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Dr. G.R. JINU, M.E., Ph.D.

,
&
Dr. G. Karthikeyan, M.E., Ph.D.,
Fabrication and testing of LM25/ZrO2
composites- case study

2
 The metal matrix composites offer higher modulus
of elasticity, ductility, and resistance to elevated
temperature than polymer matrix composites. But,
they are heavier and more difficult to process.

3
 Most popular super alloys are aluminum, magnesium, titanium
among these materials aluminum is low cost material.
Aluminium alloys are widely used in different applications such
as aerospace, automotive industry, ship building and other
applications because of their light weight, high specific
strength and excellent resitance to corrosion.

 It is most Common used matrix material and commercially


available ones, due to their economical production. Nowadays
aluminium alloy are playing a vital role in the construction of
frames for ships, which is 25% larger and weighed 50% lesser,
when compared to steel frames. The application of these
aluminium frames increases the speed of the ship to 3.5 knots
when compared to the ship madeup of steel.

 The most popular type of MMC is aluminum alloy reinforced


with ceramics particles these low cost composites provide
higher strength, stiffness and fatigue resistance with a minimal
increase in density over base alloy.
4
S.No LM series Manufacturing Process Application and Properties

1 LM0 Sand Casting Electrical, Chemical and Food Processing Industries.

2 LM2, LM4, LM27 Die-castings Wide range of applications


Corrosion resistance i.e. castings of marine
3 LM5, LM6 Sand and chill casting
application.
4 LM9 Low pressure die casting Higher tensile strength after heat treatment.

5 LM12 sand and chill castings High strength and shock resistance.

Good wear resistance properties and machinability,


LM13, LM26,
6 Die & Chill casting Used as piston material and applications where
LM28
thermal stresses occur.

7 LM16 chill castings. High mechanical properties


High Machinability and hardness.
8 LM20 Die casting
High Machinability and proof strength
9 LM 21, LM27 large, intricate and thin walled castings

10 LM22 chill castings Good foundry characteristics and good ductility

11 LM24 large, intricate and thin walled castings High corrosion resistance and ductility
Good corrosion resistance combined with thermal
12 LM25 Chill casting and Die casting
properties.
Lower coefficient of thermal expansion than LM 28
13 LM29 large, intricate and thin walled castings
alloy.
Low expansion and excellent wear resistance. Used
14 LM30 Die casting
for manufacturing of cylinder blocks.
5
 The LM25 alloy is an excellent material for
castability and it consists of silicon as the major
alloying element followed by iron and magnesium
content. LM25 may be superior for castings
particularly in gravity dies and it offers better
machinability and weldability, corrosion resistance
property and poor wear resistance.

6
• Food, chemical, marine, electrical and
automotive and many other industries. In
automotive industries, it is particularly used
for manufaturing of wheels, cylinder blocks
and heads.

• In road transport vehicles, it is used for


manufacturing of wheels, cylinder blocks and
cylinder heads and other engine parts. It can
also be used in nuclear energy installations
and aircraft pump parts.
7
• Food, chemical, marine, electrical and
automotive and many other industries. In
automotive industries, it is particularly used
for manufaturing of wheels, cylinder blocks
and heads.

• In road transport vehicles, it is used for


manufacturing of wheels, cylinder blocks and
cylinder heads and other engine parts. It can
also be used in nuclear energy installations
and aircraft pump parts.

8
 In this work, ZrO2 (Zirconia) ceramic particle was chosen
as a reinforcement material for this investigation because
they are widely applied in automobile, aerospace and
marine industries. The major alloying elements present in
ZrO2 are maximum of zircon followed by 3 to 5% yttrium,
0.25% SiO2, etc.

 The reinforcement of ZrO2 is very attractive as it exhibits


a density of 5.68 gm/cm3, melting point of 2715˚C, UTS-
425 Mpa, VHN-150 and Young’s modulus of 98 Gpa. It
was also found that ZrO2 shows better strength, hardness
and fracture toughness with a slight reduction in
ductility.

