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Save Water

How?

The concept is simple :

 Collect

 Store and use

 Recharge
 Population increase
 Industrialization
 Urbanization
(a) Increase in per capita utilization
(b) Less peculation area
 In places where rain fed/ irrigation based
crops are cultivated through ground water
 Decrease in surface area of Lakes, Ponds,
Tanks etc.
 Deforestation
(i) Less precipitation
(ii) Absence of Barriers
(a) Rain drops checked by leaves of tree
(b) Water slowly descends through twigs & trunk
© Humus – acts as reservoir
(d) Tiny creatures – helps percolation

1 hectare of forest-6-7 Lac ton of water


(after filtering)
2 top layer can hold 1.2 Lac tons of water
4
 Rain water is the ultimate source of fresh
water
 Potential of rain to meet water demand is
tremendous
 Rain water harvesting helps to overcome
water scarcity
 To conserve ground water the aquifers must
be recharged with rain water
 Rain water harvesting is the ultimate answer
 To conserve & augment the storage of
ground water
 To reduce water table depletion
 To improve the quality of ground water
 To arrest sea water intrusion in coastal areas
 To avoid flood & water stagnation in urban
areas
 It is the activity of direct collection of rain
water
 Rain water can be stored for direct use or can
be recharged into the ground water aquifer.
Rainwater storage reservoir at Dholavira (Rann of Kutch) – Harappan civilization
(2500-1900 BC)
 Roof catchment
 Gutters
 Down pipe & first flushing pipe
 Filter Unit
 Storage Tank
Collection (Catchment)
Flat / sloping roofs Transportation: Down pipes

Leaf and grit


filter, First flush
device

Recharge into open wells / bore Storage in


wells / percolation pits / trenches tanks
 The roof of the house is used as the
catchment for collecting rain water.
 The construction and material of the roof
effect its suitability as a catchment
 Roofs made of corrugated iron sheet,
asbestos sheet, Tiles or Concrete can be
utilized for harvesting the rain water.
 Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of
roof all around to collect & transport the
rainwater from the roof.
 Gutters can be made in semi-circular and
rectangular shape with cement pipe, plain
galvanized iron sheet, PVC pipes, bamboos
etc.
 Use of locally available material reduce the
overall cost of the system.
 It is the pipe which carries the rainwater from
the gutters to the filter & storage tank.
 Down pipe is joined with the gutters at one
end & the other end is connected to the filter
unit of the storage tank.
 PVC or GI pipe of 50 mm to 75 mm (2-3”) are
commonly used for down pipe. Bamboo can
be also used wherever available and possible.
 Debris, dust & dirt collect on the roof during
non rainy periods when the first rain arrive. A
first flush system arrangement is made to
avoid the entering unwanted material into
the Filter Media & Storage Tank.
 This is a simple manually operated
arrangement or semi-automatic system with
a valve below the ‘T’ junction.
 The filter unit is a container or chamber filled
with filter media such as coarse sand,
charcoal, coconut fiber, pebbles & gravels to
remove the debris & dirt from water that
enters the tank.
 The filter unit is placed over the storage tank
or separately.
 It may be of Ferro cement filter unit,
Aluminum, Cement Rings or Plastic Bucket
etc.
 It is used to store the water that is collected from
the roof through filter.
 For small scale water storage plastic buckets, jerry
cans, clay or cement jars, ceramic jars, drums may
be used.
 For larger quantities of water, the system will
require a bigger tank with cylindrical or rectangular
or square in shape constructed with Ferro cement or
cement rings or plain cement concrete or reinforced
cement concrete or brick or stone etc.
 The storage tank is provided with a cover on
the top to avoid the contamination of water
from external sources.
 The storage tank is provided with pipe
fixtures at appropriate places to draw the
water to clean the tank & to dispose of extra
water. A provision for keeping the vessel to
collect the water is to be made.
 Based on
 No. of person in the House hold
 Per capita water requirement
 No. of days for which water is required
Example :
Drinking water requirement for a household with 5
family members, period of 8 months (30×8=240)
& 6 lpcd
= 5x 240x 6
= 7200 Liters
= Annual rainfall (in mm) x roof area (in sq.m) x co-efficient
of run off for roof
co-efficient of run off :
1) GI sheet - 0.9
2) Asbestos - 0.8
3) Tiled - 0.75
4) Plaster on bricks/Concrete - 0.7
Example : If Annual rainfall is 800 mm & roof area is 20 sq.
m and co-efficient of run off for roof is 0.8 (As for
Asbestos)
Then,
Water available from roof top = 800 mm × 20 sq.m × 0.8
=12800 Liters per annum
Size of Tank = 1.2 m dia
& 1.8 m height
No. of Tanks =4
Volume of Tank = (3.14x1.2x1.2x1.8)/4
= 2.03 cum
= 2000 liters (approx)
Volume of of 4 tanks = 4x2000
= 8000 Liters (approx)
(this can be designed as per requirement)
Size of Tank = 1.2 m dia
& 1.8 m height
No. of Tanks =4
Volume of Tank = (3.14x1.2x1.2x1.8)/4
= 2.03 cum
= 2000 liters (approx)
Volume of of 4 tanks = 4x2000
= 8000 Liters (approx)
(this can be designed as per requirement)
Thank You