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AND

PRESENTATION

OF DATA

**Researchers in any field
**

should follow the scientific

process of collecting data to

arrive at valid and reliable

results. They may utilize

various instruments and

methods in collecting data,

but they use similar research

design in selecting the most

appropriate for their study.

**THE NINE (9) TYPES OF
**

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

1. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

2. DESCRIPTIVE-NORMATIVE

3. DESCRIPTIVE-ANALYSIS

4. DESCRIPTIVE-STATUS

5. DESCRIPTIVE-CLASSIFICATION

6. DESCRIPTIVE-EVALUATE

7. DESCRIPTIVE-COMPARATIVE

8. CORRELATION SURVEY

9. LONGITUDINAL SURVEY

EXAMPLES

1. CORRELATION JOB-RELATED

PROBLEMS AND JOB-RELATED

PERFORMANCE OF PROFESSORS IN

STATE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

IN REGION VI (WESTERN VISAYAS)

**From the above example the
**

research instrument the researcher

uses is a questionnaire

.2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS ACHIEVEMENTS OF TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS IN PRIVATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN REGION IV (WESTERN MINDANAO) From the above example the investigator uses a test as a research instrument.

WHAT IS VALIDITY? The degree to which the research instrument measure what it purports to measure. . Truthfulness or veracity of information.

OF THE 120 OR 100 STUDENTS IN ENGLISH 120 OR 100 PERCENT ANSWERED THAT THE GODDES OF BEAUTY IS VENUS. .EXAMPLE OF VALIDITY IN A TEST THE TEST ITEM IN ENGLISH (MYTHOLOGY). “WHO IS THE GODDES OF BEAUTY?”.

Reliable in a sense that their answer is consistent. Valid in a sense that their answer are correct or true.From the above students answer were correct and both are valid and reliable. .

THE ANSWER IS CORRECT AND VALID .IS A RELIABLE TEST ALWAYS VALID? FOR EXAMPLE: The test in mathematics is “How many meters are there in one (1) kilometer?” Of the 100 students on mathematics 10 percent said that there are 1000 meters in one kilometer.

. THEREFORE. A RELIABLE TEST IS NOT ALWAYS VALID. THEIR ANSWER IS INCORRECT BUT RELIABLE BECAUSE IT IS CONSISTENT.But from the previous example 90 percent answered that there are 950 meters in one kilometer.

TESTING THE VALIDITY OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT In validating the questionnaire by the expert the options retain(3). revise or delete. . revise(2). And the weighted mean () is computed to determine if the item is to be retained. and delete(1) are at the end of each item.

.

WEIGHTED MEAN COMPUTATION f X fx 3 3 9 2 2 4 total: 5 13 For item number 6 = =2.6 .

For item number 18 f X fX 4 3 12 1 2 2 Total:5 14 = =2.8 .

From the above example of questionnaire all items will be retained because the weighted mean value ranged from 2.6 to 3 when validated by the experts .

WHAT IS REALIBILITY? Consistency of information The information can be both reliable and valid but sometimes the information is correct although it is consistent. . If that is the case a test may be reliable but not valid or it can be both valid and reliable.

Split-half method 4. Test-retest method 2.MOST COMMON METHOD OF TESTING THE REALIBILITY OF A GOOD RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The most common methods in testing the reliability of a good research instrument are: 1. Internal-consistency method . Product form method 3.

TEST-RETEST METHOD The same research instrument are administered twice to the same group of correspondents to determine the correlation coefficient. .

unlearning. and many others may results to low correlation. . 2) When the time interval is too long and factors such as forgetting.DISADVANTAGES OF TEST-RETEST METHOD 1) When the time of the research instrument is too short wherein the responders may recall their previous responses making the correlation coefficient high.

separating the administrators. temperature. lighting. . lenient and strict proctor and many others may affect the correlation coefficient of the research instrument.3)Regardless of the time interval. other varying environmental conditions such as noise. health.

WHAT STATISTICAL TOOL USED TO DETERMINE THE RELIABILITY OF TEST-RETEST METHOD The SPEARMAN CORRELATION COEFFICIENT METHOD or SPEARMAN RHO. To obtain the spearman rho value. we apply the formula: .

is the Spearman rho. is the total number of cases .From the formula . is the summation of the difference between ranks.

. and so on. the third highest score 3.WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO APPLY THE FORMULA? STEP 1: Rank the scores of the correspondents from highest to lowest in the first administration and mark these rank as The highest score mark 1. the second highest score 2.

