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OCEAN THERMAL

ENERGY
CONVERSION (OTEC)

Alejandro, Dondee S.
 To understand the basic principles and processes in a
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and how it is
used for power generation
 To understand both the IDEAL and NON-IDEAL cases, and
its improvements
 Be able to analyze and solve problems on OTEC

OBJECTIVES
 It is the standard cycle used in steam power plants, and
many other power plants
 Most widely used cycle for power generation

SIGNIFICANCE

Source:
El-Wakil, Mohamed Mohamed. Powerplant Technology. Singapore City: Mc Gra
 A vapor-liquid cycle
 Idealized thermodynamic cycle whose purpose is to
convert heat into mechanical work
 Developed by William John M. Rankine (1820 – 1872)

DEFINITION

Source:
El-Wakil, Mohamed Mohamed. Powerplant Technology. Singapore City: Mc Gra
 Fossil Fuel Power
Plant
 Use of fuel such as coal to
generate heat
 Prime mover either a steam
turbine or gas turbine
 Rankine cycle is used in
conjunction with other
cycles
POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/
Big_Bend_Power_Station.jpg
 Nuclear Power Plant
 Uses nuclear reactor’s heat
to produce steam

POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS http://www.pennenergy.com/content/dam/pe/


online-articles/2013/01/cr3.JPG
 Solar Power Plant
 Uses waste heat from
solar panels to generate
steam

POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/common
s/2/22/PS20andPS10.jpg
 Ocean Thermal Energy
Conversion
 Uses the temperature
difference between cooler
deep water and warmer
shallow water
 Working fluid: ammonia, R-
134a
POWER PLANT APPLICATION

http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class
/otec1.jpg
SCHEMATIC:
IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

4 3

http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090311/full/458138a/box/1.html
P-V AND T-S DIAGRAM FOR
IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090311/full/458138a/box/1.html
STATES: SATURATED RANKINE
CYCLE

1 - Saturated vapor
2 - Two-phase
3 - Saturated liquid 3

4 - Subcooled liquid
B - Saturated liquid
Initial State Two Independent Parameters Process Condition Final Parameters
State
1 P1 X1 = 1 Expansion Adiabatic 2 P2 S2 = S1
Isentropic
Reversible
2 P2 S2 = S1 Heat Isobaric 3 P3=P2 X3 = 0
Rejection
3 P3 X3 = 0 Compressi Adiabatic 4 P4=P1 S4 = S3
on Isentropic
Reversible
4 P4 S4 = S3 Heat Isobaric 1 P1 X1 = 1
PROCESSES: SATURATED Addition

RANKINE CYCLE
STATES:
SUPERHEATED RANKINE CYCLE

1’ - Superheated vapor
2’ - Two-phase
3 - Saturated liquid
4 - Subcooled liquid 3

B - Saturated liquid
Initial Two Independent Process Condition Final Parameters
State Parameters State
1 P1’ T1’ Expansion Adiabatic 2 P2’ S2’ = S1’
Isentropic
Reversible
2 P2’ S2’ = S1’ Heat Isobaric 3 P3=P2’ X3 = 0
Rejection
3 P3 X3 = 0 Compressi Adiabatic 4 P4=P1’ S4 = S3
on Isentropic
Reversible
4 P4 S4 = S3 Heat Isobaric 1 P1’ T1’
PROCESSES: SUPERHEATED Addition

RANKINE CYCLE
Heat added:
qA = h1 – h4

Turbine work:
wT = h1 – h2

Heat rejected:
| qR | = h2 – h3

Pump work:
EQUATIONS: IDEAL RANKINE
| w | = h4 – h3
p
| w | = (v3 )(P4 – P3)
p
CYCLE
http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class/otec1.jpg
Net work:
∆wnet = (h1 – h2) – (h4 –
h3)
= (h1 – h2) + (h3
–h4)

Thermal efficiency:
EQUATIONS:
Dwnet (h1 - h2 )IDEAL
- (h4 - h3RANKINE
)
hth = =
CYCLE
qA (h1 - h4 )
http://homework.uoregon.edu/pub/class/otec1.jpg
 Consider an ideal saturated Rankine cycle, steam being
its working fluid that is operating at 500 psi and 10 psi. Find
the heat added, heat rejected, net work, and thermal
efficiency.

PROBLEM: IDEAL RANKINE


CYCLE
1
Saturated Ideal Rankine cycle
Working fluid = Steam
P1 = P4 = 500 psi
P2 = P3 = 10 psi 4

GIVEN 3 2
REQUIRED

∆𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 ℎ1−ℎ2 −(ℎ4 −ℎ3 ) 4


η𝑡ℎ = =
𝑞𝐴 ℎ1 −ℎ4
3 2
SOLUTION
State 1: (P1=500 psi, x1 = 1)
h1 = hg = 1204.7 Btu/lbm
s1 = sg = 1.4639 Btu/lbm·°F

1
State 2: (P2=10 psi, s1=s2)
Solve for x2
1.4639 = 0.2836 + 1.5043(x2)
x2 = 0.785 4

h2 = 161.26 + 982.1(x2) 3 2

h2 = 931.83 Btu/lbm
SOLUTION
State 3: (P3=10 psi, x3 = 0)
h3= 161.26 Btu/lbm
v3 = 0.01659 ft3/lbm

State 4 : (P3= 500 psi, v4=v3) 1


h4 = h3 + [ v3 (P4-P3) (144)/ 778.16]
h4 = 161.26 +
[0.01659(490)(144)/778.16]

4
h4= 162.76 Btu/lbm
3 2

1 Btu = 778.16 lbf


1 psi = 144 lbf/ft2
SOLUTION
Substituting:
qA = h1-h4
qA = 1041.9 Btu/lbm

qR = h2-h3 1
qR = 770.57 Btu/lbm

wNET = (h1-h2) – (h4-h3)


wNET = 271.37 Btu/lbm 4

3 2
∆𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 271.37
η𝑡ℎ = = x 100%
𝑞𝐴 1041.9

= 26%
NON-IDEAL RANKINE
CYCLE
 Two Types
 Externally Irreversible
 occur across the boundaries of the system

 Internally Irreversible
 occur within the boundaries of the system

NON-IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE


 Primarily the result of the temperature differences
between the primary heat source and the
working fluid

 Temperature differences between the


condensing working fluid and the heat sink fluid
(condenser cooling water)

EXTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
RANKINE CYCLE
EXTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
 Superheating allows heat
addition at an average
temperature higher than
that of saturated steam
(states reaching the
superheated region)

SUPERHEAT
 water as primary fluid
 gases or liquid metal as
primary fluid

SUPERHEAT
 Consider a Rankine cycle exhausting at 1 psi. It operates
at 600 psi and 1000°F superheated steam. Isentropic
efficiencies of the turbine and the pump is 0.9 and 0.8
respectively. Find the ideal and non ideal net works, in
Btu/lbm, and efficiencies.

SUPERHEAT
T
1
1

B/SH
T
4
2
4s
2s
4
3 2

SUPERHEAT
3
s
P C
 State 1: sat. vapor  State 2/2s: mixture

SUPERHEAT
 State 3: sat. liquid  State 4/4s: subcooled
liquid

SUPERHEAT
 Non-ideal  Ideal

SUPERHEAT
 Allows heat addition twice, increasing the average
temperature and improvement of cycle efficiency

 Results with drier steam which is beneficial for real cycles

REHEAT
REHEAT

CT
 Turbine work

 Pump work

 Net work wT = (h1 - h2 )+ (h3 - h4 )


 Heat added wp = h6 - h5

 Thermal efficiency
Dwnet = (h1 - h2 )+(h3 - h4 )- (h6 - h5 )

qA = (h1 - h6 )+ (h3 - h2 )
REHEAT
Dwnet
hth =
qA
REHEAT

Efficiency improves as the reheat pressure P2 is lowered and


reaches a peak at a pressure ratio P2/P1 between 20 and 25
percent.
 Calculate the efficiency and exhaust steam quality of a
2500 psia/1000°F/1000°F internally reversible steam Rankine
cycle. The reheat pressure is 500 psia. The condenser
pressure is 1 psia.

