Autism

AUTISM
A developmental disability that severely hinders the way information is gathered and processed by the brain, causing problems in communication, learning and social behaviors.

Autism
It typically appears during the child’s first three years, occurs in roughly 15 to 20 of every 10, 000 births and is four times more common in males and females.

Developmental Disabilities
• Social Behavior – related to environment and to interact with others in a social setting • Cognitive Behavior – reflected in how the child solves problems or achieves tasks that require thinking • Communication Behavior – has difficulty in language • Self-Help Behavior – delay in acquiring self-help skills

SUBGROUPS and RELATED DISORDER
• Pervasive Developmental Disorder ( PDD) Category is a general category of disorders which are characterized by severe pervasive impairment in several areas of development. • Individuals who fall under this category exhibit commonalities in communication and social deficits but differs in terms of severity.

Classifications of PDD
1. AUTISTIC DISORDER - impairments in social interaction, communication, imaginative play prior to 3 years; stereotype behaviors, interests and activities.

2. ASPERGER’S DISORDER
– impairments in social interactions and the presence of restricted activities with no clinically significant general delay in language and testing in the range of average to above average intelligence. • High functioning autism

3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified ( PDD-NOS ) • The child does not meet the criteria of a specified diagnostic but there is severe and pervasive impairment in specified behavior. • Atypical autism

4. RETT’S DISORDER - a progressive disorder which occurs only to girls - period to normal development and then loss of previously acquired skills - loss of purposeful use of hands replaced with repetitive hand movements beginning at the age of 1 – 4 years old.

5. CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER - characterized by normal development for at least the first 2 years then followed by a significant loss of previously acquired skills. - regressive autism

Causes of Autism
1. Biological or neurological differences in the brain 2. Physical disorders of the brain 3. genetic

Symptoms of Autism
• Profound failure to relate to other people • Impaired or delayed language acquisition and comprehension • Sensory Dysfunction • Inappropriate and/or flat effect • Stereo-typed, repetitive, self-stimulatory behaviors • Normal appropriate play • Obsessive ritualistic

Characteristics
• • • • • Difficulty in mixing with other children Acts as deaf No fear of dangers Resists change in routine Indicates need by gestures

Characteristics
• • • • Inappropriate laughing or giggling Not cuddly Marked physical over-activity No eye contact

Characteristics
• • • • Inappropriate attachments to objects Spins object Sustained odd play Standoffish manner

Indicators
• Physical Health - The child is generally healthy
Good looking Picky eater Exhibits disturbed sleeping patterns Has no apparent sense of pain; unable to localize pain

Indicators
• Fine Motor - The child may either have good or poor perceptual-motor skills - Is absorbed by some objects with tendency to get attracted to spin/round/whirl/tap objects - Self-stimulates by touching surfaces/ edges / arranging objects precisely repetitively

Indicators
• Psychosocial - The child exhibits limited/fleeting eye contact - is aloof, passive, prefers solitary activities to group activities - manifests inappropriate emotional responses - demonstrate unusual fears - is socially immature and handicapped - is maladaptive to changes in food, clothes, routines, route or arrangement of things - tend to be self injurious

Indicators
• Language-cognitive/ Intellectual
The child shows deficit in the use of language Under reacts to language visuals Demonstrate rote learning Exhibits inappropriate recall experiences echolalic

Indicators
• Self-help Skills
- The child is delayed in performing tasks such as eating, dressing and grooming - Is unable to assume age-appropriate responsibilities - Lags behind in discriminating and avoiding dangers

Is there a cure for Autism?
There is no definite cure but behavior can be managed through:

Behavior Management Through family training and reinforcements Special Education •Individualized Instruction •Structured and predictable schedules or routine •Extensive visual cues •Task analysis

Behavior Modification • It is aimed to eliminate unwanted behaviors, develop desirable ones and teach skills that will permit the child to develop and learn as normally as possible.

Community Programs

•Vocational education and placement programs •Recreational programs necessary for enjoyment and physical well-being • Autism Week – observed every 3rd Week of January

Government Awareness Program

Curricular Emphases for CWA
• Communication Development – expressive skills through speech or augmentative systems. • Increase understanding of the environment • Socialization – with emphasis on appreciating and communicating feelings, managing frustrations, impulse control and relaxation. • Use academic instruction appropriate to the developmental level of the student • Vocational and community-living skills including self-help skills.

Learning Problem to be Addressed
1. Organization – when face with complex organizational demands, CWA are frequently immobilized and sometimes will not be able to begin their required task. 2. Distractibility – it takes many forms in the classroom: reacting to outside noises or visually following movements instead of completing the required work. 3. Sequencing – difficulty in remembering precise order or tasks because they focus concretely on specific details and do not see the relationship between them.

4. Generalization – difficulty in applying what has been learned in one situation to similar things. 5. Uneven profiles of skills and deficits – some CWA can have extraordinary abilities to see spatial relationships or understanding concepts but unable to use these strengths because of organizational and communicative limitations. 6. Receptive language – many CWA, especially at a very young age, may not understand language.

Educational Methods

Structured Teaching
Aspects of structure • Physical environment • Schedules • Proactive routines • Visual structure

Physical structure refers to the way we set up and organize each area in the classroom, where we place the furniture and materials. • Clear physical and visual boundaries • Minimize visual and auditory distractions • Develop basic teaching areas

Structured Teaching

Sample of a Physical Structure
B U I L T I N C A B I N E t

Exit

Board

COMPUTER AREA

B O O K S H E L F
Entrance

T A B L E

FREE TIME/ SOCIALIZATION AREA

S N A C K A R E A MALE CR

MIRROR

FEMALE CR

Sample of a Physical Structure
Exit
White Board Media table B U I L T I N C A B I N E t

TABLES For Group Activities

table

Table For 2 Book Shelf
Entrance

table Table Table Holding Area Computer MALE CR

Book Shelf

MIRROR FEMALE CR

Sample Job Works with Visual Cues

Job Work for Higher Level
1. 2. 3. Read Sentence John works in the hospital. Underline the noun John works in the hospital. Write the noun under its classification. Person Place Thing Event John hospital ____ _____ _____ ______ ____ _____

Sample of a Daily Schedule
NAME :________________________ DATE :________________________
TIME TASK FINISHED

7:00 -7:15 7:15-7:30 7:45-8:15 8:15 – 8:30 8:30-9:00

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful