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OTEC

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ENERGY

CONVERSION (OTEC)

Alejandro, Dondee S.

To understand the basic principles and processes in a

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and how it is

used for power generation

To understand both the IDEAL and NON-IDEAL cases, and

its improvements

Be able to analyze and solve problems on OTEC

OBJECTIVES

It is the standard cycle used in steam power plants, and

many other power plants

Most widely used cycle for power generation

SIGNIFICANCE

Source:

El-Wakil, Mohamed Mohamed. Powerplant Technology. Singapore City: Mc Gra

A vapor-liquid cycle

Idealized thermodynamic cycle whose purpose is to

convert heat into mechanical work

Developed by William John M. Rankine (1820 – 1872)

DEFINITION

Source:

El-Wakil, Mohamed Mohamed. Powerplant Technology. Singapore City: Mc Gra

Fossil Fuel Power

Plant

Use of fuel such as coal to

generate heat

Prime mover either a steam

turbine or gas turbine

Rankine cycle is used in

conjunction with other

cycles

POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/

Big_Bend_Power_Station.jpg

Nuclear Power Plant

Uses nuclear reactor’s heat

to produce steam

online-articles/2013/01/cr3.JPG

Solar Power Plant

Uses waste heat from

solar panels to generate

steam

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/common

s/2/22/PS20andPS10.jpg

Ocean Thermal Energy

Conversion

Uses the temperature

difference between cooler

deep water and warmer

shallow water

Working fluid: ammonia, R-

134a

POWER PLANT APPLICATION

http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class

/otec1.jpg

SCHEMATIC:

IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

4 3

http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090311/full/458138a/box/1.html

P-V AND T-S DIAGRAM FOR

IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090311/full/458138a/box/1.html

STATES: SATURATED RANKINE

CYCLE

1 - Saturated vapor

2 - Two-phase

3 - Saturated liquid 3

4 - Subcooled liquid

B - Saturated liquid

Initial State Two Independent Parameters Process Condition Final Parameters

State

1 P1 X1 = 1 Expansion Adiabatic 2 P2 S2 = S1

Isentropic

Reversible

2 P2 S2 = S1 Heat Isobaric 3 P3=P2 X3 = 0

Rejection

3 P3 X3 = 0 Compressi Adiabatic 4 P4=P1 S4 = S3

on Isentropic

Reversible

4 P4 S4 = S3 Heat Isobaric 1 P1 X1 = 1

PROCESSES: SATURATED Addition

RANKINE CYCLE

STATES:

SUPERHEATED RANKINE CYCLE

1’ - Superheated vapor

2’ - Two-phase

3 - Saturated liquid

4 - Subcooled liquid 3

B - Saturated liquid

Initial Two Independent Process Condition Final Parameters

State Parameters State

1 P1’ T1’ Expansion Adiabatic 2 P2’ S2’ = S1’

Isentropic

Reversible

2 P2’ S2’ = S1’ Heat Isobaric 3 P3=P2’ X3 = 0

Rejection

3 P3 X3 = 0 Compressi Adiabatic 4 P4=P1’ S4 = S3

on Isentropic

Reversible

4 P4 S4 = S3 Heat Isobaric 1 P1’ T1’

PROCESSES: SUPERHEATED Addition

RANKINE CYCLE

Heat added:

qA = h1 – h4

Turbine work:

wT = h1 – h2

Heat rejected:

| qR | = h2 – h3

Pump work:

EQUATIONS: IDEAL RANKINE

| w | = h4 – h3

p

| w | = (v3 )(P4 – P3)

p

CYCLE

http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class/otec1.jpg

Net work:

∆wnet = (h1 – h2) – (h4 –

h3)

= (h1 – h2) + (h3

–h4)

Thermal efficiency:

EQUATIONS:

Dwnet (h1 - h2 )IDEAL

- (h4 - h3RANKINE

)

hth = =

CYCLE

qA (h1 - h4 )

http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class/otec1.jpg

Consider an ideal saturated Rankine cycle, steam being

its working fluid that is operating at 500 psi and 10 psi. Find

the heat added, heat rejected, net work, and thermal

efficiency.