REHEAT
 State 1: (2500 psi, 1000°F, superheated vapor)
h1 = 1457.5 Btu/lbm
s1 = 1.5269 Btu/(lbm ·°F)
 State 2: (500 psia, s1=s2)
s2 > sg at 500 psia
Therefore point 2 is in the superheat region. By
interpolation
 T2 = 547.8°F h2 = 1265.6 Btu/lbm

REHEAT
 State 3: (500 psia, 1000°F, superheated vapor)
h3 = 1520.3 Btu/lbm
s3 = 1.7371 Btu/(lbm ·°F) = s4
 State 4: (s3=s4, 1 psia)
x4 = 0.8694
h4 = 970.5279 Btu/lbm
 State 5: (1 psia, sat. liquid)
s5 = 0.1326 Btu/(lbm ·°F)
h5 = 69.73 Btu/lbm
v5 = 0.01614 ft 3/lbm
REHEAT
 State 6 (s5=s6, subcooled)
|wp|≈ v5 * (P6 – P5)
P6 = P 1
|wp|= 7.46 Btu/lbm
|wp|= h6 – h5
h6 = 77.19 Btu/lbm

REHEAT
|wp|= 7.46 Btu/lbm
wT = (h1 – h2) + (h3 – h4)
wT = 191.5 + 549.8 = 741.7 Btu/lbm
Δwnet = wT – |wp|
Δwnet = 741.7 – 7.46 = 734.24 Btu/lbm
qA = (h1 – h6) + (h3 – h2)
qA = 1380.3 + 254.7 = 1635.0 Btu/lbm
ŋth = Δwnet / qA = 734.24/1635.0 = 0.4491
ŋth = 44.91%

REHEAT
 Regeneration reduces the irreversibility at the economizer
section of the steam generator

 The internal heat is exchanged between the expanding fluid


in the turbine and the compressed fluid before heat addition

 A compromise that would reduce rather than eliminate the


economizer irreversibility is accomplished by the use of
feedwater heating
REGENERATION
 The compressed liquid at
4 would have to be
carefully passed around
the turbine to receive
heat from the expanding
vapor in the turbine until it
enters B

REGENERATION
 Primarily the result of fluid friction, throttling, and mixing

 The most important of these are the irreversibilities in


turbines and pumps and pressure losses in heat
exchangers, pipes, bends, valves, etc

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
RANKINE CYCLE
 Turbine Polytropic
Efficiency

 ideal expansion
(adiabatic reversible) is
1-2s
 actual expansion is 1-2
INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
RANKINE CYCLE
 Pump Polytropic Efficiency

 actual work is h4-h3


 adiabatic reversible work
is h4s-h3
 Actual Pump Work

INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
RANKINE CYCLE
Liquid leaving the pump
must be at a higher
pressure than at the
turbine inlet because of
the friction drops
P4 – exit pump pressure
P1 – turbine inlet pressure
P5 – steam-generator
INTERNALLY IRREVERSIBLE
exit pressure
RANKINE CYCLE
OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT
FEEDWATER HEATER

 The extraction steam is mixed directly with the incoming


subcooled feedwater to produce saturated water at the
extraction steam pressure.
OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT
FEEDWATER HEATER
 The amount of bled steam
should be just enough to bring
the subcooled liquid to
saturated liquid.
- If less, it will negate the
advantages of feedwater
heating.
- If more, it would result to
unnecessary loss of turbine
work.
 The pressure in the FWH should
be equal to the pressure of
incoming steam.
Open/Direct Contact
Feedwater Heater
Mass Balance and Energy Balance
Mass flow between 1 and 2 = 1

