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INTRODUCTION

• Psychrometry is the study of the properties of

air – water vapor mixture.

• Atmospheric air composition

• Concentration of water vapor and pollutants

• Concept of moist air

Composition of dry air

Properties of moist air

• Perfect gas laws for engineering calculations

• For accurate calculation of the properties of

moist air one need to use statistical mechanics

considering real gas behavior

• Exact properties are very complex and difficult

to compute.

Psychrometric properties

• Dry bulb temperature(DBT)

• Saturated vapor pressure(pS)

• Relative humidity(Φ)

• Humidity Ratio(W)

• Degree of saturation(µ)

• Dew Point Temperature(DPT)

• Specific volume(v)

• Enthalpy(h)

• Humid specific heat

Saturated vapor pressure

• Can be calculated from thermodynamic charts

or from regression equations

Relative Humidity (Φ)

• Relative humidity is the ratio of molar fraction of

water vapor in moist air to the molar fraction of

water vapor in saturated air at same temperature

and pressure. Considering ideal gas behavior it can

be expressed as

percentage. When relative humidity is 100% the air

is saturated.

Humidity Ratio(W)

• The humidity ratio (or specific humidity) W is

the mass of water associated with each

kilogram of dry air.

• Assuming both water vapour and dry air to be

perfect gases, the humidity ratio is given by:

Degree of saturation(µ)

• The degree of saturation is the ratio of the

humidity ratio W to the humidity ratio of a

saturated mixture Wsat the same temperature

and pressure,

Dew Point Temperature(DPT)

• If unsaturated moist air is cooled at constant

pressure, then the temperature at which the

moisture in the air begins to condense is

known as dew-point temperature (DPT)of air.

• An approximate equation for dew-point

temperature is given by:

Specific volume(v)

• The specific volume is defined as the number

of cubic meters of moist air per kilogram of

dry air.

• From perfect gas equation since the volumes

occupied by the individual substances are the

same, the specific volume is also equal to the

number of cubic meters of dry air per kilogram

of dry air

Enthalpy(h)

• The enthalpy of moist air is the sum of the

enthalpy of the dry air and the enthalpy of the

water vapour.

• Enthalpy values are always based on some

reference value. For moist air, the enthalpy of

dry air is given a zero value at 0°C, and for

water vapour the enthalpy of saturated water

is taken as zero at 0°C

• The enthalpy of moist air is given by

Enthalpy(h)

Humid specific heat

• From the equation for enthalpy of moist air, the

humid specific heat of moist air can be written as

very small compared to the first term, for all

practical purposes, the humid specific heat of

moist air, cpm can be taken as 1.0216 kJ/kg dry air.K

Psychrometric charts

Straight line law

• The straight line law states that “when air is

transferring heat and mass (water) to or from

a wetted surface, the condition of air shown

on a psychrometric chart drives towards the

saturation line at the temperature of the

wetted surface”.

Adiabatic Saturator

• Adiabatic saturation temperature is defined as

that temperature at which water, by

evaporating into air, can bring the air to

saturation at the same temperature

adiabatically.

• An adiabatic saturator is a device using which

one can measure theoretically the adiabatic

saturation temperature of air.

Adiabatic Saturator

Thermodynamic Wet bulb

temperature

• The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is

a thermodynamic property, and is

independent of the path taken by air.

• Assuming the humid specific heat to be

constant, from the enthalpy balance, the

thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature can be

written as

Wet bulb temperature

• In practice, it is not convenient to measure the wet-bulb

temperature using an adiabatic saturator. In stead, a

thermometer with a wetted wick is used to measure the wet

bulb temperature.

Psychrometer

• Any instrument capable of measuring the

psychrometric state of air is called a

psychrometer.

• Types

– Sling Psychrometer

– Aspirated Psychrometer

– Hygrometer

Psychrometric processes

• Sensible heating

• Sensible cooling

• Humidifying

• Dehumidifying

• Heating and humidifying

• Cooling and dehumidifying

• Cooling and humidifying

• Heating and dehumidifying

Sensible heat factor(SHF)

• The ratio of sensible heat transfer to the total heat

transfer is termed as sensible heat factor.

• SHR from 0.95 - 1.00 for Precision air conditioning

(computers and data centres)

• SHR from 0.65 - 0.75 for Comfort cooling (people)

• SHR from 0.50 - 0.60 for Dehumidification

• Lower SHF value indicates that the dehumidification

requirement will be high and the supply air leaving the

cooling coil shall be at lower temperature to meet the

dehumidification needs.

Sensible heat factor(SHF)

Bypass factor

• The term bypass factor represents the fraction

of uncontacted air to the cooling surface.

Air washer

Air washer

• An air washer is a device for conditioning air.

• In an air washer air comes in direct contact

with a spray of water and there will be an

exchange of heat and mass (water vapour)

between air and water.

• The outlet condition of air depends upon the

temperature of water sprayed in the air

washer.

Problems

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