Lecture II 13/7/10 Module II Approaches to OD-Systems ODapproach & Actions approach

Layout *Action research-theme, background and methodology research*Linkert s participative M ment Programme *Normative model of Managerial Grid *Theories of Planned ChangeChange-

applying research to managing change *Imp. *Contributor*Contributor.*Action research-theme. researcher and practitioner in group dynamics and social change. the great theorist.*conducted by Social Scientists * ResearchThemeTheme. He deserves the credit to be the founder thinker in OD.Kurt Lewin. feature Survey Feedback Tech. Background: Laboratory Training began in 1946 when Kurt Lewin of MIT s Research Centre for Group Dynamics was approached for help in research on training of community leaders. . background and methodology researchAction Research.

of course some American universities continue them as PG courses on OD. Today significance of this method of OD intervention has declined. This served 2 purposes: It proved to be a rich learning experience and contributed to development of process of group building which could be transferred to practical situations.The researchers tried to note reactions of group members regarding data about their behaviour. .

This effort led to 2-fold results: 2i) Members were able to use research on themselves to guide action and change. ii) For social scientists this was an opportunity to derive new knowledge and use it elsewhere. what they observed was that research needs to be linked to action if an orgn wanted to manage change. This warranted collaboration between the members of orgn and social scientists. In 1940s 3 social scientists were doing research on Action research . .Action research was second leading to emergence of OD.

Through these surveys the two scientists derived imp. Post Lewin his centre became part of Institute of Social Research at Michigan and was headed by Rensis L inkert famous for his 5-point Linkert scale. A key component of Action Research was the systematic collection of survey data that was fed back to client orgns. Of participative management. Conclusion about effects of survey feedback on orgn change.A study on overcoming resistance to change led to devpt. . 5Linkert and Floyd Mann conducted series of survey for studying M ment & employee attitudes for Detroit Edison.

orgns have 4 types of M ment systems: 1}Exploitative authoritative system It uses an autocratic. Above two methods-Action Research and Survey methodsfeedback show common pattern: data collection data feedback action planning implementation follow-up followdata collection. *Linkert s participative M ment ProgrammeProgrammeAs per this study.As a result applicability of survey feedback tech increased. This systems leads to mediocre performance. . topRewards and punishment are two tools for motivation. top-down approach to leadership. Little scope for teamwork.

communication and decision making but within boundaries defined by management. Employees are allowed a little more interaction. they are just supervised offering more scope for member involvement and participation. 3} Consultative systemssystemsDegree of communication interaction and participation increases yet M ment is the final decision maker. Productivity is good and one finds moderate satisfaction among employees. .2} Benevolent authoritative systemssystemsThe only difference between 1 and 2 is that here M ment is more paternalistic. 4}Participatve SystemsSystemsDecisionDecision-making by groups.

*Normative model of Managerial GridGridBlake and Mouton's Grid OD developed from research about managerial and organizational effectiveness. improve methods and also appraise results. Surveying 198 organizations in US. Both vertical and horizontal/lateral communication takes place. This systems help attain high level of productivity. .Groups set goals. Japan and Great Britain they found that planning and communication were two barriers to excellence. make decisions. quality and member satisfaction.

developing security. . 1 for low.9 for high. prodn tasks. fair salary structure making quality policy decisions etc. creative ideas.Further exploring the roots they developed the normative model. An individual leaders style is according to Concern for production Concern for people Covers a range of Covers good working behaviour as accomplishing conditions. Each measured on 9 point scale leading to 81 leadership styles.

9) .1) (9.9) o 2 n 3 cer 4 n for 5 pe 6 o p l e 7 8 9(9.Con C 1 ce r n 2 3 for 4 pro duc tion 5 6 7 8 9 (1.

Grid Seminar-a week programme where Phase:Seminarparticipants analyze their personal style & learn methods of problem solving.Implementation of model Phase:6th Phase:-Evaluation of organization Phase:- . 2nd Phase:-Team development Phase:3rd Phase:-Intergroup development Phase:4th Phase:-An ideal model of organizational excellence is Phase:developed. Blake and Mouton give most structured intervention in OD COMPRISING 6 PHASES. 1st Phase:. 5th Phase:.9 managerial style as it is most effective in overcoming communication barrier to corporate excellence.Blake and Mouton proposed 9.

change will occur. If b>a. a) Those maintaining status quo b) Those pushing for change If a=b. Therefore to cause changed a should be reduced or b should be increased or both thing done simultaneously. current behaviours are maintained. .*Theories of Planned ChangeChange(1)Lewin s change model In his view change is modification of those forces keeping system s behaviour stable. Lewin suggests 3 steps to modify change. 2 opposite group of forces play here.

behaviours etc.The organization stabilizes at a new Refreezingstate of equilibrium.Step I Unfreezing . brought through changes in organizational structures and processes. norms. the purpose is to motivate to change. Step III Refreezing. Supportive mechanisms used so that organization experiences new culture. attitudes.e. depts or orgns Movingexperience shift in their behaviour at a new level. . Step II Moving-Here individuals. policies and structures. It involves intervention in the system to develop new values.involves reducing influence of forces maintaining the organization s behaviour i. a sometimes this is done by introducing info that shows discrepancies between desired behaviours and current behaviours.

Action Data gathering after action .As viewed earlier it looks planned change a cyclical process. To determine effects of action Jt.(2) Action Research modelmodel. action Pl. Here 8 main steps are: 4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION ARE: ARE: ARM Problem identification Connections with behavioral expert Data gathering and preliminary Diagnosis Feedback to key client Data gathering after action Joint diagnosis Interviews. questionnaire & Orgn performance data. process Obsn.

Nowadays there is growing tendency for involving orgn members. In modern times both OD consultant and members of Orgn are co-learners . this is referred to as Participatory Action Research / Action Science / Action learning / Self Design . consultant or OD practitioner carries out most of the change activities.In the traditional concept of action research. co(3) Positive ModelModelPrimarily concentrates on problems and solution to them .

III} Discover the themes.It draws heavily on AI i. . Appreciative Inquiry. IV} Based on past members collectively visualize organization s future and develop possible propositions. No theme is small. II} Inquire into best practices.CONSUMER SATISFACTION and not Dissatisfaction.Outlook of inquiry is + inquiryI.E. say on innovation.e. It involves 5 stepsstepsI} Initiate the inquiry. AI infuses a + value orientation into analyzing and changing organizations.a pool of info is collected practicesfrom members through interviews.A set of themes is searched themesfor so that common dimensions of people s experiences are known.

. The three models can be integrated into General model where following sets of activities take place.V} Design and deliverdeliverThis phase describes the activities and creates plans necessary to bring about the vision.

Institutionalizing Reference: Pages 22 to 27 and Chapter 2 of Cummings and WORLEY For Self.Entering and contracting 2. planning and implementing 3.1.study: SelfWhat are the similarities and differences between these 3 models? .Diagnosing.Evaluating 4.

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