Mass flow between 2 and 9 = ṁ2

Mass flow between 2 and 3 = 1 - ṁ2

Mass flow between 3 and 7 = ṁ3

Mass flow between 4 and 7 = 1 - ṁ2 -


ṁ3

Mass flow between 7 and 9 = 1 - ṁ2

Mass flow between 9 and 1 = 1

ṁ2(h2 – h9) = (1- ṁ2)(h9 – h8)

ṁ3(h3 – h7) = (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h7 – h6)


OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT FEEDWATER
HEATER
EQUATIONS
Heat Added qa = (h1 - h10)
Turbine work wt = (h1 - h2) + (1- ṁ2)(h2 – h3) + (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h3 – h4)
Heat rejected |qr| = (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h4 - h5)
Pump work |Σwp| = (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)(h6 – h5) + (1- ṁ2)(h8 – h7) - (h10 – h9)
≈ (1- ṁ2- ṁ3)[v7(P6 – P5)]/ ηp∙J + (1- ṁ2)[v7(P8 – P7)]/
ηp∙J + [v9(P10 – P9)]/ ηp∙J
Net work Δwnet = wt - |wp|
Thermal eff ηth = Δwnet / qa
Work Ratio WR = Δwnet / wt
For Ideal s1 = s2 = s3 = s4
s5 = s6 s7 = s8 s9 = s10
OPEN/DIRECT CONTACT
FEEDWATER HEATER
SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Find the net work and


efficiency of an ideal
saturated Rankine cycle Turbine Gen
using Freon-12 as a
working fluid and
operating at 200 and Boiler
2
3
72°F. The cycle has an
open type feed heater Condenser CT
placed optimally.

Pump
FWH Pump
 Given
- Ideal Saturated Rankine Cycle T
- Working Fluid: Freon-12
- T1 = 200°F
- T2 = 72°F

1
 Required
7
2
wNET = wT -Σ|wP|
6
= (h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) - (h5-h4)
5
- (h7-h6) 3
4
ηcycle = wNET/qA
s
= ((h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) - (h5-h4)
- (h7-h6))/ (h1-h7)
 Solution
T
Feed heating:
T1 = 200°F
T3 = 72°F
1
Toptimal = (T1 – T3)/2
7
2
Toptimal = 64°F 6

Tfw = T3 + Toptimal = 5
3
136°F 4

s
Pfw = 210.79 psi
State 1: (200°F, sat vapor)
h1 = 91.278 Btu/lbm
s1 = 0.15651 Btu/lbm·°F
T
P1 = 430.09 psi

State 2: (136°F, s1=s2)


1
Solve for x2 7
2
0.15651 = .078489 + 6

0.083281(x2) 5
3
4
x2 = 0.93684
s
h2 = 40.110 + 49.608(x2)
h2 = 86.58478 Btu/lbm
State 3: (72°F, s1=s3)
Solve for x3
0.15651 = 0.051338 +
0.112912(x3) T

x3 = 0.93145
h3 = 24.511 + 60.035(x3)
h3 = 80.43066 Btu/lbm 1

7
2
6
State 4 : (72°F, sat liquid) 5
3
h4= 24.511 Btu/lbm 4

s
v4 = 0.012126 ft3/lbm
P4 = 87.559 psi
State 5:
h5 = h4 + (v4(P5-
P4)(144)/778.16)
h5 = 24.511 + T
(0.012126(210.79-
87.56)(144)/778.16)
h5= 24.78752 Btu/lbm
1

