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Appraisal of water volume estimation of Dam

through satellite imagery



 Abstract
 Introduction
 Problem Statement
 Objectives
 Study Area
 Data Acquisition
 Data Processing
 Results and Discussions
 Conclusions
 Recommendations

Estimation of water volume and deviations in water bodies contribute in

information acute to environment variation and resource maintenance. Now a
days remote sensing assets that are easily accessible offer exceptional opportunity
to upkeep the maintenance of hydro measurements and processes. This study
offers an approach to estimate volume of a Tarbela Dam through satellite imagery
and SRTM DEM of 3 arc second. We did geo-statistical exploration on DEM for
physiographic analysis and plotted longitudinal river profile by relating spatial
scrutiny of DEM. The reservoir borderline is demarcated with the assistance of
contouring of Tarbela Dam. In order to determined water storage capability of
water body, we have calculated area capacity curve with the help of spatial
analysis technique. For outlining the catchment extend Arc Hydro prototypical
beside with stream order has used. Land cover and land use are estimated by
classifying LANDSAT 8 images. Water volume Alteration of Tarbela Dam for different
years has displayed.

Keywords: GIS, RS, DEM, Longitudinal River Profile, Land cover, Land use, Landsat

 A reservoir is a huge, non-natural water body made by

building a weir sideways a river. Normally, Dam and
reservoir exist together.

 Reservoirs have a vital purpose in keeping extra water from

periods of extraordinary rainfall to supply water throughout
arid spells. Measurements of surface water is of importance
for flood hazard management and water resource planning
especially in developing countries. And it is important for
economic development of a country.
Problem Statement

The maintenance of a dam is managed at regular time interval to

avoid any disasters like floods. Due to sedimentation storage capacity
of Tarbela dam is affected. Time to time monitoring of water volume of
reservoirs helps identify such hazardous effects.

The definite purpose of this study is to evaluate the water volume of

Tarbela dam. As it is one of the important and giant reservoirs. Pakistan
is highly dependent on water flows and aquatic resources for foodstuff
yielding. So Tarbela dam’s monitoring through modern and latest
technology will be advantageous for economy of Pakistan.
The Tarbela dam is selected for this study

 Pakistan has three massive dams, Mangla,

Tarbela and Chashma.

 Tarbela dam is a huge dam built on Indus

River near a small town called Tarbela in the
Haripur District of Pakistan and is sited 50 km
NW of Islamabad.

 It is the only mega storage

structure in a Pakistan and world’s largest
earth and rock filled structure
Data Acquisition

 SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic mission)DEM (Digital Elevation Model) 90m and Landsat 8
 DEM and Landsat 8 imagery data for study area were downloaded from the following online database

Required Software

 ArcGIS
 Erdas imagine
 Matlab
 Global Mapper
 MS Excel
Processing of Data
3D View of Study AREA
Classification of study area map
Classification of study area map

 Supervised classification
 Definition
The spectral signatures obtained from training samples to classify an image
is called supervised classification
The following steps are used for supervised classification
1. Enables the image toolbars
2. Select training samples
3. Extract signature file
4. Classify the image
5. Activate spatial analyst tools from the extension of arcgis
6. Generate clusters and the assign the classed
 On the basis of supervised classification we have extracted the
following major classes of study area
 Soil
 Vegetation
 Shallow water
 Sand
 Health forest
 Concrete
 Dense water
Reclassify DEM
A digital elevation model is a digital represention of 3D terrain surface.
It is a reaster representation of surface including cell reflectance values
of terrain.
Reclassify of Dem
It includes the reflectance values when these values are encountered
at sensor there exist a variation of cell values due to sensor and
atmospheric errors creates the up and depression. To extract valuable
information it is necessary to reclass to the dem. A algorithm run by a
software to remove these paramenter
Longitude river profile
 Longitudinal river profile
Rivers are linear subjects normally which shows gradient along their
path it defines the how much the profile of the river is gradient. Ideal
LRP have concave shape
It indicate the mouth have less gradient as compared to central path
of the prole as shown in the graph
A contour line joins the points having equal elevation above the
reference point such as mean sea level. The above map is called
contour map illustrated with contour lines. i.e. topographic map,
showing vallyes and hills , and the steepness or gentleness of slopes
Contour interval
Any spaces between vertical lines on a topographic map or in other
words it is difference in elevation. Small contour intervals represents flat
region and larger intervals are used for mountainous areas.
In above diagram the contour interval is 100.
 The cathchement area is hydlogical unit which is used for the water
storing area. Catchment areas are sepraterd from each other by
water sheds
 In above diagram the cathchment area of terbala reserviour has
been extracted at the elevation of 500m from the mean sea level
 Then it is exported into google earth format and showed 3D view ot
the study area
FILL Pit/Depression/Sink
 Fill and sink are used for removing of small depression in the Dem
 A sink is a cell having no drainage direction. All the sourrounding
cell have values as compared to sink cell. The pour point have
drainage direction and it assign the direction to the sink cell
because it have smallest elevation as compared to other cells
Flow Direction
Flow Direction