9
• High fracture toughness,
• High density,
• High hardness and
• Better wear resistance,
• Good frictional behavior,
• High temperature capability up to 2,400ºC,
non-magnetic, low thermal conductivity,
electrical insulation, coefficient of thermal
expansion similar to iron, and modulus of
elasticity similar to steel

10
 Precision ball valve(seats and balls),
 valves and impellors,
 pump seals,
 high density grinding media,
 fuel cell membranes,
 thread guides,
 cutting blades, gears, metal forming, radio
frequency heating susceptors, metrology
components, bearings, bushes and drive
shafts.
11
 LM6 is the most commonly used material for
automotive applications such as piston rings
and aerospace application. In these
applications, the materials are subjected to
wear and tear, which causes earlier failure of
these materials. .

12
Chemical composition of LM25, LM6 Aluminium alloy and ZrO2 particles (wt %)
Chemical
compositi Cu Mg Si Fe Mn Ni Zn Pb Sn Ti Al
on
LM25
0.1 0.2-0.6 6.5 – 7.5 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 Bal
alloy

0.1 0.1 10 -13% 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 Bal
LM6 alloy
Chemical
SiO2 TiO2 Fe2O3 Y2O3 Zr
compositi
on of
ZrO2 0.25% 0.16% 0.07% 3 to 5% Bal

Mechanical properties of LM25, LM6 Aluminium alloy and ZrO2 particles


Mechanical Density Test Compression Impact Test Hardness Test
Tensile test (MPa)
properties (gm/cm3) Test (MPa) (Joules) (VHN)

LM6 alloy 2.6482 158 200 9 59.67

LM25 alloy 2.68 144.7 193 2 58.21

ZrO2 6.04 248 2500 1.85 10.7


13
(a) Schematic view of stir casting setup (b) Photographic view of stir casting setup

14
 The LM25/ZrO2 composite materials were prepared using stir
casting process for various weight percentages of ZrO2
reinforcement such as 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12%

 Initially Aluminium LM25 alloys has been melted in a pot. it is


done in a blower furnace at 850˚c for 15 mintues time bound. The
ZrO2 powder was preheated at 575˚C in a separate muffle furnace.
The furnace temperature was raised above liquid temperature of
LM6 and LM25 alloys at about 850˚C to melt the LM6 & LM25
completely and then it is added to the preheated ZrO2 powder
slowly..

 The stirring was carried out with help of the drilling machine for
about 15 minutes, and the stirring rate is maintained at the speed
of about 950 rpm
15
 Actual density was found out using the Archimedes principle
as given below in equation
Actual density = Wa / (Wa − Ww)
Wa= Weight in air (N)
Ww= Weight in water (N)
Theoretical density was found out using the “Rule of mixture”
as given below in Equation
Dc = Dm × Vm +Dr × Vr
Dc - density of composite (kg/m3)
Dm - density of matrix (kg/m3)
Dr - density of reinforcement (kg/m3)
Vm - volume of matrix (m3)
Vr- volume of reinforcement (m3)

16
Geometric representation of Tensile test sample based on ASTM E8M-04
guidelines

Photographic view of UTM used for


tensile Test

17
Geometric representation of Compression test sample based on ASTM D695
guidelines

Photographic View of UTM


used for compression test

18
Geometric representation of Impact Test sample based on
ASTM A370 guidelines

Photographic view of Impact


Testing machine

19
Geometric representation of Hardness test sample based
on ASTM E384-10 guidelines

Photographic View of Micro Hardness


tester

20
Material characterization Test
 X-ray diffraction (XRD)-The resultant composite material was
examined under Scanning Electron Microscope to find the
formed ZrO2 particles and their surface morphology.

 X ray diffraction pattern were obtained for the specimen


using Cu kα radiation. Data were collected over the 2 ϴ for
the range of 10˚ to 120˚ degree with a step size of 0.02˚
degree scan speed of 10 degree/min. The X ray diffraction
pattern is in well match with the standard JCPDS (01-1176)

 Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyzes are applied in


the present work, which helps to find out information about
the type of element present in the samples.

