. due to the billion of micro-sized and uniform air bubbles offer 500 % more thermal insulation and a substantially higher fire-rating than conventional concrete. CLC is used in densities of 1. hardening and most important “ageing “. in particular concerning curing.

fills voids within it.Water Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of hydration. often occurring at the same time. The cement paste glues the aggregate together. the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete to form a solid mass. Hydration involves many different reactions. As the reactions proceed. and makes it flow more freely. A lower water-cement ratio yields a stronger & durable concrete. . whereas more water gives concrete with a higher slump.

 Resistance to abrasion: It should be sufficiently hard and provide enough resistance to abrasion. ..CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD CONCRETE:  Crushing strength: it should have adequate crushing strength.  Durability: it must be durable enough to resist the effects of weathering agencies. This property is very essential when the concrete is to be used for making road pavements and steps.  Impermeability: it should have sufficient impermeability or water tightness.

. Resistance to fire: It should have minimum thermal expansion so as to provide good resistance to fire. The concrete with greater density will be more compact.  Workability: It should have good workability so that it can be readily deposited in position in a uniform layer and also adaptable for ornamental moldings  Compactness: It must be sufficiently dense.  Shrinkage: It should have minimum shrinkage when it hardens.

. Creep: The continuous strain with time which the concrete undergoes due to application of external load is called creep. this should be minimum. time yield or plastic flow.  Appearance: It should provide the required finish to the concrete structure..  Economy: It should be economical for the desired strength.

lack of skilled workers. Ferrocement  Ferrocement is a construction material consisting of wire meshes and cement mortar.  It can be considered as a type of thin reinforced concrete construction in which large amounts of small-diameter wire meshes are used uniformly throughout the cross section instead of discretely placed reinforcing bars in which portland cement mortar is used instead of concrete. Applications of ferro-cement in construction is vast due to low self weight. no need of framework etc. .

. have also been tried as reinforcement. and woven fabric made of vegetable fibers such as jute-burlap and bamboo. Meshes made of alkali-resistant glass fibers.Metallic mesh is the most common type of reinforcement.


 Fabricated into any desired shape.  Better resistance against earthquake. low weight and long lifetime.  Low labour skill required. .  Ease of construction.Advantages of Ferrocement  Basic raw materials are readily available in most countries.  Low construction material cost.

 It is difficult to fasten to Ferrocement with bolts.  Cost of semi-skilled and unskilled labors is high.  Corrosion of the reinforcing materials due to the incomplete coverage of metal by mortar.Disadvantages of Ferrocement  Structures made of it can be punctured by collision with pointed objects. . screws.  Tying rods and mesh together is especially tedious and time consuming. welding and nail etc.  Large no of labors required.

unlike Portland cement which is composed of calcium silicates. It is manufactured from limestone or chalk and bauxite  It is manufactured by grinding clinkers of calcining bauxite (an aluminium ore) and ordinary lime. In which the total amount of alumina content should not be lesser than 32%.Aluminous Cement  High Alumina Cement (HAC) is sometimes known as calcium aluminate cement (CAC) or aluminous cement  It is composed of calcium aluminates. .

foundries and other workshops where high temperatures are involved.Advantages of Aluminous Cement  The main advantage is that it can withstand high temperatures. .  It sets fast and it attains a strength of 40 N/mm2 in just one day and 50 N/mm2 in three days.  The initial setting time is 3 hours as compared to PPC & the final setting time is 5 hours.  Aluminous Cement produce great amount of heat during setting so that these cements can be used in colder temperatures.  It is highly resistant to concentrated acids and thereby it is used in chemical industries. so that it can be used in refractories.

.Disadvantages of High Alumina Cement 1. 3. It evolves great heat and thereby it is not used in mass construction. 2. And moreover it should not get in contact with lime or ordinary PPC cement because it’s power gets reduced. It is costly.