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Steel Shear Connections Class notes

Steel Shear Connections Class notes

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Robert B. Fleischman

Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

University of Arizona

Background: Beam Boundary Conditions

You may recall from CE 333 that a fixed beam deflects less than

a simple beam and has smaller moments, especially at mid-span.

q = wL3/24 EI

D = wL4/384 EI

D= 5wL4/384 EI

M- = wL2/12

M+ = wL2/8 M+ = wL2/24

expensive full penetration welding or a lot of high strength bolts.

For this reason, gravity system (girder to column, beam to girder)

connections are almost always “simple” framing.

Steel Connections: Simple vs. Rigid Framing

Note the detail to avoid a “killer”

connection on the weak axis.

Courtesy AISC Educational Guides

Full pen

Enough bolts to welds on

carry end (shear) Connect to beam Enough bolts to

reaction. beam web flange develop full shear

only + web moment.

Used for gravity system, designed to Used for lateral system, designed

carry vertical reaction only, so termed to resist rotation, so termed

Shear Connection Moment Connection

Steel Shear Connections

outer face (where

it is easier to get

an impact wrench).

Courtesy AISC

Educational Guides

Shear Connections (con’t)

In general, shear tabs† or angles are most common for gravity framing.

Note connections typically have shop welds and field bolts.

Welds are cheaper and more reliable in the shop due Single Angle

to fixturing, controlled environment & QA/QC.

Bolts have more “tolerance” forgiveness in the field.

Note Bolting

beam occurs in field Angle shop

direction welded to

markings beam

.

†Research that led to codification

Shear tab of shear tab performed by UA

shop welded professor (emeritus) Ralph Richard.

to HSS

column Shear Tab Courtesy AISC

Educational Guides

Shear Connection Design

Courtesy AISC

Educational Guides

Shear connections are designed for the

beam end reaction (or max shear), Vu,b.

Design mainly involves selecting cross-

sectional dimensions dPL tPL as well as

(number and) size of bolts and shop weld.

the dimension bPL as modified by other reqs.

NOTE:

g ed

Detail material (plates, angles,

etc.) is typically A36 (FY=36ksi)

A992 or A572 (FY=50ksi).

dPL Vu,b

tPL AISC Tables 2-4, 2-5

A992 A36

FY 50 ksi 36 ksi

bPL FU 65 ksi 58 ksi

Shear Connection Design Courtesy AISC

Design reaction:

RU = 1.2 (8) + 1.6 (25) = 49.6k

Look up fRn ≥ 49.6k

Shear Connection Design Courtesy AISC

Many combinations

and geometries give

52k - why this one?

Design reaction:

RU = 1.2 (8) + 1.6 (25) = 49.6k

Look up fRn ≥ 49.6k

¼” A36 plate

Four (4) ¾” A325 N bolts

3/16” E70xx weld

fRn = 52.2k

Courtesy

• Design plate, bolts, weld to carry the vertical end (shear) reaction

• Provide an essentially pinned connection

• Enforce the desired controlling failure mechanism

• Provide sufficient inherent ductility

• Make the connection constructible and economical

Prescriptive Rules for “Conventional” Shear Tab:

• Plate thickness limit of half bolt diameter +1/16” (tPL=½db+1/16”)

– to promote “plowing” of the bolts in an overload

• Single column of bolts typ 3” from column face (a= 2½”-3½” )

– to limit eccentricity

• Two-sided fillet welds sized at 5/8 of plate thickness (w= 5/8 tPL)

to promote plate yielding prior to weld fracture

• Edge distance of twice the bolt diameter (Le=2db) – to allow

“plowing” ductility through the total inelastic beam rotation

Courtesy

¼” A36 plate, ¾” A325 N bolts: ¼ < ½ (3/4) + 1/16 = 7/16 OK

a= 3 OK

• Two-sided fillet welds sized at 5/8 of plate thickness (w= 5/8 tPL)

Le=1.5 = 2(0.75) OK

Code Shear Strength: Detail Elements

Courtesy AISC

Educational

Guides

shear yield

stress ty is

approximated

in the code as

0.6FY.

Note you can’t determine shear rupture until you select the bolts,

but you can use shear yielding to get preliminary dimensions.

Background: Shear Yield Stress

Tension Coupon “505” Specimen:

d = 0.505” A = 0.2 sq in

For A992, when the testing machine reaches P

P=10k (s = P/A = 50 ksi), the bar begins to

yield (stretch w/out further resistance while

holding the load, i.e. not breaking).

So we assign A992 FY=50 ksi (50 grade steel)

What does that have to do with tension?

that tY = 0.5FY.

0.577 FY t FY

½ FY But notice this yield condition also

involves a small amount of tension

s tY shear alone, the

material can support

a slightly larger

stress, 1/3 FY.

The AISC Code uses 0.6FY

LRFD Connection Tables

Plate Strength:

Let’s see if we can back this strength out:

Table10-10a AISC LRFD Manual:

fRn = 52.2k

Anv = (dPL – nb drem) tPL = [11.5-4( ¾ + 1/8 )] ¼ = 2.0 sq in

Shear Yield:

AISC Tables 2-4, 2-5

Vn = 0.6 FY dPL tPL = 0.6 (36) (2.875 ) = 62.1k Main Members Detail Material

WF PL

fVn = (1.0) 62.1k = 62.1k A992 A36

50 ksi 36 ksi

Shear Fracture: 65 ksi 58 ksi

Vn = 0.6 FU dPL tPL = 0.6 (58) (2) = 69.6k

fVn = (0.75) 62.1k = 52.2k

Courtesy AISC

Guides

is not exactly correct but has been shown to acceptable

for the “Conventional” Shear Tabs in AISC Table 10-10.

Let’s look more closely at the connection and create an exploded FBD

with the column face:

Designers often assume the

point of inflection (zero

EQUILIBRIUM? moment) at the bolt line as

a

shown.

case due to several parameters

Vb related to the entire framing.

dPL Vb

M Either way, you can see

that the shear tab is

carrying shear + moment.

M = Vb a

Background: Combined Shear + Bending

Plastic Capacity under combined shear and bending:

A½ Elastic Plastic

T=C=A½ FY a

tv sb tv sb

dPL Vb Vb d½

tPL

M

C

VbQ/ItPL Mc/I V/APL FY

VY = ty APL Mp = Zx Fy

under both shear and also bending, so you can’t = 0.6Fy APL = A½d½ Fy

get VY and Mp at the same time, so a yield

We can often look up Z or Mp

criterion under combined loading is needed. but this is how to calculate it.

Background: Combined Forces

For combined axial + bending (not our current situation), both

actions create normal stress so simple (direct) addition of values

is appropriate (more on N+M later). Elastic Plastic

sa sb sa + sb

Mc/I FY

N/A

orthogonal vectors, so we need vector addition, tv

and also the maximum bending stress (extreme sb

fiber) and shear stress (centroid) occur at

different locations on the cross section.

Courtesy AISC

Guides

a Elastic Plastic

tv sb tv sb

dPL Vb Vb

tPL

M

have been proposed, including the form shown. V M

+ = 1.0

The SSRC Plastic Design Handbook suggested VY Mp

N=4 while the AISC Code uses N=2

LRFD Connection Tables

Check combined Shear + Bending Yield vs.

AISC LRFD Manual Table10-10a :

fRn = 52.2k

Zx = ¼ (1/4) (11.5)2 = 8.26in3

f Mn = (0.9) 297.6 k” = 267.8 k” 2 2

52.2 + 146.8

Vu = 52.2 k ≤ 1.0

Mu = Vu a’ = (52.2) (3-3/16) = 146.8 k” 62.1 267.8

0.842 + 0.5482 = 1.00 OK

So design has same unity ratio for

NSF and GSY of the shear plate.

LRFD Connection Tables

Now let’s check 3/16

156.6 k”

dPL 52.2k

tPL

te = w ( w < ¼” )

For a weld size w, te = 0.707 w te = 0.707w + 1/8”

e.g. 3/16 ” (SMAW, stick) (SAW, submerged arc)

typ. field typ. shop

w te

AISC SPEC J2.4

w

LRFD Weld Specification J2

AISC SPEC J2.4

f rn = (0.75) 0.6 FEXX te Strength per inch (length of weld)

LRFD Connection Tables

To start let’s check the weld

for just shear force alone

3/16

E70xx

156.6 k”

w = 3/16 ”

11.5” 52.2k te = 0.707 w = 0.707 (3/16)

¼” = 0.132 (SMAW)

te = w = 3/16 = 0.1875

for SAW < ¼”

f Rn = f 0.6 FEXX te Lw

= (0.75) 0.6 (70) (.132) (2x11.5) f Rn = 95.6 (.1875/.132)

= 95.6 k (SMAW) = 135.8 k (SAW)

As expected more than OK, but what about the moment?

LRFD Connection Tables OK+ for SAW

Now, let’s look at the weld te = 0.187” (SAW)

under combined forces: 3/16 te = 0.132” (SMAW)

E70xx

3

s = Mc/I tv

156.6 k”

Moment of inertia

11.5” 52.2k (for weld design)

Iw = 2 x 1/12 (1) h3w

¼”

Iw =(11.5)3 /6

= 253.5 in4

In this case, we know the weld size (analysis): per inch (size of weld)

Iw = 253.5 in4/in (0.132”) = 33.5 in4 We must combine

shear and bending

Sw = Iw / c= 33.5/5.75 = 5.82 in3 at the stress level f tn = f 0.6 FEXX

tu, v = VU/Aw = 52.2/[(2x11.5) 0.132] = 17.2 ksi t tv = (0.75)(0.6) (70)

= 31.5 ksi

tu, h = MU/S = 156.6/ 5.82 = 26.9 ksi th

≈ OK

tu = (t2u, v + t2u, h ) = (17.22 + 26.92) = 31.9 ksi

Shear Connection Design

Now let’s check the bolts

We have designed the connection with the assumption of a point of inflection (zero

moment) at the bolt line. According to this we will design the bolts for shear alone.

a

dPL Vb = 52.2k

Vw

Mw

Mw = Vb e

reviewing the code bolt design under shear.

LRFD Bolt Specification J3

Note that first there are layout requirements.

Our connection meets all standard spacing and edge distance requirements

(actually exceeds the edge distance for sufficient “plowing” distance).

LRFD Bolt Specification J3

f Rn = f nb Fnv Ab (total)

LRFD Bolt Specification J3

LRFD Bolt Specification J3

nominal (pr2) area

FU = 120 ksi

Athr ≈ 0.75Ab

Fnv-x = 120 (0.6) = 72 ksi

Fnv-n = 120 (0.75) (0.6) = 54 ksi

LRFD Bolt Tables – Chapter 7

4 - ¾ A325-N-S

frn = 0.75 (0.442) (54)

frn = 17.9k

fRn = 4 x 17.9 = 71.6k

71.6k > 52.2k OK

Discussion: Partial End Fixity

Since the connection is not really a pin, it is possible that

there is some negative moment at the bolt line.

D = 5wL4/384 EI

M+ = wL2/8

Points of

inflection

In beam M- = wL2/12

D = wL4/384 EI

M+ = wL2/24

Discussion: Point of Inflection

a

P.I.

weld bolt The point of inflection

Mw=VE a is the point of zero

I Vb Vb=Vw = VE moment on the beam.

Vw

Mw Cases I, III, IV are true

pinned connections with the

Mw + Mb = V E a zero moment happening at

Vw II Vb different places within the

Mw Mb connection.

III where the connection is

Vw Vb

providing some end

Mb restraint.

Mw - Mb = VE a

IV Vb

Vw

Mw Mb Let’s explore this a bit more.

Discussion: Bolt Line Moment

In their elastic state, most

connections are Case II.

In their inelastic

state, connections

can become one

of the other

states.

After Astaneh-Asl, 2005 Sherman, 2012

to design the bolt for the moment Vu eb

Discussion: Shear Tab Rotational Restraint

Shear Tab Load-Rotation Response

W16x50 A992

Beam mid- L 30 ft

span at Mp E 29000 ksi

Fy 50

Ix 659 in4

Sx 81 in3

Zx 92 in3

Beam mid-

span at My

My 4050 k-in 337.5 k-ft

Mp 4600 k-in 383.3 k-ft

e = | (n-1) - a| ≥ a

wy 3.00 klf

Ry 45 k

qE,sb 0.02543 rad

After Astaneh et al

Discussion: Point

of Inflection

Shear Tab So it seems we need to

PI Migration

find out how to design

a bolt group subjected

to shear + moment

design the bolt for the moment Vu eb

Note for our case, if we

assume the column is flexible

eb = max [(4-1)-3, 3 ]

= max [0, 3] = 3

This is why some designers

simply design both the weld and

After Astaneh et al

bolts for V + Ve

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

Elastic Center Method Resolve the eccentric load into vertical and horizontal

components (Py , Px ) and moment (M = Pe) acting

about the Center of Gravity (CG) of the bolt group.

perpendicular to the arm between the CG and the bolt:

The following components

act on each bolt i due to the

direct (translational) force P:

ri,P y = Py / nb

ri,P x = Px / nb

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

Equilibrium requires that: Elastic Center Method

nb qi

M = S ri,M di

i=1

from each bolt to the CG.

can further be broken into

yi

horizontal and vertical components:

ri,M x= ri,M cos qi xi

ri,M y= ri,M sin qi

It can be seen that:

cos qi = yi/di So the force components on any bolt are:

sin qi = xi/di ri,M x= ri,M yi/di

where xi and yi are ri,M y= ri,M xi/di

measured from the CG

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

It should be apparent that the (shear) Elastic Center Method

deformation of each bolt is linearly

proportional to its distance from the CG, This is easiest to see for one bolt

and thus for elastic bolts, the force will column but holds for any pattern.

be linearly proportional as well. r1,M

r1,M r2,M rn,M d1 d r2,M

= = … = 2

d1 d2 dn

expressed in terms of one of the bolts.