7
2
State 6 : (136°F, sat liquid) 6

h6= 40.110 Btu/lbm 5


3
4
v6 = 0.013623 ft3/lbm
s
P6 = 210.79 psi
State 7:
h7 = h6 + (v6(P7-P6)(144)/778.16)
h7 = 40.110 + (0.013623(430.09-
210.79)(144)/778.16)
h7= 40.66285 Btu/lbm
T

Mass and Energy Balance:


m2+m5=m6
m2h2+m5h5=m6h6 1

We let m6 = 1 thus m5 = 1-m2 7


2

m2h2 + (1-m2)h5 = h6 6
5
We solve for m2 3
4
m2 = 0.248
s
m5 = (1-0.248) = 0.752
m5 = 0.752
Substituting:
T
wNET = (h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3)
- (h5-h4) - (h7-h6)
= 8.49207 Btu/lbm
1

7
2
ηcycle = ((h1-h2) + (1-m2)·(h2-h3) 6
5
- (h5-h4) - (h7-h6))/ (h1-h7) 3
4
= 16.778%
s
CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS
CASCADED BACKWARD
 Results in greater loss of availability than open types
 Simplest and most commonly used in powerplants
 Feedwater passes through the tubes while the bled
steam is on the shell side
 Bled steam transfers its energy to the feedwater
and then, condenses
 Because feedwater goes through the tubes in
successive closed feedwater heaters, it does not
mix with bled steam and therefore can be
pressurized only once by the first condensate pump

CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS


CASCADED BACKWARD
CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS
CASCADED BACKWARD
between 1 and 2 =1 ṁ2(h2 - h11) = (h8 - h7)
between 2 and 3 = 1 - ṁ2
ṁ3(h3 - h9) + ṁ2(h12 - h9)
between 3 and 10 = 1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3
= (h7 - h6)
between 10 and 1 = 1
between 2 and 12 = ṁ2
CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS
between 3 and 12 = ṁ3
CASCADED BACKWARD
between 12 and 10 = ṁ2 + ṁ3
MASS BALANCE AND
ENERGY BALANCE
Heat added qa = h 1 - h8
wT = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m2)(h2 - h3) +
Turbine work
(1 - m2 - m3)(h3 -h4)
Pump work wP = v5(P6 - P5)/PJ
qR = (1 - m2 - m3)(h4 - h5) +
Heat rejected
(m2 - m3)(h10 - h5)
CLOSED-TYPE
Net work FWH WITHwDRAINS
net = wT - wP
CASCADED
Thermal BACKWARD
ɳthermal= wnet/qa
Efficiency
EQUATIONS
Work Ratio WR = wnet/wT
An ideal Rankine cycle operates at with 1000 psia,
1000 F steam. It has one enclosed feedwater
heater with drain cascaded backward placed
at 100 psia. The condenser pressure is 1 psia.

Use TTD = 5F. The heater has a drain cooler


resulting in DC drain (drain cooler temperature
difference) = 10F.

Find wnet, qa, qr, ɳthermal, and WR

CLOSED-TYPE FWH WITH DRAINS


CASCADED BACKWARD
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
 Given:
P1 = 1000 psia
P2 = 100 psia
P3 = 1 psia
T1 = 1000 F
TDD = 5 F
Tdrain cooler = 10 F
state 1 (P1 = 1000 psia, T1 =1000
F) state 4 (P4 = P3, x4 = 0)
h3 = 69.73 Btu/lbm
h1 = 1505.4 Btu/lbm v3 = 0.01614
s1 = 1.6530 Btu/lbmF
state 5 (P5 = 1000 psia, v5 =
0.01614)
state 2 (P2 = 100 psia, s2 = s1) h5 = 69.73
+ 0.01614(1000-1)(144/778.16)
h2 = 1228.67028 Btu/lbm h5 = 72.71375 Btu/lbm
T5 = 104.7232 F
state 3 (P3 = 1 psia, s3 = s1)
Solve for x3
1.6530 = 0.1326 + 1.8455(x3)
x3 = 0.82384
h3 = 923.31247 Btu/lbm
state 7 (P7 = 100 psia, x7 = 0)
h7 = 298.5 Btu/lbm
T7 = 327.82 F

