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Feb 01, 2018

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Calorimetry Experiment

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Calorimetry Experiment

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temperature difference

• Flows from higher-temperature object to lower-temperature

object

If T1 > T2

System Heat Surroundings

(T2) q system = -

(T1)

exothermic

If T1 < T2

System Heat Surroundings

(T2) q system = +

(T1)

endothermic

Calorimetry: the measurement of heat flow

• device used is called a... calorimeter

specific heat capacity (C): amt. of heat needed to raise

temp. of 1 g of a substance 1oC (1 K)

heat of fusion (ΔHfus): melting/freezing

heat of vaporization (ΔHvap): boiling/condensing

There are NO temp changes during a phase change.

Various Specific Heat Capacities

Specific

Substance heat capacity

(J/K g)

Silver 0.235 generally

require much

Copper 0.385 energy to heat

Iron 0.449 them up

Aluminum 0.897 (i.e. they heat

up easily)

H2O(l) 4.184 Water requires

H2O(s) 2.03 much more

H2O(g) 1.998 energy to heat

up

We can find the heat a substance loses or gains using:

where q = heat (J) q = m C DT

m = mass of substance (g)

(used within a given

C = specific heat (J/goC) state of matter)

DT = temperature change (oC) AND

DH = heat of vap/fus (J/g)

q = m ΔH

Heating Curve

g (used between two

+ l/g Cg

states of matter or

Temp.

l ΔHvap

s/l Cl during a phase change)

s ΔHfus –

Cs

D = final – initial

HEAT

Using heat capacities…

q = m C ΔT

q (J) = mass (g) C (J/goC) ΔT (oC)

q = joules (J)

Heating Curves

• Temperature Change within phase

• change in KE (molecular motion)

• depends on heat capacity of phase

C H2O (l) = 4.184 J/goC (requires the most heat)

C H2O (s) = 2.077 J/goC

C H2O (g) = 2.042 J/goC (requires the least heat)

• Phase Changes (s ↔ l ↔ g)

• change in PE (molecular arrangement)

• temperature remains constant

• overcoming intermolecular forces

ΔHfus = 333 J/g (s ↔ l)

ΔHvap = 2256 J/g (l ↔ g) Why is this so much larger?

Heating Curve of Water

From Ice to Steam in Five Easy Steps

q4 q5

q1 = m Cs ΔT

q3 q2: Melt the ice into a liquid at 0°C

q2 q2 = m ΔHfus

q3: Heat the water from 0°C to 100°C

q3 = m Cl ΔT

q1

q4: Boil the liquid into a gas at 100°C

Heat q4 = m ΔHvap

Heat

q5: Heat the gas above 100°C

qtot= q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 q5 = m Cg ΔT

Heating Curve Practice

1. How much energy (J) is required to heat

12.5 g of ice at –10.0 oC to water at 0.0 oC?

4 5 Notice that your q values are

positive because heat is added…

3

2

q1: Heat the ice from -10 to 0°C

1

q1 = 12.5 g (2.077 J/g oC)(0.0 - -10.0 oC) = 259.63 J

q2: Melt the ice at 0°C to liquid at 0 oC

q2 = 12.5 g (333 J/g) = 4162.5 J

Heating Curve Practice

2. How much energy (J) is required to heat 25.0

g of ice at –25.0 oC to water at 95.0 oC?

Notice that your q values are

4 5 positive because heat is added…

2 q1 = 25.0 g (2.077 J/g oC)(0.0 - -25.0 oC) = 1298.1 J

1 q2: Melt the ice at 0°C to liquid at 0 oC

q2 = 25.0 g (333 J/g) = 8325 J

q3: Heat the water from 0°C to 95 °C

q3 = 25.0 g (4.184 J/g oC)(95.0 – 0.0oC) = 9937 J

Heating Curve Practice

3. How much energy (J) is removed to cool 50.0 g of steam

at 115.0 oC to ice at -5.0 oC?

Notice that your q values are

4 5 negative because heat is removed…

q5: Cool the steam from 115.0 to 100°C

3

2 q5 = 50.0 g (2.042 J/g oC)(100.0 - 115.0 oC) = -1531.5 J

q4: Condense the steam into liquid at 100°C

1

q4 = 50.0 g ( - 2256 J/g) = -112,800 J

q3: Cool the water from 100°C to 0 °C

q3 = 50.0 g (4.184 J/g oC)(0.0 – 100.0oC) = -20920 J

q2: Freeze the water into ice at 0 °C

q2 = 50.0 g (- 333 J/g) = -16650 J

q1: Cool the ice from 0°C to – 5.0 °C

q1 = 50.0 g (2.077 J/g oC)(- 5.0 – 0.0oC) = -519.25 J

-152,000 J

Food and Energy

Caloric Values

Food joules/gram calories/gram “Calories”/gram

Protein 17,000 4,000 4

"science" "food"

or… 1 Kcal = 1 “Calorie”

Smoot, Smith, Price, Chemistry A Modern Course, 1990, page 51

Does water have negative calories?

How many Calories (nutritional) will you burn by

drinking 1.0 L of water, initially at 36.5 oF (standard

refrigeration temperature)? Assume that the body

must expend energy to heat the water to body

temperature at 98.6 oF. 37 oC

1 L = 1000 mL 2.5 oC

C F 32

5

1 mL = 1 g

9

1 calorie = 4.184 joules

q mCDT 1000 calories = 1 “Calorie”

q = 1.0 x 103 g (4.184 J/g oC)(37 oC - 2.5 oC) = 144,348 J

144348 J 1 cal 1 “Cal”

= 35 Cal

4.184 J 1000 cal

What will happen over time?