r7,M

d2 r

r2,M = d 1,M … etc. nb nb

1

i=1 i=1

distance from the CG, let’s put it in nb

terms of the bolt farthest from the CG M = r1,M/d1 iS= 1 d2i

since it will have the largest force.

nb

ri,M = di r1,M

d1 r1,M = M d1 / S d2i

i=1

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

Note that for multiple bolt columns, Elastic Center Method

r1,M will be acting at an angle.

qi r1,M = M d1 / S d2i

r1,M x= ri,M y1/d1

r1,M y= r1,M x1/d1

So the force components due to moment on di

the maximum loaded bolt are:

r1,Mx = M y1 / S d2i

r1,My = M x1 / S d2i yi

Note also that

xi

d2i = x2i + y2i

in terms of the bolt layout: r1,Mx = M y1 / [S x2i + S y2i ]

r1,My = M x1 / [S x2i + S y2i ]

Salmon and Johnson

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

Elastic Center Method Note beam moment causes

torsion on the bolt group,

and thus shear on the bolt

Then the total components acting on the most highly loaded bolt 1 are:

vu,1 x = r1,P x + r1,M x

vu,1 y = r1,P y + r1,M y

and the design shear acting on the most highly loaded bolt 1 is:

Shear Connection Design

Check the bolts for Recall frn = 17.9k

shear and moment:

a

dPL Vw= Vb

Mb = 156.6 k”

Vb = 52.2k

vu,1 x = r1,M x = M d1 / S d2i = 156.6 (4.5)/[2(1.52 + 4.52)] = 15.6 k

vu,max = 13.052 + 15.62 vu > frn

vu,max = 20.3k NG!?

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

The Elastic Center (EC) Method is highly conservative:

• Assumes 3 DOFs are independent

• Highest stress on a single bolt EC Method

• No plastic redistribution

method was developed, the

Instantaneous Center (IC) Method.

• accounts for yielding of the bolts to

even out the forces.

• calculates the actual center of

rotation of a rigid body with 3 DOFs

Note: IC CG

After T. Bartlett Quimby

Background: Eccentrically Load Bolts Methods

b Elastic Center Instantaneous Center

Rotation treated Translation & Rotation

separately

e

b

yo

e

xo

Finding this location is a trial and error procedure.

Let’s define the coordinates of the IC relative to the bolt group CG

as x0 & y0. The eccentric load acts at a distance e from the CG.

After J. Liu The load can also occur at an angle, which we will term b.

Background: Eccentrically Load Bolts Methods

Instantaneous Center

All parts of

the bolt group

rotate the

same amount

about the IC

This means

deformation is

proportional

to distance qconn

from the IC

Background: Eccentrically Load Bolts Methods

The Elastic Center (EC) Method assumes the bolt remains elastic

all the way to failure. Let’s estimate this “idealized” behavior:

for force R vs. dmax = 0.34”

dv = VL/AG = (V/A) (L/G) deformation D

where Rult = Fnv Ab

= (72ksi) (1”)/(11200ksi)

= .0064”

Background: Eccentrically Load Bolts Methods

Instantaneous Center

the deformations are still

proportional to distance,

the force is not, which is

the real case, leading to

better sharing of the force

Background: Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

b

Pu

For bolt i

yo qi CG

IC

b

xo

nb

i=1

nb

i=1

nb

i=1

J. Liu

Shear Connection Design Check the bolts for shear

and moment using IC

EM

IC

AISC Part 7 – Eccentric Bolt Group Tables

Thankfully AISC has made a bunch of

design tables based on the IC Method!

The Tables provide a “C factor” that

you can think of as “equivalent bolts”.

Code: Eccentric

Bolt Group

Connection

Design

What this means is that

your bolt pattern of

2x6=12 bolts can only

be counted as 4.53 bolts

due to the large (12”)

eccentricity in the load

made from 12 A325-N-S:

frn = 17.9k

Pu = 17.9 x 4.53 = 81.1k

Code: Eccentric Bolt Group Connection Design

Checking Table 7.8

Shear Connection Design

Finally, check the bolts

for bearing:

a

dPL

is much higher than the detail material (plate). Thus bolts

cause the bearing failure, but it is the plate that fails!

Spec J10. Bearing

Shear Connection Design

Check the bolts

for bearing:

a

dPL

Shear Tab Design Charts

Why might it be important to know the “behind the scenes”?

Conventional vs. Non-conventional Shear Tab Configurations

are based on

“Conventional”

configurations

need to design

yourself!

Shear Tab Design Charts

PART 10: “Extended” Configuration

Two main cases: 1. Weak axis of column

2. Multiple Bolt Columns

PART 10: Shear Tab Design

One last thing: The AISC Code value for eb is a compromise

between flexible and stiff columns, and except for deep

connections (n ≥ 6), uses a/2 instead of a:

= 3”, explaining why the bolt U.R. was slightly higher than 1

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