21
Photographic View of
Photographic View of Optical Scanning Electron
Microscope Microscope (SEM)
22
Photographic View of surface
Photographic View of Dry sliding roughness tester
wear tester

23
Preparation of composite specimens with different weight percentages of ZrO2
Weight fraction of LM25 and
Specimen No Weight fraction of ZrO2 (%)
LM6 (%)
1 100 0
2 0.97 0.03
3 0.94 0.06
4 0.91 0.09
5 0.88 0.12

Sample Figures of cast specimen for LM25/ZrO2


24
 The density samples were prepared from the cast
specimens and they are tested based on
Archimedes principle and rules of mixture formula

Photographic views of physical test setup for LM25/ZrO2


composites

25
Photographic view of Tensile test sample Photographic view of Tensile tested
before testing for LM25/ZrO2 and sample for LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2
LM6/ZrO2 Composites Composites

Photographic view of Compression test Photographic view of compression tested


samples before testing for LM25/ZrO2 samples for LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2
and LM6/ZrO2 Composites Composites

26
Photographic view of impact test Photographic view of impact tested
samples before testing for LM25/ZrO2 samples for LM25/ZrO2 and
and LM6/ZrO2 Composites LM6/ZrO2 Composites

Photographic view of Hardness test Photographic view of Hardness


samples for for LM25/ZrO2 and tested samples for LM25/ZrO2 and
LM6/ZrO2 Composites LM6/ZrO2 Composites

27
Photographic view of Optical Photographic view of Scanning
Microscope sample for LM25/ZrO2 Electron Microscope sample for
and LM6/ZrO2 Composites LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2
Composites

Photographic views of EDAX samples Photographic views of XRD samples


for LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2 for LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2
Composites Composites

28
Photographic view of wear samples Photographic view of Disc before
before testing for LM25/ZrO2 and testing for LM25/ZrO2 and LM6/ZrO2
LM6/ZrO2 Composites Composites

29
Input process parameters for wear test analysis of
LM25/ZrO2 Composites

Input Process
S.NO Values Units
Parameters
1 Composite mixture 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% & %
ratios (Reinforcement 12%
percentages)
2 Load 10, 20 & 30 N
3 Sliding distance 1000, 1200, 1400 m
4 Sliding Speed 200 rpm
5 Sliding time 2.5 m/s

30
Mechanical properties analysis of LM25/ZrO2
composites

31
2.7 LM6/Glass (Sathish et al.
2.8 2.68
2.681
2.68 2004)

DENSITY (g/cm3)
2.7
2.59
2.6 2.66
DENSITY (g/cm 3 )

2.5 2.429 2.66 2.65


2.4 2.636
2.64
2.31
2.3 2.237 2.627
2.2
2.62
2.1
2
2.6
0% 3% 6% 9% 12%
% COMPOSITION OF ZrO2 WITH LM25 ALLOY
0% 2.5% 5% 7.5% 10%
% COMPOSITION OF GLASS WITH LM6 ALLOY
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)
LM6/Glass (Sathish et al. 2004)
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)
2.8 2.8 LM6/Glass (Sathish et al.…
2.7
2.6 2.7
Density (g/cm3)

Density (g/cm3)
2.5 2.6
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.2 2.4
2.1
2.3
2
2.2
0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15%
Percentage Composition of Reinforcements Percentage Composition of Reinforcements

32
A356/SiC (Mohan Vanarotti et al. 2014)
210 206
205

TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa)


200 198
195 191
190 186
185 180
180
175
170
165
0% 3% 5% 10% 15%
% COMPOSITION OF SiC WITH A356 ALLOY
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)

250 LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)


A356/SiC (Mohan Vanarotti…
Tensile Strength (MPa)

200 250
Tensile Strength (MPa)
200
150
150
100
100

50 50

0 0
0% 5% 10% 15% 20%
0% 0% 3% 3% 5% 6% 9% 10% 12% 15% Percentage Composition of…
Percentage Composition of Reinforcements 33
Al6061/Graphite (Ramesh et al. 2009)
10 9.4
8.6