CYCLE

1

Saturated Ideal Rankine cycle

Working fluid = Steam

P1 = P4 = 500 psi

P2 = P3 = 10 psi 4

GIVEN 3 2

REQUIRED

η𝑡ℎ = =

𝑞𝐴 ℎ1 −ℎ4

3 2

SOLUTION

State 1: (P1=500 psi, x1 = 1)

h1 = hg = 1204.7 Btu/lbm

s1 = sg = 1.4639 Btu/lbm·°F

1

State 2: (P2=10 psi, s1=s2)

Solve for x2

1.4639 = 0.2836 + 1.5043(x2)

x2 = 0.785 4

h2 = 161.26 + 982.1(x2) 3 2

h2 = 931.83 Btu/lbm

SOLUTION

State 3: (P3=10 psi, x3 = 0)

h3= 161.26 Btu/lbm

v3 = 0.01659 ft3/lbm

h4 = h3 + [ v3 (P4-P3) (144)/ 778.16]

h4 = 161.26 +

[0.01659(490)(144)/778.16]

4

h4= 162.76 Btu/lbm

3 2

1 psi = 144 lbf/ft2

SOLUTION

Substituting:

qA = h1-h4

qA = 1041.9 Btu/lbm

qR = h2-h3 1

qR = 770.57 Btu/lbm

wNET = 271.37 Btu/lbm 4

3 2

∆𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 271.37

η𝑡ℎ = = x 100%

𝑞𝐴 1041.9

= 26%

NON-IDEAL RANKINE

CYCLE

Two Types

Externally Irreversible

occur across the boundaries of the system

Internally Irreversible

occur within the boundaries of the system

Primarily the result of the temperature differences

between the primary heat source and the

working fluid

condensing working fluid and the heat sink fluid

(condenser cooling water)

EXTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

RANKINE CYCLE

EXTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

Superheating allows heat

addition at an average

temperature higher than

that of saturated steam

(states reaching the

superheated region)

SUPERHEAT

water as primary fluid

gases or liquid metal as

primary fluid

SUPERHEAT

Consider a Rankine cycle exhausting at 1 psi. It operates

at 600 psi and 1000°F superheated steam. Isentropic

efficiencies of the turbine and the pump is 0.9 and 0.8

respectively. Find the ideal and non ideal net works, in

Btu/lbm, and efficiencies.

SUPERHEAT

T

1

1

B/SH

T

4

2

4s

2s

4

3 2

SUPERHEAT

3

s

P C

State 1: sat. vapor State 2/2s: mixture

SUPERHEAT

State 3: sat. liquid State 4/4s: subcooled

liquid

SUPERHEAT

Non-ideal Ideal

SUPERHEAT

Allows heat addition twice, increasing the average

temperature and improvement of cycle efficiency

REHEAT

REHEAT

CT

Turbine work

Pump work

Heat added wp = h6 - h5

Thermal efficiency

Dwnet = (h1 - h2 )+(h3 - h4 )- (h6 - h5 )

qA = (h1 - h6 )+ (h3 - h2 )

REHEAT

Dwnet

hth =

qA

REHEAT

reaches a peak at a pressure ratio P2/P1 between 20 and 25

percent.

Calculate the efficiency and exhaust steam quality of a

2500 psia/1000°F/1000°F internally reversible steam Rankine

cycle. The reheat pressure is 500 psia. The condenser

pressure is 1 psia.

REHEAT

State 1: (2500 psi, 1000°F, superheated vapor)

h1 = 1457.5 Btu/lbm

s1 = 1.5269 Btu/(lbm ·°F)

State 2: (500 psia, s1=s2)

s2 > sg at 500 psia

Therefore point 2 is in the superheat region. By

interpolation

T2 = 547.8°F h2 = 1265.6 Btu/lbm

REHEAT

State 3: (500 psia, 1000°F, superheated vapor)

h3 = 1520.3 Btu/lbm

s3 = 1.7371 Btu/(lbm ·°F) = s4

State 4: (s3=s4, 1 psia)

x4 = 0.8694

h4 = 970.5279 Btu/lbm

State 5: (1 psia, sat. liquid)

s5 = 0.1326 Btu/(lbm ·°F)

h5 = 69.73 Btu/lbm

v5 = 0.01614 ft 3/lbm

REHEAT

State 6 (s5=s6, subcooled)

|wp|≈ v5 * (P6 – P5)

P6 = P 1

|wp|= 7.46 Btu/lbm

|wp|= h6 – h5

h6 = 77.19 Btu/lbm

REHEAT

|wp|= 7.46 Btu/lbm

wT = (h1 – h2) + (h3 – h4)

wT = 191.5 + 549.8 = 741.7 Btu/lbm

Δwnet = wT – |wp|

Δwnet = 741.7 – 7.46 = 734.24 Btu/lbm

qA = (h1 – h6) + (h3 – h2)