STEP 3: Get the difference of ranks for every pair of rank. STEP 2: Rank the second set of scores in the same manner as in STEP 1 and mark as . . STEP 5: Add the squared difference to get . STEP 4: Square each difference to get . STEP 6: Compute the Spearman rho using the formula.

For example: Twenty (20) professors of State Universities and colleges from Region VII (Central Visayas) as pilot sample who are not subject of the study are requested to test the reliability of the research instrument. .

.

9898496 or 0.99 very high The Spearman rho value obtain is 0.Σ = = =0. Hence. the questionnaire is reliable.99 which is very high reliability. .

The date of the administration of the questionnaire. The researchers proceeds to get permit and approval of the head of the agency where the subjects are employed.DATA GATHERING Having found the questionnaire valid and reliable. The subjects are given ample time to answer the questionnaire. Once the permit is issued the investigators administer the questionnaire to the subjects of the study. the retrieval date of the questionnaire and the percentage of return of the questionnaire must be stated. .

Input involves the responses in the questionnaire of the subjects. Throughput includes statistical treatment. and output.DATA PROCESSING PROCEDURE Once the questionnaire was retrieved the researchers process the data in either qualitative or quantitative forms. Output is the result of the study. Data processing involves input. . throughput.

The level of confidence must be stated to determine the significance of the study. .STATISTICAL TREATMENT The statistical tools used to answer the specific research questions of the study must be described and formula must be presented and explained with authorities.

Tabular form 3. Graphical form In order to show the significant characteristics. .PRESENTATION OF DATA After the data was processed the result should be processed using three (3) forms: 1. Textual forms 2.

80 or 44.44% have very satisfactory performance.56% satisfactory performance. 55 or 30. See the example: The performance of instructors and professors at the State Universities and Colleges in region VI are as follows. 15 or 8. fairly satisfactory.TEXTUAL FORM It is the simplest way to present the data when there are few numbers to be presented. . and 30 or 16.33% have outstanding performance.67%. In this form the result are explained in paragraph form.

TABULAR FORM This form is done by presenting the data in tables. Each category in in the category is placed in a row or column and the data are placed in the respective cells. Presenting the data by means of statistical tables is a systematic way of arranging them in rows and columns. .

44 SATISFACORY 55 30.56 FAIRLY 30 16.EXAMPLE OF TABULAR FORM PERFORMANCE OF INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESSORS AT THE STATE-UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGE IN REGION VI INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESSORS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) PERFORMANCE OUTSTANDING 15 8.00 .33 VERY SATISFACTORY 80 44.67 SATISFACTORY TOTAL 180 100.

Body .WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE STATISTICAL TABLE A good statistical table consist of four essential parts namely. 1. Table Caption 2. Stub 3. Box Heads 4.

.1. The researcher usually use a double number for the tables wherein the first number refers to the chapter number and the second number refers to the number of table in the chapter . TABLE CAPTION This includes the table number and heading.

.2. BOX HEADS These are the headings within the box of the table wherein the data are emphasized. 3. STUB This refers to the rows of the table which is found at the left.

BODY OF THE TABLES This refers to the main part of the table containing the figures which are placed in columns aligned with .

67 SATISFACTORY TOTAL 180 100.00 .1PERFORMANCE OF INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESSORS AT THE STATE-UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGE IN REGION VI INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESSORS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) PERFORMANCE OUTSTANDING 15 8.2.56 FAIRLY 30 16.33 VERY SATISFACTORY 80 44.44 SATISFACORY 55 30.

line graph. circle graph and pictograph . There are numerous kinds of graphical representation but the most common used in presenting research data are.GRAPHICAL FORM A graph is a geometric image or mathematical picture of a set of data. bar graph.

namely (1) caption. (4)body. (3)reasonable proportion of data. .LINE GRAPH It is made by plotting the data with a dot and connecting the plotted points by means of straight lines. A graph has four essential parts. (2)stub.

EXAMPLE OF A LINE GRAPH .

. It represents data by areas in the form of vertical rectangles or bars. Bar graph has clearer presentation of data than line graph even if there are two or more variables.BAR GRAPH It is another way of presenting data in graphical form.

EXAMPLE OF BAR GRAPH .

It is a way of presenting data in circular form. The data divide the circles into parts and are represented in percent or in actual figures.CIRCLE GRAPH It is also called a pie graph. The total of the whole circle is 100% .

EXAMPLE OF PIE/CIRCULAR GRAPH .

.PICTOGRAPH It is a kind of graph which uses pictures or symbols to represent information.

EXAMPLE OF PICTOGRAPH .

Thank You…. ..

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