DUCTILITY ( % of Elongation)
9 8.47
8 7.31
7 5.9
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0% 1% 2% 3% 4%
% COMPOSITION OF GRAPHITE WITH Al6061 ALLOY

LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work) LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)


Al6061/Graphite (Ramesh et al.…
10 10
Ductility (% of Elongation)

Ductility (% of Elongation)
8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0
0% 0% 1% 2% 3% 3% 4% 6% 9% 12% 0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15%
Percentage Composition of Reinforcements Percentage Composition of Reinforcements
34
LM6/Glass (Sathish et al. 2004)
240 230 450
COMPRESSION STRENGTH

225

COMPRESSION STRENGTH (MPa)


230 384.323
218 400 369.541
220 210
350 303.024
210
(Mpa)

193 300 266.069


200
190 250
180 200
170 150
100
0% 3% 6% 9% 12%
50
% COMPOSITION OF ZrO 2 WITH LM25 ALLOY 0
0.0% 2.5% 5.0% 7.5%
% COMPOSITION OF GLASS WITH LM6 ALLOY
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)
LM6/Glass (Sathish et al. 2004)
500
450 LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)

Compression Strength (MPa)


400 400
Compression Strength (MPa)

350
300 300

250 200
200
150 100

100 0
50 0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15%
0
Percentage Composition of Reinforcements

Percentage Composition of Reinforcements


35
Al/SiC (Manoj single et al. 2009)
35
30
30 28

IMPACT STRENGTH (MPa)


26
24
25 22
20
15 12
10
5
0
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
% COMPOSITION OF SiC WITH ALUMINIUM

LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)


LM6/ZrO2 (Present
Work)
30
30
Impact Strength (JOULES)

25 Impact Strength (Joules) 25


20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 18% 21%
Percentage Composition of Reinforcements Percentage Composition of Reinforcements
36
A356/SiC (Mohan Vanarotti et…
100 95
87
90
78
80 71

HARDNESS (VHN)
70 65
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0% 3% 5% 10% 15%
% COMPOSITION OF SiC WITH A356 ALLOY
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)
LM25/ZrO2 (Present Work)

100
100
90 90

Hardness (BHN & VHN)


80 80
Hardness (BHN & VHN)

70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20
20
10
10
0
0
0% 0% 3% 3% 5% 6% 9% 10% 12% 15%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16%
% Composition of Reinforcements % composition of Reinforcements
37
Metallurgical Characterization Of LM25/Zro2
Composites

38
(a) (b)

(c) (d)
The constituents of phases present in the
matrix are Mg2Si and some Cu-Al2 phases
which are randomly distributed .The presence
of ZrO2 in the aluminium matrix alloy is
uniform and present as white particles

(e) 39
(a) (b)

(c) (d)
From these SEM images, it is clearly identified that the
distribution of particles throughout the matrix was
found to be fairly uniform as a dark region. It is also
observed that as the weight percentage of
reinforcement of ZrO2 increases, the area fraction also
increases as shown in the micrographs as a dark
region.
(e)

40
(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) 41
The X-ray diffraction pattern is well matched with the standard JCPDS (01-1176) of
aluminium with a cubic crystal structure and Fm-3m space group. The absence of any
additional peak other than aluminium in all the samples, confirms that the phase is the
pure formation and no chemical reactions happen during casting process. A gradual
marginal shift in the Al peaks to higher angles with an increase in the weight fraction of
reinforcement is evident, which indicates a decrease in the lattice parameter of
aluminium