 The ability of a surface to determing the direction of flow from every

cell within the raster and map containing this type of information is
called flow direction map
 This procedurce is done by taking surface as input a raster and
showing the direction of each cell within the raster
 There are eight model which is used to determine the flow direction
called (D8) flow model and it is presented in Jenson And Domingue
Flow Accumulation
 Flow accumulate determine the all cell values moving down to the
slope add up these values and assign to the output raster
 It assign the numeric values to the stream links in the stream
 There are two basic methods for stream ordering
 These are called Strahler and shreve methods for stream links as
shown in the figure.
 Geological map determine the interior and exterior surface of the
study area means which type of rocks has existed there.
 Terbala reservoir have different types of rocks these rocks ranked as
Cenozoic era with quaternary period of the climate classification
including the following type of interior within the terbala reservoir
 Silt
 Sand
 Gravel
 Slope directly determines the input and output flow of the water.
There are different types of the slope
 Moderate slope ( less than 30 degrees)
 Gentle slope (30-45 degrees)
 Steepest slope (greater than 45 degrees
 Area capacity curves determine the flood routing, surface elevation
of reservoir and many other parameter of hydrology
 It is a dimensionless quantity N which determine the elevation vs
distance cover by the stream channel.
 The small variation in the curve is called Knick points it may be due
to sudden variation in slope or fault lines

2015 2016
2010 2011
2005 2006

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
 This data is comparative date of WAPDA with DEM plotted data
 It has been noted that the variation in graph indicate that the
variation in water reservoir level.
 Water capacity has been increased due to variation in monsoon
seasons such examples can be excluded from previous floods in
different areas of Punjab and Sindh.
 Water amount is high as compared to storage or in other words due
to lack of water storage dams.

Catchment area of the river should give high yield such that adequate runoff is
available for storage. Evapotranspiration and percolation cause heavy losses. In this
study, we used GIS techniques and satellite imagery to estimate the water volume of
Tarbela Dam. We have used 90m resolution DEM (digital elevation model) .We did
physiographic study and plot longitude River Profile by using geospatial techniques.
We demarcated reservoir boundary and fixed the length of reservoir with the help of
GIS techniques. By applying the methods it has been founded that volume of the
Tarbela reservoir continuously varies with passing dates by every month. By applying
GIS techniques and tools, we interpolated DEM to estimate the water volume, during
monsoon month. The maximum water volume during monsoon month (August) was
1543.57 cusec and average water as 1535.10 cusec. And the graph has been plotted to
show the variance of Volume across every year.

As Tarbela Dam is one of the most significant and giant reservoir of

Pakistan. Pakistan highly dependent on Tarbela Dam for irrigation, food
production and electricity generation. So it is mandatory to maintain and
monitor Tarbela dam regularly. It is compulsory to maintained and
managed water volume and storage capacity through reliable resources.
Conventional methods are laborious, time consuming and overpriced as
well. Presently, RS and GIS is playing a vital role in monitoring of
hydrological and hydraulic processes. Though, several reservoirs are
located in remote areas, which cause trouble in deployment and
consistent maintenance of conventional in-situ measurement methods. So
freely and publically available satellite data is an appropriate tool for
monitoring these reservoir. All these factors make satellite data a suitable
tool for observing and maintaining reservoir. So we should encourage the
use of RS and GIS techniques and satellite data for globally and locally
monitor reservoirs.