Let’s take a closer look…

Eventually, the temperatures will equalize

Thermometer

Much calorimetry is carried out

using a coffee-cup calorimeter,

under constant pressure

Styrofoam

(i.e. atmospheric pressure) cover

Styrofoam

• If we assume that no heat is cups

lost to the surroundings, then the

energy absorbed inside the

calorimeter must be equal to the Stirrer

energy released inside the

calorimeter.

i.e., q absorbed = – q released

qx = – qy

Heat Transfer Experiments

1. A 75.0 g piece of lead (specific heat = 0.130 J/goC),

initially at 435oC, is set into 125.0 g of water, initially

at 23.0oC. What is the final temperature of the mixture?

Pb

What is the final

75.0 g 125 g temperature, Tf, of

435.0 °C 23.0 °C the mixture?

C = 0.130 J/°C g

qwater = –qPb

q = m x C x ΔT for both cases, although specific values differ

Plug in known information for each side

Solve for Tf ...

A 75.0 g piece of lead (specific heat = 0.130 J/goC),

initially at 435oC, is set into 125.0 g of water, initially

at 23.0oC. What is the final temperature of the mixture?

q = m x C x ΔT for both cases, although specific values differ

Plug in known information for each side

qwater = –qPb

125 (4.18) (Tf – 23) = –75 (0.13) (Tf – 435)

522.5 Tf – 12017.5 = –9.75 Tf + 4241.25

+9.75 Tf +12017.5 +9.75 Tf +12017.5

532.25 Tf = 16258.75

Tf = 30.5oC

2. A 97.0 g sample of gold at 785oC is dropped into 323 g of

water, which has an initial temperature of 15.0oC. If gold has a

specific heat of 0.129 J/goC, what is the final temperature of the

mixture? Assume that the gold experiences no change in state

of matter. T = 785oC

Au

mass = 97.0 g

T = 15.0 oC

mass = 323 g

- [(C Au) (mass) (DT)] = (C H2O) (mass) (DT)

- [(0.129 J/goC) (97 g) (Tf - 785oC)] = (4.184 J/goC) (323 g) (Tf - 15oC)]

- [(12.5) (Tf - 785oC)] = (1.35 x 103) (Tf - 15oC)]

-12.5 Tf + 9.82 x 103 = 1.35 x 103 Tf - 2.02 x 104

3 x 104 = 1.36 x 103 Tf

Tf = 22.1oC

HW #2. If 59.0 g of water at 13.0 oC are mixed with 87.0

g of water at 72.0 oC, find the final temperature of the

system.

T = 13.0 oC T = 72.0 oC

mass = 59.0 g mass = 87.0 g

- [ (mass) (C H2O) (DT)] = (mass) (C H2O) (DT)

- [ (59 g) (4.184 J/goC) (Tf - 13oC)] = (87 g) (4.184 J/goC) (Tf - 72oC)]

- [(246.8) (Tf - 13oC)] = (364.0) (Tf - 72oC)]

-246.8 Tf + 3208 = 364 Tf - 26208

29416 = 610.8 Tf

Tf = 48.2oC

HW #4. 240. g of water (initially at 20.0oC) are mixed with an

unknown mass of iron initially at 500.0oC (CFe = 0.4495 J/goC).

When thermal equilibrium is reached, the mixture has a

temperature of 42.0oC. Find the mass of the iron.

T = 500oC

Fe

mass = ? grams

T = 20oC

mass = 240 g

- LOSE heat = GAIN heat

-q1 = q2

- [ (mass) (CFe ) (DT)] = (mass) (CH2O) (DT)

- [ (X g) (0.4495 J/goC) (42oC - 500oC)] = (240 g) (4.184 J/goC) (42oC - 20oC)]

- [ (X) (0.4495) (-458)] = (240 g) (4.184) (22)

205.9 X = 22091

X = 107 g Fe

A 23.6 g ice cube at –31.0oC is dropped into 98.2 g of

water at 84.7oC. Find the equilibrium temperature.

KEY: Assume that the ice melts and the final product is a liquid.

qice = –qwater

= 1519.53 + 7858.8 + 98.65 Tf

= 9378.33 + 98.65 Tf

509.13 Tf = 25388.99

Tf = 49.9oC

Heating Curve Challenge Problems

140 DH = mol x DHvap

1. A sample of ice at -25oC is 120

100

DH = mol x DHfus

80

placed into 75 g of water 60 Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, gas

Temperature (oC)

40

0

Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, liquid

-40

-60

-100

Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, solid

at 65oC. Find the final temperature of the mixture

assuming that the ice sample completely melts.

45.6 oC

water at 10oC. Find the final temperature of the system,

assuming that the steam condenses into liquid water.

76.6 oC

Heating Curve for Water

(Phase Diagram)

F

140 q4 = m DHvap

120 DHvap = +/- 2256 J/g 5

BP q2 = m DHfus D E

100

DHfus = +/- 333 J/g 4

80 q5 = m C D T

Temperature (oC)

60 C g = 2.042 J/goC

3

40

q3 = m C D T

20 Cl = 4.184 J/goC

MP B

0 C

2

-20

1 AB warm ice

-40 BC melt ice (s l)

-60 q1 = m C D T CD warm water

Cs = 2.077 J/goC DE boil water (l g)

-80 A

ED condense steam (g l)

EF superheat steam

-100

Heat

Calculating Energy Changes -

Heating Curve for Water

120 DH = mol x DHfus

100

Temperature (oC)

80

60 Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, gas

40

20 Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, liquid

0

-20

-40

-60

-80 Heat = mass x Dt x Cp, solid

-100

Time

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