42
cps/eV

25

20

15

Mn Mg Si Y
Zr Cu Al Zr Mn Cu Y
10

0
2 4 6 8 10 12
keV

SEM image of LM25 EDS pattern of LM25


cps/eV

70

60

50

40 Cu
Mn Si Zr
Zr Fe Al Y Mn Fe Cu Y Zr
30

20

10

0
2 4 6 8 10 12
keV

SEM image of LM25-3% ZrO2 EDS pattern of LM25-3% ZrO2


composites composites

43
cps/eV
35

30

25

20
Mg
Fe Zn
15 C O Cu Al Si Fe Cu Zn

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
keV

SEM image of LM25-6% ZrO2 EDS pattern of LM25-6% ZrO2


composites composites
cps/eV
100

80

60
O
Ti Cu Zr
Zr Mn Al Y
C Fe Mg Si Ti Mn Fe Cu Y Zr
40

20

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
keV

SEM image of LM25-9% ZrO2 EDS pattern of LM25-9% ZrO2


composites composites

44
cps/eV
100

80

60
O
Ti Cu Zr
Zr Mn Al Y
C Fe Mg Si Ti Mn Fe Cu Y Zr
40

20

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
keV

SEM image of LM25-9% ZrO2 EDS pattern of LM25-9% ZrO2


composites composites

The graphs obtained using EDS test show that, these results are used to
confirm the chemical composition of the LM 25/ZrO2 composites, such as
aluminium, zirconium, iron, copper, magnesium, zinc, silicon and all other
elements present in the prepared composites.
The shrinkage and porosity were not identified in the micrographs. This is
evidence of good quality castings. An increase in the percentage of ZrO2
resulted in the oxide formation at the pin surface and the developed oxide's
act as a wear protective layer for various loads.

45
Wear Test Analysis Of LM25/Zro2 Composites

46
Load 10 N Load 20 N Load 30 N

Before After Total Before After Total Before After Total


Composi wear test wear wear wear wear wear Wear
S.NO Wear Wear
tes
test test test test Test Loss
loss loss

Weight in gms Weight in gms Weight in gms

1 LM25 5.602 5.596 0.006 5.596 5.591 0.0055 5.591 5.587 0.004

2 LM25+ 5.422 5.417 0.005 5.417 5.412 0.005 5.412 5.419 0.003
3% ZrO2

3 LM25+ 5.365 5.361 0.0045 5.361 5.357 0.004 5.357 5.355 0.002
6% ZrO2

4 LM25+ 5.121 5.117 0.004 5.117 5.114 0.003 5.114 5.112 0.002
9% ZrO2

5 LM25 + 5.110 5.107 0.003 5.107 5.106 0.0025 5.106 5.104 0.002
12% ZrO2

47
250

200
Load 10 N
LM25
Wear loss (micrometer)

150 LM25-3%ZrO2

100 LM25-6%ZrO2
LM25-9%ZrO2
50 LM25-12%ZrO2

0
0 100 200 300 400
Time (S)

300
Wear loss(micrometer)

250 Load 20 N
200 LM25
LM25-3%ZrO2
150
LM25-6%ZrO2
100
LM25-9%ZrO2
50 LM25-12%ZrO2
0
0 100 200 300 400
Time(S)

48
300

250 Load 30 N
LM25
200
Wear loss(micrometer)

LM25-3%ZrO2

150 LM25-6%ZrO2
LM25-9%ZrO2
100 LM25-12%ZrO2

50

0
0 100 200 300 400
Time(s)

Lower wear loss was obtained in the composites which were reinforced with a higher weight
percentage of ZrO2 particles and this holds true for all the three load levels.

It is clearly observed that the percentage of increase in ZrO2 particles reduces the wear
loss. it is found that when the load increases, the wear loss also increases in all the
samples. It is also noted that the wear loss decreases gradually with an increase in the
weight percentage of the ZrO2 reinforcement when compared to pure LM25.

