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“Bangsamoro, Lumad, Migrant Settlers”

Marsgann Patrick B. Paras

Mindanao: The Land of Promise
Island Group of Mindanao
• Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX)
• Northern Mindanao (Region X)
• Davao Region (Region XI)
• Caraga (Region XIII)
• Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
Why the land of promise?
• Land area ≈ 10.2 million has.
• Population ≈ 20 million
• Home of tri-people
– 13 islamized ethnic group (Moro)
– 18 ethnic indigenous groups (Lumad)
– 9 ethnic groups from Luzon & Visayas (migrant groups)
• The Philippine economy depends on Mindanao for:
– 25% of rice
– 67% of cattle and tuna
– more than 50% of corn, fish, and chicken
-100% of pineapple, rubber, and banana exports
-90% of plywood and lumber
-63% (1 billion metric tons) of RP's nickel reserve
-48.5% (50.3 million metric tons) of gold reserves
-38.5% (2.6 million hectares) of forest
-38% (3.73 million hectares) of farmland
• Of the 20 poorest provinces in the Philippines:
-13 are in Mindanao
-All the ARMM provinces (12 municipalities in ARMM
have no government doctors)
The Tri-People of Mindanao
The Bangsamoro
-Badjao -Molbog
-Jama Mapun -Palawani
-Iranun -Samal/Sam-a
-Kalagan -Sangil
-Kalibugan -Tausug
-Maguindanao -Yakan
The Lumad (Tribal)
-Manobo -Higaonon -Mangquwangan
-Subanen -Bagobo -Ubo
-B'laan -Tagakaolo -Ata
-Tiboli -Bukidnon -Mansaka
-Mandaya -Banwaon -Mamanwa
-Teduray -Dibabawon -Kalagan
The Settlers (migrant groups, mostly Christians)
-Tagalog -Cebuano/Boholano -Bikol
-Ilongo -Kapampangan -Waray
-Ilocano -Chavacano -Other migrant groups
Why study History 3?
Hadji Kamlon: A Tausug Hero
• A World War II Veteran
• From Luuk, Sulu province
• Defied government authorities for 8 years
• Considered as the biggest threat to the national security
• Legendary Folk Hero
• Reasons of rebellion
– wanted to be a freebooter again
– conflict among local leaders
– irked by the land registration law
• Because of him a special house committee was made
Why was the MSU System created?
• From Commission on National Integration (CNI) to
Mindanao State University (MSU)
• Created on September 1, 1961 through RA 1387
• The brainchild of Senator Domocao A. Alonto
• “Government's response to the Mindanao Problem.”
• Dr. Antonio Isidro- social laboratory for national
igtegration is the heart of MSU
• Students are of different ethnic, religious, and cultural
• “Unity in diversity”
How did History 3 become a mandated
course in the MSU System?
• Integration Controversy
• Salah Jubair- Time will come that one could not
distinguish Muslims from the Christians and vice versa.
• Mission- “preserve and promote the cultural heritage of
the region”
• Moro and other IP cultures would be no longer
considered marginal, trivial, or minor.
• The struggle and history of Moros and Lumads are
integral parts of the general struggle and history of the
What is the purpose of studying History
• History helps students see Filipinos' pat
• First- erase the wrong mentality
• Second- expand our uderstanding
• Third- develop essential values
A Story Of Mindanao and Sulu
Who are the present people of Mindanao, Sulu and
how may they be distinguished front one another?
Indigenous A
• generally professing belief of Islam, the Muslims
• lumad groups
Indigenous B
• Visayan speaking
• indigenous peoples of Northern Mindanao and Eastern
• Chavacanos of Zamboanga
Where did the name Moro came from and what
does it mean?
• It came from the Spanish colonizers
• It was meant to perpetuate an image of the Muslim people as
savage and treacherous, while they are simply defending their
homeland and faith.
Where did the name Lumad came from and
what does it mean?
• Grew out of the political awakening among various tribes
during the martial law regime of President Marcos.
• To achieve self-determination for their member tribes, or,
put more concretely, self-governance within their ancestral
domain in accordance with their culture and customary laws.
What do all of them, the Moro, the Lumad, and the other settler
inhabitants of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan have in common?

• Common origin in the Malayo-Polynesian family of

• Physical appearances
When did Islam come to Mindanao, Sulu, and
• Sulu- 13th century, about 1280
• Maguindanao- 1460
• Palawan- not clear
How did Islam come to Mindanao, Sulu, and
• It came with trade.
• Manila, Melaka, Maluku
Peace Challenge
• Create solution-providers and trouble-shooters of
• Initiate actions for “positive change”
• “You cannot change the ugly situation of Mindanao, for
you are just students!”
• Individually, one may not feel his own impact, but
collectively, they could prove to be an important key to
open more widely the door to the triumph of the culture
of peace in this part of the world.