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 Price is the amount of money charged
for a product or service. It is the total
value that customers exchange for the
benefit of having or using products or
 Of all the elements in the 4p’s only
price is the only elements which
generates revenue. Rest all are costs.
 Profit maximization
 To ensure specified market share
 Make entry into new markets
 Maintain price leadership
 Improve cash flow
 Internal factors
◦ Marketing objectives
◦ Marketing mix strategy
◦ Costs
◦ Org. considerations

 External factors
◦ The market and demand
◦ Competition
◦ Other environmental factors
Types of Costs
Fixed Costs Variable Costs
Costs that don’t Costs that do vary
vary with sales or directly with the
production levels. level of production.

Executive Salaries Raw materials


Total Costs
Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given
Level of Production
Setting Pricing Policy
1. Selecting the pricing

2. Determining demand

3. Estimating costs

4. Analyzing competitors’
costs, prices, and offers

5. Selecting a pricing

6. Selecting final price

1. Cost-based pricing
2. Demand-based pricing
3. Competition-oriented pricing
4. Value pricing
5. Product line pricing
6. Tender pricing
7. Affordability-based pricing
8. Differentiated pricing
9. Psychological pricing
1. Cash sale price
2. Credit sale price
3. Installment sale price
4. Ex-factory price
5. Ex-warehouse price
6. Delivered at customer’s doors anywhere price
7. Free on Board (FOB) price
8. Free on Rail (FOR ) price
9. CIF price
High Medium Low

High Premium High Super

Value Value Value
Product Quality

Med Overcharging

Rip-Off Economy
Low Economy
The Three C’s Model
for Price Setting

Low Price Costs Competitors’ Customers’ High Price

prices and assessment
prices of of unique
No possible substitutes product No possible
profit at features demand at
this price this price
Value Example:
 Utility: The attribute Caterpillar
that makes it Tractor is $100,000
capable of want vs. Market $90,000
satisfaction $90,000 if equal
 Value: The worth in 7,000 extra durable
terms of other 6,000 reliability
products 5,000 service
 Price: The monetary 2,000 warranty
medium of $110,000 in benefits
exchange. - $10,000 discount!
 Loss-leader pricing
 Special-event pricing
 Cash rebates
 Low-interest financing
 Longer payment terms
 Warranties & service contracts
 Psychological discounting
Psychological Pricing

 Most Attractive?
A $2.19  Better Value?
32 oz.
 Psychological
reason to price this
B $1.99
26 oz.

Assume Equal Quality

 New Product Pricing –
Skimming Pricing
Penetration Pricing
 Price Discrimination
 Price Bundling
Customer Segment