TTD = 5 F
T6 = T7 – TTD = 327.82 F - 5 F = 322.82
F

state 6 (P6 = 1000 psia, T6 = 322.82 F)


h6 = 293.36 Btu/lbm
TDC = 10 F
T8 = T5 + TDC = 104.72 + 10 = 114.72 F

state 8 (T8 = 114.72 F, x8 = 0)


h8 = 82.69 Btu/lbm

Energy Balance:
m2(h2 - h8) = h6 - h5
m2 = (293.36 - 72.71)/(1228.6 - 82.69)
m2 = 0.1926
wT = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m2)(h2 - h3)
= (1505.4 - 1228.6) + (1 - 0.19626)(1228.6 - 923.31)
= 523.29 Btu/lbm

wP = h5 - h4 = 72.71 - 69.73 = 2.98 Btu/lbm

wnet = wT - wP = 523.29 - 2.98 = 520.31 Btu/lbm

qa = h1 - h6 = 1505.4 - 293.36 = 1212.04 Btu/lbm

qr = (1 - m2)(h3 - h4) + m2(h9 - h4)


= (1 - 0.1926)(923.31 - 69.73) + 0.1926(82.69 - 69.73)
= 691.68 Btu/lbm
Plant thermal efficiency:
th = wnet/qa = 520.31/1212.04 = 42.93%

Work Ratio:
WR = wnet/wT = 520.31/523.29 = 0.9943
CLOSED-TYPE FWH DRAINS
PUMP FORWARD
CLOSED-TYPE FEEDWATER HEATERS
WITH DRAINS PUMPED FORWARD
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward

Source: El-Wakil, Power Plant Technology, McGraw Hill Inc, 1984


CLOSED-TYPE FEEDWATER HEATERS
WITH DRAINS PUMPED FORWARD

Mass Balance:
Mass flow between 1 and 2 = 1
Mass flow between 2 and 12 = ṁ2
Mass flow between 2 and 3 = 1 - ṁ2
Mass flow between 3 and 14 = ṁ3
Mass flow between 3 and 7 = 1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3
Mass flow at 14 = ṁ3
Mass flow between 8 and 9 = 1 - ṁ2
Mass flow at 12 = ṁ2
Mass flow between 10 and 1 = 1

Energy Balance:

ṁ2(h2 - h11) = (1- ṁ2)(h9 - h8)


ṁ3(h3 - h13) = (1 - ṁ2 - ṁ3)(h7 - h6)
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward

An ideal Rankine cycle operates with 1000psia,


1000°F steam. It has one closed type feedwater
heater with drains pump forward placed at 100
psia. The condenser pressure is 1psia. Use TTD = 5°F.
Find the net work and efficiency.
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
1

Turbine
Gen

Boiler

Condenser
CT

Pump

Pump
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
State 1: superheated
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward

State 2: superheated
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
State 3: mixture
Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
State 4: sat liquid

State 5: sub cooled liquid


Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
State 7: sat liquid

State 6: sub cooled liquid


Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
State 8: sub cooled liquid

Energy balance of FW heater

State 9: sub cooled liquid


Closed-Type FWH drains Pump
Forward
Work and Efficiency
Placement of FWH

• The optimum of the pressure to which the one feed water


is to be placed is obtained by finding the the temperature
that is halfway between TB and TC, and the obtaining the
saturation pressure corresponding to that temperature

• For n feedwater heaters, the optimum temperature rise


per heater would be given by
TB  TC
Topt 
n 1
SUPERCRITICAL
Supercritical

 Operates in the supercritical region of the fluid


 Uses once-through boilers (universal pressure boilers)
 Provides
a bigger increase in the efficiency than the
superheat cycle
Supercritical