49
(a) Load 10 N

Linear Polynomial Power law


Composite R2 Logarithmic R2 R2 R2
equation equation Equation

y = -0.0002x2 + y=
y = 0.4514x + y = 69.065ln(x)
LM 25 0.9361 0.5467x + 9.8302x0.5185 0.9807
57.714 0.9949 - 206.3 0.997
50.571

y = -0.0003x2 +
LM25+3% y = 0.4057x + y = 62.173ln(x) y=
0.9928 0.9372 0.5086x + 0.9958 0.9802
ZrO2 52.143 - 185.66 8.8347x0.5189
44.429

y = -0.0002x2 +
LM25+6% y = 0.3707x + y = 56.497ln(x) y = 6.9368x0.539
0.9897 0.924 0.4412x + 0.9914 0.9719
ZrO2 42.429 - 173.25
37.143

y = -7E-05x2 +
LM25+9% y = 0.3136x + y = 47.577ln(x) y=
0.9941 0.9199 0.3421x + 0.9945 0.9692
ZrO2 38.857 - 142.5 6.8408x0.5157
36.714

y = -1E-04x2 +
LM25+12% y = 0.2371x + y = 36.146ln(x) y=
0.9944 0.9286 0.2752x + 0.9956 0.9722
ZrO2 35.714 - 102.28 6.9455x0.4752
32.857

50
(b) Load 20 N

Composite Linear R2 Logarithmic R2 Polynomial R2 Power law R2


equation equation Equation

LM 25
y = 0.5286x + y = 80.276ln(x) y = -0.0001x2 y=
0.9941 0.9217 0.9946 0.9712
61.286 - 244.81 + 0.5857x + 57 10.302x0.5322

LM25+3%
y = 0.4571x + y=
ZrO2 y = 69.722ln(x) y = -0.0002x2
54.286 0.9929 0.9284 0.9944 9.0148x0.5317 0.9751
- 211.95 + 0.541x + 48

LM25+6%
y = -0.0002x2
ZrO2 y = 0.3843x + y = 58.89ln(x) y=
0.9929 0.9373 + 0.4795x + 0.9957 0.9814
49.429 - 175.81 8.3754x0.5188
42.286

LM25+9%
y = -0.0002x2
ZrO2 y = 0.3043x + y = 46.741ln(x)
0.9887 0.9378 + 0.3995x + 0.9932 y = 7.81x0.4959 0.9786
43.429 - 135.49
36.286

LM25+12%
y = -0.0003x2
ZrO2 y = 0.2286x + y = 35.544ln(x) y=
0.9853 0.9577 + 0.3429x + 0.9968 0.9873
40.714 - 95.906 8.0737x0.4544
32.143

51
(C) Load 30 N

Composite Linear Logarithmic Polynomial Power law


R2 R2 R2 R2
Equation equation equation Equation
LM 25 y = 0.5436x +
y = 81.582ln(x) y = 0.0001x2 + y=
69.143 0.9936 0.8996 0.994 0.9538
- 240.65 0.4921x + 73 13.179x0.4975

LM25+3%
ZrO2 y = 0.4857x + y = 72.893ln(x) y = 0.0001x2 + y=
0.9937 0.8996 0.9941 0.953
62.57 - 214.22 0.44x + 66 12.018x0.4946

LM25+6% y = 0.0001x2 +
ZrO2 y = 0.4364x + y = 65.297ln(x) y=
0.385x + 0.9909 0.9442
52.286 0.9903 - 195.4 0.8911 9.8272x0.5069
56.143
LM25+9% y = 1E-05x2 +
ZrO2 y = 0.3679x + y = 55.398ln(x) y=
0.9932 0.9054 0.3621x + 0.9932 0.9518
49.714 - 160.9 9.6306x0.4876
50.143
LM25+12% y = 0.3071x + y = 3E-05x2 +
ZrO2 y = 46.045ln(x) y=
46 0.9854 0.2957x + 0.9854 0.9316
- 128.78 0.8902 9.7219x0.4597
46.857

52
250

200 LM 25
wear loss (micrometer)
150 LM25-3% ZrO2

100 LM25-6% ZrO2

LM25-9% ZrO2
50
LM25-12%ZrO2
0
10 20 30 LM25-15%ZrO2
Load (N)
Wear Losses for Various Composite Materials for LM25/ZrO 2
Composites
0.4
Load
Coefficient of

0.3
10 N
friction

0.2 20 N
0.1 30 N

0
0 3 Wt % of ZrO2 with
6 LM25 alloy 9 12

Coefficient of friction of LM25 with various Wt % of ZrO 2

53
120

Wear loss(micrometer)
100 Sliding
80 distance
1000 m
60
1200 m
40 1400 m
20
0
0 3 6 9 12
wt % of ZrO2 with LM25 alloy

while comparing the percentage of the weight loss in LM25 and various percentages of the
ZrO2 reinforcement it is observed that the weight loss decreases with an increase in the weight
percentage of the ZrO2 reinforcement.

