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Exterior Walls- Framing &

Structural Components
Framing/Construction Techniques
 General Terms & Methodology
 Platform Framing
 Balloon Framing
 Energy-Efficient Framing
 Post & Beam(Timber)
 Steel Framing
 Concrete Masonry Construction
 Floor Framing Terms
 Wall Framing Terms
 Exterior Finishes
General Exterior Wall Construction
 Walls support vertical loads from
– roof
– ceiling
– floors
 Must also resist later forces due to
– wind
– earthquakes
Typical Wall Construction
 One and two story framing
– Generally walls are 2” x 4” @ 16” O.C.
– Occasionally 2” x 6” @ 16”, 19.2” and 24”
O.C. associated with cold climates
 Three story framing(load bearing walls)
– lower floor = 2” x 6” @ 16” O.C.
– other floors = 2” x 4” @ 16” O.C.
Platform Rafter
Ceiling Joist

Framing or Truss Subfloor

1. Also called
Western Blocking
Framing Dbl Plate
Floor Joist
2. Most
common Sway Bracing “Platform Framing”
today (corner bracing) Girder
3. Platform Ledger
provide Floor Joist
area to Sill
build walls Foundation
Sheathing
Balloon
Framing
1. Studs extend
from sill to
roof line
2. Also called
Eastern Framing
3. Terms similar to Balloon Framing
Platform
Framing.
4. Additional Terms:
Ribbon
Firestop Two story length studs
Balloon Framing
Terms
 Ribbon
 Firestop
Balloon Framing
 Used primarily for 2 story construction
 Less chance of shrinkage or movement
– recommended for masonry veneer & stucco
 2nd floor supported by wall with
– let-in 1x4 called a ribbon
 Less overall material
 Longer members usually more costly
 Firestop blocking and ribbons required
Framing Construction at Corners
3 full studs
–good with
super insulated
buildings

3 full studs
and blocking

3 full studs
and 1/2” shim Two studs and dry wall clips (see
class sample)
Energy-Efficient Framing
 Advanced framing techniques (AFT)
 Altering traditional framing methods
– see text for examples
 Eliminatenonstructural wood with insulation
(Wood = R1/inch, Insulation = R3.5 to R8.3/inch)
– insulation at corners, insulation at exterior wall behind
partition intersections, and insulated headers
 Stud spacing (24” OC)
 One level height limitation set by code
 Structural insulated panels (SIP)
Post & beam
T&G planks
Beam(Timber) 2x6 or 2x8

1. Relatively new
and less common
in residential
construction
2. Larger members
placed further
apart post
3. Used in heavy
timber
construction for
years Beam and Post
typically 8’ OC
Post &Beam Construction
 Provides
vaulted (sloped) ceilings and a
more open feeling in the space

T
Post and Beam Framing using
Tongue & Groove Planking
 Usedfor Roof or Floor when structure is space
24” or more O.C.
Steel Framing
 Alternate method of
framing
– lower energy cost
– higher strength
– better insurance rates
and considerations
 Similarto platform
framing in construction
– steel studs
– base/plates
– steel trusses
Concrete Masonry Construction
 Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
– durable, economical material, excellent structural values,
poor insulation values
 Classifications
– hollow
– load bearing (ASTM C 90)
– solid load-bearing
– nonload-bearing (solid or hollow)
 Solid Masonry = 75% solid material in cross-section
– positions: solider, rowlock, sailor, stretcher, header shiner
Concrete Masonry Shapes
Solid Masonry (Brick) Positions
Structural Components
 Floor Systems
– conventional framing (Stick Built)
– terminology
 Floor Bracing
– Mid span
– End bracing
 Framed Wall Construction
– bearing walls
– nonbearing walls
– exterior finishes
Conventional Floor Framing
 Conventional (Stick) framing basic
terms
– mud sill
– sole plate(sill)
– floor joist
– rim joist
– anchor bolt
 Floor Joist
– Solid
– TJI
– Open web
Floor Bracing

 End Bracing
– Rim Joist
– Blocking
Floor Bracing

 Bracing at
midspan
– solid blocking
– cross blocking
» wood
» metal
Framed Wall Construction
 Definition:
Bearing walls

 Definition:
Nonbearing
walls
Double Plate
Window/Door Cripple Stud
Framing Terms or Jack Stud
 Header Header
– supports structure
above windows
 Header Jack (trimmer)
– supports header Header Jack
 Cripple Studs (jack stud) or Trimmer
 Double Plate
 Rough Sill(sub sill)
 King stud
– additional stud to trim out
window
Framed Wall Construction
Shear Wall Design
 Resistance to lateral
forces resulting from
earthquakes or wind
 Connections:
– 1 sheathing to joist
– 2 joist to top wall
– 3 edge nailing
– 4 tie-down straps
– 5 anchor/shear bolts
Exterior Finishes

 Wood Siding
 Cement Board Siding
 Steel Siding
 Vinyl Siding
 Stucco
 Exterior Insulation Finish System (EIFS)
Wood Siding
 Various sizes and
Shapes
– Solid wood
– T1-11(plywood)
» 4’x8’ sheets
– Masonnite
Lapboard
» 8-12” x 16’
Cement Board Siding
 Has texture and
look of wood
siding but is
more weather
resistant.
Steel & Vinyl Siding
 Higher in Cost and Lower in Maintenance
– no painting
 A varietyof wood textures and patterns
 Longer lasting than wood but some Concerns:
– expansion
– denting
– cracking
– rusting
Cement Stucco
sheathing vs. open frame
Least expensive
building paper
wire fabric lath
furring nails

drip screed
3 coats of plaster
finish
brown
scratch
Exterior Insulated Finish System (EIFS)
Roof Construction
 Basic terms:
– slope/pitch--incline of roof
– roof member terms--structure of roof
– eave/cornice--detail showing wall to roof const
– fascia--visible member attached to end of rafters
– ridge--top of roof
– sheathing--material covering the top of rafters
– rafter/ceiling joist--structure framing of roof
– soffit--underneath side of roof overhang
– vents--in soffit, allows air circulation in attic
Eave and Cornice Detail Terms
Slope vs. Pitch
Text book error (noted as pitch symbol)
 Slope = Rise/Run
Slope symbol
– expressed as a ratio
– always a base of 12
– placed on dwg. 12
4
•Pitch = Rise/Span
• expressed as fraction
• reduce to smallest
fraction
• not placed on drawing,
helpful to carpenter
Roof Member Terminology
VALLEY JACK RAFTER
Metal Framing Connectors
•Keeps structural members from separating