Modern subcritical cycles have attained efficiencies close


to 40%. Further improvement in efficiency (up to 45%) can
be achieved by using supercritical steam conditions.
Supercritical

wnet
Thermal efficiency: th 
Equations
qA

Heat addition: qA  (h1  h64)  (h3  h2 )

For ideal: s2  s1 s3  s4 s5  s6
Supercritical
Equations
Pump work: | wp | h6  h5

wT  (h1  h2 )  (h3  h4 )

Total work: wnet  (h1  h2 )  (h3  h4 )  (h6  h5 )


Supercritical

Calculate the net work and efficiency of an internally


reversible supercritical 3500psia/1000°F cycle. Condensing
at 1psia. Use steam as the working fluid.
Supercritical

B/SH 1
4

P T

2 4
C
3
3 2
Supercritical

State 1: sat vapor State 2: mixture


Supercritical

State 3: x = 0 State 4: sub cooled liquid


Supercritical

Work and Efficiency


Supercritical with Reheat

For steam cp= 3208 psia 1025 ° F 1050 ° F


1000 ° F

800 psia

200 psia

1 psia
Supercritical with Reheat

 Heat addition: qa = (h1 – h8) + (h3 – h2) + (h5 – h4)

 Turbine work: wt = (h1 – h2) + (h3 – h4) + (h5 – h6)

 Pump work: |wp| = (h8 – h7)

 Net work: Δwnet = wt - |wp|

 Thermal Efficiency: ηth = Δwnet / qa


Supercritical with Reheat

B/SH 1
4

P T

2 4
C
3
3 2
Supercritical with Reheat

 Calculate the net work, heat added, efficiency,


and work ratio of an internally reversible supercritical
double-reheat 3500/1000/1025/1050 cycle. Reheats
occur at 800 and 200 psia. Condensing is at 1 psia
1050 ° F
For steam cp= 3208 psia1025 ° F
1000 ° F

800 psia
200 psia

1 psia
State 1: P1= 3500 psia, T1= 1000°F h5=1555.4 s5=1.8603
h1=1422.2 s1=1.4709 State 6: P6= 1 psia, s5=s6
State 2: P2= 800 psia, s2=s1 x6=0.936 h6=1039.7
h2=1254.5 State 7: P7= 1 psia, x=0
State 3: P3= 800 psia, T3=1025°F h7= 69.73
h3=1525.3 s3=1.69015
State 4: P4=200 psia, s3=s4
h4=1336.3

SUPERCRITICAL WITH REHEAT


State 5: P5= 200 psia, T5= 1050°F
State 8: Δwnet=167.7+189+515.7-10.45
h8=69.73+0.016136(3500- Δwnet=872.4-10.45
1)(144)/778.16
Δwnet=861.95 Btu/lb
h8= 69.73 + 10.45
h8= 80.18
qA=(h1-h8)+(h3-h2)+(h5-h4)
qA=1342.02+270.8+219.3
Δwnet=(1422.20-1254.5)+(1525.3-
qA=1831.92 Btu/lb
1336.3)
+(1555.4-1039.7)-10.45
SUPERCRITICAL WITH REHEAT
ηth= 861.95/1831.92
ηth=0.4705

WR=861.95/872.41
WR=0.9880

SUPERCRITICAL WITH REHEAT


IMPROVEMENTS
 Efficiency of a Rankine cycle can be increased by:
 Increasing the boiler temperature
 Changing the working fluid

IMPROVEMENTS
 Changing the boiler material so that it can withstand
elevated temperature
 Minimizing heat loss by use of insulation
 Changing working fluid so that it doesn’t degrade in high
temperatures

IMPROVEMENTS
INCREASING THE BOILER
TEMPERATURE
 Lower specific heat capacity
 Lower heat needed to attain desired temperature thus higher
efficiency
 Example: mercury(1.72kJ/kg*K) VS water (4.19kJ/kg*K)

IMPROVEMENTS
CHANGING THE WORKING FLUID