It is observed that the coefficient of friction decreases with an increase in the percentage of
the ZrO2 reinforcement. Because the increase in the percentage of ZrO2 leads to lowering the
coefficient of friction in the composites, it also reduces the pin- on-disc contact

It is observed that the wear loss in samples of different compositions increases with an
increase in the sliding distance. An increase in the percentage of ZrO2 will decrease the wear
loss at all sliding distances.

54
LM25 LM25-3% ZrO2

LM25-6% ZrO2 LM25-9%ZrO2


55
LM25-12%ZrO2

It is also observed that the increase in the percentage of ZrO2 would


result in smoothly formed grooves and depth of the grooves is also
very small. This is due to the hard nature of the material and poor
wear losses.

56
4.5

Surface roughness(micrometer)
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0% 3% 6% 9% 12%
Wt % ZrO2 WITH LM25 ALLOY

It is obvious that the surface roughness value is higher for the pure
LM25 alloy and the roughness value decreases with an increase in the
weight percentage of the ZrO2 reinforcement material.

57
LM25 LM25-3% ZrO2

LM25-6% ZrO2 LM25-9%ZrO2

58
LM25-12%ZrO2

The increase in ZrO2 reinforcement on LM25 alloy reduces the wear loss.
The surface observed is rougher due to the ceramic particle exposed in
resisting the wear of the material while sliding on the wear disc. From SEM
images, it is clearly identified that increase in the percentage of ZrO2 on
aluminium LM 25 alloys decreases the surface roughness value.

59
 Physical test results of the developed LM25/ZrO2 and composites
revealed that the sample cast at 12 wt% of ZrO2 reinforcement
particles has a lower weight and all the cast samples are free
from porosity.
 From the tensile test results, it is identified that the maximum
tensile strength is found to be about 210 Mpa for 12 wt%
reinforcement of ZrO2 on LM25 alloy. Then the tensile tested
samples are subjected to fractography investigation.
 The fractography results show that the increase in weight
percentage of ZrO2 changes the mode of failure from ductile to
brittle nature, which is revealed from the occurrence of large
dimple tiny particles with a large amount of plastic deformation
present in the low weight percentages of ZrO2 reinforced
composites.
 The compression test results reveal that the maximum
compressive strength is about 230 Mpa for the sample
containing 12 wt% of ZrO2.
60
 From the impact test results, it is identified that the best impact
strength is about 15 joules and it is obtained from the sample
containing 12wt % of ZrO2.
 The hardness test results reveal that the maximum hardness is about
78.5 BHN for the sample containing 12 wt % of ZrO2.
 The microstructure results show that for higher weight percentage (12%)
reinforcement of ZrO2 shows a good uniform distribution, interfacial
bonding and non-occurrence of porosity.
 The SEM images of various weight percentages of ZrO2 reinforcement
reveal that the SEM image for 12 wt % ZrO2 contains more of the
presence of ZrO2 particles, which is clearly seen as a dark region.
 The EDAX results of the developed composites show that the presence
of 12 wt% of ZrO2 particle in LM25/ZrO2 composites is higher which
shows that the developed oxide layer acts as a wear protective layer.
 The XRD result shows that no phase transformation occurred in the
developed composites, which clearly indicates that no chemical
reactions are carried out during the casting process.

61
Composite welding for LM25/ZrO2
composites

Heating Upset Feed Finel Material


Upsetting Time Time Speed Bdt/Udt Rate Length Loss
Pr (bar) (sec) (sec) (rpm) (sec) Mode (mm/sec) (mm) (mm)

25 4 3 1500 .8/.3 Fkt 0.5 158 8.1

62
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Thank You