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# Direct Analysis Method

• It gives considerations to the following:
1. Effect of initial imperfections and reduced
stiffness
2. All types of deformations of members and
connections that may contribute towards the
displacement of the structure
the stability of the structure are considered
5. Both second order effects

Second Order Effects due to Elastic
deformations
• It may b neglected if
1. Gravity Loads act through the columns and
walls only
2. Max. 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <=
1.7
3. Gravity Loads supported by moment resisting
frames in the direction of translations <= 1/3
4. Can be considered for the evaluation of
individual members.

7 . Effect of Initial Imperfections • Either by direct modeling • By application of notional loads • Allowed to neglect them load combos involving lateral loads if: 1. Max. Gravity Loads act through the columns and walls only 2. 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1.

2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1.7 . Notional Loads • Applied according to the nominal geometry • Allowed to represent initial imperfections only if gravity loads are primarily supported by vertical columns and loads • Min value • Can be neglected if: Max.

Stiffness and Effective Length • Stiffness other than flexural stiffness are reduced by a factor 0. .0 for all members • Bracing requirements of all individual memebers must be satisfied. • Flexural stiffness can be reduced as: • K=1.8 for all the members that can contribute towrads the lateral stability of the structure • Can be applied to all the members to avoid artificial distortion of the structure.

moments in the connected members need to be magnified as well…The larger B2 from above or below story is used to manify beam moments • Nonlinear…2nd order internal forces from separate structural analysis cannot be superimposed . Approximate Second Order Analysis • Moment amplification Factors B1 & B2 are applied to 1st order forces to get approximate second order forces. • Defined drift limits to reduce secondary bending…stability cant be neglected • Axial forces must also be amplified • To maintain the equilibrium…When moments in some members are magnified in some members..

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First Order Analysis • Applicable when 1. Required axial strength of all members that contribute to provide the lateral stability through the flexural stiffness must satisfy Alpha*Pr <= 0.5 can be taken equal to B2 muliplier of Appendix 8 AISC.5 Py . 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1. Max. 3. Gravity Loads act through the columns and walls only 2.

shear and axial member deformations along with all other deformations of the structure • Nominal geometry and nominal elastic stiffness are considered .• All strengths determined by first order analysis considering flexure.

. Two Additional Rquirements • Additional lateral loads at each story level in all combinations… in the direction that increases the destabilation of the structure • The non sway amplification of beam column moments is done by appying B1 amlifier of Appendix 8.

5 for all stories using factored loads can be taken equal to B2 muliplier of Appendix 8 AISC . Gravity Loads act through the columns and walls only 2. 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1. Effcetive Length Method • Applicable when 1. Max.

Notional Loads • Applied according to the nominal geometry • Allowed to represent initial imperfections only if gravity loads are primarily supported by vertical columns and loads • Min value .

Both second order effects . Factored loads for LRFD 5. Effect of initial imperfections and reduced stiffness 2. Gravity loads and all other loads that may effect the stability of the structure are considered 4. All types of deformations of members and connections that may contribute towards the displacement of the structure 3.• It gives considerations to the following: 1.

Gravity Loads act through the columns and walls only 2. 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1.5 3. Second Order Effects due to Elastic deformations • It may b neglected if 1. Max. Can be considered for the evaluation of individual members. Gravity Loads supported by moment resisting frames in the direction of translations <= 1/3 of the total gravity Loads 4. .

K=1. Design • Design in this Method is carried out by by using available strengths employing effective length calculated as: 1. 2nd order drift/ max 1st order drift <= 1. In Moment Frames Determined using sidesway buckling analysis of structure.0 for members in compression…stabilbilty does not depend upon the flexural stiffness of of columns 1. In braced Frames K=1.5 .0 if: Max.