qA = 1380.3 + 254.7 = 1635.0 Btu/lbm

ŋth = Δwnet / qA = 734.24/1635.0 = 0.4491

ŋth = 44.91%

REHEAT

Regeneration reduces the irreversibility at the economizer

section of the steam generator

in the turbine and the compressed fluid before heat addition

economizer irreversibility is accomplished by the use of

feedwater heating

REGENERATION

The compressed liquid at

4 would have to be

carefully passed around

the turbine to receive

heat from the expanding

vapor in the turbine until it

enters B

REGENERATION

Primarily the result of fluid friction, throttling, and mixing

turbines and pumps and pressure losses in heat

exchangers, pipes, bends, valves, etc

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

RANKINE CYCLE

Turbine Polytropic

Efficiency

ideal expansion

(adiabatic reversible) is

1-2s

actual expansion is 1-2

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

RANKINE CYCLE

Pump Polytropic Efficiency

adiabatic reversible work

is h4s-h3

Actual Pump Work

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

RANKINE CYCLE

Liquid leaving the pump

must be at a higher

pressure than at the

turbine inlet because of

the friction drops

P4 – exit pump pressure

P1 – turbine inlet pressure

P5 – steam-generator

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE

exit pressure

RANKINE CYCLE

OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT

FEEDWATER HEATER

subcooled feedwater to produce saturated water at the

extraction steam pressure.

OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT

FEEDWATER HEATER

The amount of bled steam

should be just enough to bring

the subcooled liquid to

saturated liquid.

- If less, it will negate the

advantages of feedwater

heating.

- If more, it would result to

unnecessary loss of turbine

work.

The pressure in the FWH should

be equal to the pressure of

incoming steam.

Open/Direct Contact

Feedwater Heater

Mass Balance and Energy Balance

Mass flow between 1 and 2 = 1

ṁ3

OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT FEEDWATER

HEATER

EQUATIONS

Heat Added qa = (h1 - h10)

Turbine work wt = (h1 - h2) + (1- ṁ2)(h2 – h3) + (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h3 – h4)

Heat rejected |qr| = (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h4 - h5)

Pump work |Σwp| = (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h6 – h5) + (1- ṁ2)(h8 – h7) - (h10 – h9)

≈ (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)[v7(P6 – P5)]/ ηp∙J + (1- ṁ2)[v7(P8 – P7)]/

ηp∙J + [v9(P10 – P9)]/ ηp∙J

Net work Δwnet = wt - |wp|

Thermal eff ηth = Δwnet / qa

Work Ratio WR = Δwnet / wt

For Ideal s1 = s2 = s3 = s4

s5 = s6 s7 = s8 s9 = s10

OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT

FEEDWATER HEATER

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

efficiency of an ideal

saturated Rankine cycle Turbine Gen

using Freon-12 as a

working fluid and

operating at 200 and Boiler

2

3

72°F. The cycle has an

open type feed heater Condenser CT

placed optimally.

Pump

FWH Pump

Given

- Ideal Saturated Rankine Cycle T

- Working Fluid: Freon-12

- T1 = 200°F

- T2 = 72°F

1

Required

7

2

wNET = wT -Σ|wP|

6

= (h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) - (h5-h4)

5

- (h7-h6) 3

4

ηcycle = wNET/qA

s

= ((h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) - (h5-h4)

- (h7-h6))/ (h1-h7)

Solution

T

Feed heating:

T1 = 200°F

T3 = 72°F

1

Toptimal = (T1 – T3)/2

7

2

Toptimal = 64°F 6

Tfw = T3 + Toptimal = 5

3

136°F 4

s

Pfw = 210.79 psi

State 1: (200°F, sat vapor)

h1 = 91.278 Btu/lbm

s1 = 0.15651 Btu/lbm·°F

T

P1 = 430.09 psi

1

Solve for x2 7

2

0.15651 = .078489 + 6

0.083281(x2) 5

3

4

x2 = 0.93684

s

h2 = 40.110 + 49.608(x2)

h2 = 86.58478 Btu/lbm

State 3: (72°F, s1=s3)

Solve for x3

0.15651 = 0.051338 +

0.112912(x3) T

x3 = 0.93145

h3 = 24.511 + 60.035(x3)

h3 = 80.43066 Btu/lbm 1

7

2

6

State 4 : (72°F, sat liquid) 5

3

h4= 24.511 Btu/lbm 4

s

v4 = 0.012126 ft3/lbm

P4 = 87.559 psi

State 5:

h5 = h4 + (v4(P5-

P4)(144)/778.16)

h5 = 24.511 + T

(0.012126(210.79-

87.56)(144)/778.16)

h5= 24.78752 Btu/lbm

1

7

2

State 6 : (136°F, sat liquid) 6

3

4

v6 = 0.013623 ft3/lbm

s

P6 = 210.79 psi

State 7:

h7 = h6 + (v6(P7-P6)(144)/778.16)

h7 = 40.110 + (0.013623(430.09-

210.79)(144)/778.16)

h7= 40.66285 Btu/lbm

T

m2+m5=m6

m2h2+m5h5=m6h6 1

2

m2h2 + (1-m2)h5 = h6 6

5

We solve for m2 3

4

m2 = 0.248

s

m5 = (1-0.248) = 0.752

m5 = 0.752

Substituting:

T

wNET = (h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3)

- (h5-h4) - (h7-h6)

= 8.49207 Btu/lbm

1

7

2

ηcycle = ((h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) 6

5

- (h5-h4) - (h7-h6))/ (h1-h7) 3

4

= 16.778%

s

CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS

CASCADED BACKWARD

Results in greater loss of availability than open types

Simplest and most commonly used in powerplants

Feedwater passes through the tubes while the bled

steam is on the shell side

Bled steam transfers its energy to the feedwater

and then, condenses

Because feedwater goes through the tubes in

successive closed feedwater heaters, it does not

mix with bled steam and therefore can be

pressurized only once by the first condensate pump

CASCADED BACKWARD

CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS

CASCADED BACKWARD

between 1 and 2 =1 ṁ2(h2 - h11) = (h8 - h7)

between 2 and 3 = 1 - ṁ2

ṁ3(h3 - h9) + ṁ2(h12 - h9)

between 3 and 10 = 1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3

= (h7 - h6)

between 10 and 1 = 1

between 2 and 12 = ṁ2

CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS

between 3 and 12 = ṁ3

CASCADED BACKWARD

between 12 and 10 = ṁ2 + ṁ3

MASS BALANCE AND

ENERGY BALANCE

Heat added qa = h 1 - h8

wT = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m2)(h2 - h3) +

Turbine work

(1 - m2 - m3)(h3 -h4)

Pump work wP = v5(P6 - P5)/PJ

qR = (1 - m2 - m3)(h4 - h5) +

Heat rejected

(m2 - m3)(h10 - h5)

CLOSED-TYPE

Net work FWH WITHwDRAINS

net = wT - wP

CASCADED

Thermal BACKWARD

ɳthermal= wnet/qa

Efficiency

EQUATIONS

Work Ratio WR = wnet/wT

An ideal Rankine cycle operates at with 1000 psia,

1000 F steam. It has one enclosed feedwater

heater with drain cascaded backward placed

at 100 psia. The condenser pressure is 1 psia.

resulting in DC drain (drain cooler temperature

difference) = 10F.

CASCADED BACKWARD

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Given:

P1 = 1000 psia

P2 = 100 psia

P3 = 1 psia

T1 = 1000 F

TDD = 5 F

Tdrain cooler = 10 F

state 1 (P1 = 1000 psia, T1 =1000

F) state 4 (P4 = P3, x4 = 0)

h3 = 69.73 Btu/lbm

h1 = 1505.4 Btu/lbm v3 = 0.01614

s1 = 1.6530 Btu/lbmF

state 5 (P5 = 1000 psia, v5 =

0.01614)

state 2 (P2 = 100 psia, s2 = s1) h5 = 69.73

+ 0.01614(1000-1)(144/778.16)

h2 = 1228.67028 Btu/lbm h5 = 72.71375 Btu/lbm

T5 = 104.7232 F

state 3 (P3 = 1 psia, s3 = s1)

Solve for x3

1.6530 = 0.1326 + 1.8455(x3)

x3 = 0.82384

h3 = 923.31247 Btu/lbm

state 7 (P7 = 100 psia, x7 = 0)

h7 = 298.5 Btu/lbm

T7 = 327.82 F

TTD = 5 F

T6 = T7 – TTD = 327.82 F - 5 F = 322.82

F

h6 = 293.36 Btu/lbm

TDC = 10 F

T8 = T5 + TDC = 104.72 + 10 = 114.72 F

h8 = 82.69 Btu/lbm

Energy Balance:

m2(h2 - h8) = h6 - h5

m2 = (293.36 - 72.71)/(1228.6 - 82.69)

m2 = 0.1926

wT = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m2)(h2 - h3)

= (1505.4 - 1228.6) + (1 - 0.19626)(1228.6 - 923.31)

= 523.29 Btu/lbm

= (1 - 0.1926)(923.31 - 69.73) + 0.1926(82.69 - 69.73)

= 691.68 Btu/lbm

Plant thermal efficiency:

th = wnet/qa = 520.31/1212.04 = 42.93%

Work Ratio:

WR = wnet/wT = 520.31/523.29 = 0.9943

CLOSED-TYPE FWH DRAINS

PUMP FORWARD

CLOSED-TYPE FEEDWATER HEATERS

WITH DRAINS PUMPED FORWARD

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

CLOSED-TYPE FEEDWATER HEATERS

WITH DRAINS PUMPED FORWARD

Mass Balance:

Mass flow between 1 and 2 = 1

Mass flow between 2 and 12 = ṁ2

Mass flow between 2 and 3 = 1 - ṁ2

Mass flow between 3 and 14 = ṁ3

Mass flow between 3 and 7 = 1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3

Mass flow at 14 = ṁ3

Mass flow between 8 and 9 = 1 - ṁ2

Mass flow at 12 = ṁ2

Mass flow between 10 and 1 = 1

Energy Balance:

ṁ3(h3 - h13) = (1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3)(h7 - h6)

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

1000°F steam. It has one closed type feedwater

heater with drains pump forward placed at 100

psia. The condenser pressure is 1psia. Use TTD = 5°F.

Find the net work and efficiency.

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

1

Turbine

Gen

Boiler

Condenser

CT

Pump

Pump

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 1: superheated

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 2: superheated

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 3: mixture

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 4: sat liquid

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 7: sat liquid

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

State 8: sub cooled liquid

Closed-Type FWH drains Pump

Forward

Work and Efficiency

Placement of FWH

is to be placed is obtained by finding the the temperature

that is halfway between TB and TC, and the obtaining the

saturation pressure corresponding to that temperature

per heater would be given by

TB TC

Topt

n 1

SUPERCRITICAL

Supercritical

Uses once-through boilers (universal pressure boilers)

Provides

a bigger increase in the efficiency than the

superheat cycle

Supercritical

to 40%. Further improvement in efficiency (up to 45%) can

be achieved by using supercritical steam conditions.

Supercritical

wnet

Thermal efficiency: th

Equations

qA

For ideal: s2 s1 s3 s4 s5 s6

Supercritical

Equations

Pump work: | wp | h6 h5

wT (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 )

Supercritical

reversible supercritical 3500psia/1000°F cycle. Condensing

at 1psia. Use steam as the working fluid.

Supercritical

B/SH 1

4

P T

2 4

C

3

3 2

Supercritical

Supercritical

Supercritical

Supercritical with Reheat

1000 ° F

800 psia

200 psia

1 psia

Supercritical with Reheat

Supercritical with Reheat

B/SH 1

4

P T

2 4

C

3

3 2

Supercritical with Reheat

and work ratio of an internally reversible supercritical

double-reheat 3500/1000/1025/1050 cycle. Reheats

occur at 800 and 200 psia. Condensing is at 1 psia

1050 ° F

For steam cp= 3208 psia1025 ° F

1000 ° F

800 psia

200 psia

1 psia

State 1: P1= 3500 psia, T1= 1000°F h5=1555.4 s5=1.8603

h1=1422.2 s1=1.4709 State 6: P6= 1 psia, s5=s6

State 2: P2= 800 psia, s2=s1 x6=0.936 h6=1039.7

h2=1254.5 State 7: P7= 1 psia, x=0

State 3: P3= 800 psia, T3=1025°F h7= 69.73

h3=1525.3 s3=1.69015

State 4: P4=200 psia, s3=s4

h4=1336.3

State 5: P5= 200 psia, T5= 1050°F

State 8: Δwnet=167.7+189+515.7-10.45

h8=69.73+0.016136(3500- Δwnet=872.4-10.45

1)(144)/778.16

Δwnet=861.95 Btu/lb

h8= 69.73 + 10.45

h8= 80.18

qA=(h1-h8)+(h3-h2)+(h5-h4)

qA=1342.02+270.8+219.3

Δwnet=(1422.20-1254.5)+(1525.3-

qA=1831.92 Btu/lb

1336.3)

+(1555.4-1039.7)-10.45

SUPERCRITICAL WITH REHEAT

ηth= 861.95/1831.92

ηth=0.4705

WR=861.95/872.41

WR=0.9880

IMPROVEMENTS

Efficiency of a Rankine cycle can be increased by:

Increasing the boiler temperature

Changing the working fluid

IMPROVEMENTS

Changing the boiler material so that it can withstand

elevated temperature

Minimizing heat loss by use of insulation

Changing working fluid so that it doesn’t degrade in high

temperatures

IMPROVEMENTS

INCREASING THE BOILER

TEMPERATURE

Lower specific heat capacity

Lower heat needed to attain desired temperature thus higher

efficiency

Example: mercury(1.72kJ/kg*K) VS water (4.19kJ/kg*K)

IMPROVEMENTS

CHANGING THE WORKING FLUID

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