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A presentation by Manuel

LO 9.1 Motivation

• Motivation – the various physiological and
psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific
way at a particular time.
• the force which energizes initiates, and sustains a
goal-directed behaviour so that a physical or
psychological need is met.
• Need – predisposition (tendency) to action that
inhere in the very nature of the organism which
arises from a deficit or natural inherent potentialities
which seek exercise or actuality -- in the biological,
psychological, or spiritual dimension.

potentialities which seek
exercise or actuality

Higher and Higher

LO 9.2 Instinct approaches to motivation
Instinct Approaches to Motivation
• Instincts - the biologically determined and
innate patterns of behavior that exist in
both people and animals.
• Instinct approach -
assumes people are governed by instincts
similar to those of animals.


3 Drive-reduction approaches to motivation Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation • Drive . LO 9. Menu . • Need -biological .a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism.

Homeostasis • The tendency of the body to maintain a state of equilibrium. • Crucial to maintain life--- • Temperature 98.6 F .

Drive-reduction theory • assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. .

Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation • Primary drives .those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning. • Acquired (secondary) drives .those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst. such as the need for money or social approval. .

• Need for affiliation (nAff) .the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others. Menu .a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals. LO 9.4 Three types of needs Psychological Needs • Need for achievement (nAch) . • Need for power (nPow) .the need to have control or influence over others. not only realistic ones but also challenging ones.

Menu .a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation.5 Arousal approaches to motivation Arousal Approach to Motivation • Stimulus motive . such as curiosity. LO 9.

Laugh it up! Humor is universal across human cultures — and fuels psychological research on everything from social perception to emotion regulation .

. Arousal theory theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.

.someone who needs more arousal than the average person. – This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: easy tasks require a high-moderate level while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level. Arousal Approach to Motivation • Yerkes-Dodson law . • Sensation seeker .law stating performance is related to arousal. moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high.

LO 9.5 Arousal approaches to motivation Menu .

The optimal level of arousal or motivation is higher for a simple task (b) than for a complex task (c).(a) The general relationship between arousal and efficiency can be described by an inverted U curve. .

theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties. LO 9.things that attract or lure people into action. Menu . • Incentive approaches .6 Incentive approaches to motivation Incentive Approaches to Motivation • Incentives .

Expectancy-value theories • assume that actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs. values. and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time. • Expectations and values influence .

psychological. . or spiritual dimensions. Maslow‘s Need hierarchy • Need : predisposition (tendency) to action that inhere in the very nature of the organism which arises from a deficit or from natural inherent potentialities which seek exercise or actuality in the biological.


Need hierarchy Maslow .

Deficiency needs • 1) Physiological: • 2) Safety/security: • 3) Belonginess and Love: • 4) Esteem: Growth needs • 5) Self-actualization .

Biological needs. food. Water. rest. warmth. sexual release. elimination. . and so forth. Deficiency needs • 1. avoidance of pain.

housing. . Deficiency needs • 2. Protection from the physical and social environment by means of clothing. and security from crime and financial hardship. Safety needs.

Maslow believed that in a well-fed and wellhoused society. Deficiency needs • 3. a principal source of maladjustment lay in the frustration of needs at this level. Love and acceptance through intimate relationships. . Love and belongingness needs. social groups. and friends.

Deficiency needs • 4. Achievement. approval. status. . recognition. competence. prestige. Esteem needs.

self-actualization Self-actualisation is a process whereby each person strives become what they are actually intended to be. . Growth needs • Maslow's initial conceptualization included only one growth need— 5.

must develop these abilities in order to be psychologically healthy and at peace with themselves. A truly healthy person- capable of developing innate talents and achieving maximum potential. for example. .People with specific talents like or music.

or indeed achievement in any personal area which is of meaning and importance for the individual. caring for others. . These include excellence in sport. success in parenting.The need to self-actualise may take various forms.

characteristics • the ability to perceive reality clearly .this includes the ability to judge people and situations accurately • acceptance of self and of others .this includes acceptance of one's own human nature. without too much concern about personal shortcoming .

characteristics • spontaneity in thinking and behaviour.this means the ability to look outside oneself to the problems of the wider world . as well as a sense of humour • the capacity to be problem-centred rather than ego-centred .

self-actualisation • a quality of detachment and an ability to be self-contained when alone • the ability to resist cultural pressure without being deliberately unconventional .

characteristics • the capacity to appreciate the good things of life. including everyday experience • the capacity for heightened or transcendent experience .

characteristics • interest in social issues and the welfare of other people • the ability to form deep and satisfying relationships. although these may not be as numerous as those of other people .

characteristics • originality and creativity and a willingness to experiment with new ideas • the ability to tolerate uncertainty .

times in a person’s life during which selfactualization is temporarily achieved. Menu . at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential. • Peak experiences.the point that is seldom reached.7 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Self-actualization . LO 9.

Growth needs • Maslow later differentiated the growth need of self-actualization. specifically naming two lower-level growth needs prior to general level of self-actualization and one beyond that level (Maslow. 1971). .


Growth needs • 5) Cognitive: to know. and explore. art) • 7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential. • 6) Aesthetic: symmetry. order. . to understand. poetry. and beauty (music. • 8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.

• Some call it: Integration. Self-transcendence • Maslow recognized a motivational force higher than self-actualization • An inner drive to place the needs of others above one’s own needs. love . holiness.

. one becomes more wise (develops wisdom) and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations. Self transcendence • Maslow's basic position is that as one becomes more self-actualized and self-transcendent. Daniels (2001) suggests that Maslow's ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualization are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions to the study of human behavior and motivation.