IGCSE Science (Physics

)

Unit P3

The Strength of Solids Moments

Lesson Objectives
‡ State and use the formula for calculating the moment of a force ‡ Apply ideas about moments to simple machines (levers) ‡ Explain how, for an object to be in equilibrium, both the forces and the moments need to be balanced (s) ‡ Explain the difference between vector and scalar quantities (s) ‡ Add together vector quantities, including those not along the same line (s)

Moments
A moment is a turning force. The size of the moment is given by: Moment (in Nm) = force (in N) x distance from pivot (in m) Calculate the following moments: 5m Pivot 2m

100 N

200 N

Pivot

Unbalanced moments
2m 2m

200N

100N

Total ANTI-CLOCKWISE moment = 200x2 = 400Nm

Total CLOCKWISE moment = 100x2 = 200Nm

The anti-clockwise moment is bigger so the seesaw will turn anti-clockwise

Balanced moments
1m 2m

200N

100N

Total ANTI-CLOCKWISE moment = 200x1 = 200Nm

Total CLOCKWISE moment = 100x2 = 200Nm

The moments are equal and opposite, so the see-saw is balanced

Balanced or unbalanced?

Try These«
1. How far does the boy need to stand away from the pivot to balance the man?

2m 600N

? 400N

2.

2m ?

2.5m 400N

If this seesaw is balanced, what is the weight of the man?

Moving a Heavy Rock«.
(Load) (Effort)

(Pivot)

‡ Moments can be used to multiply your force ‡ The pivot needs to be closer to the load than to the effort

This type of simple machine is called a lever

Opening a Paint Can«..
‡ The load is very close to the pivot (fulcrum)
WIS Paint

‡ This is a strong forcemultiplier

Levers
A lever is a simple machine which uses moments, like this nutcracker:

Pivot Effort Load

The effort is further away from the pivot than the load is. This means that the nutcracker will multiply your force.

Levers
Pivot Effort
30N

Load

100N

10cm 3cm

Load x distance from pivot = effort x distance from pivot Load x 3cm = 30N x 10cm so Load = 300/3 = 100N

Spanner
Pivot

Load

Effort

‡ The load is very close to the pivot, so the spanner strongly multiplies your force

Wheelbarrow
Effort

Load

‡ The wheel barrow is another forcemultiplier

Pivot

Multiple Levers

‡ A bolt cutter like this has more than one lever, so it multiplies your force more than once. How many pivots can you see?

Biceps and Elbow
Effort

Load

‡ Here, the effort is much closer to the pivot than the load is. This is a distancemultiplier. In this case, the load is smaller than the effort

Pivot

Golf
‡ Try to identify the load, effort and pivot ‡ In fact there is more than one lever here ‡ Is it a forcemultiplier, or a distancemultiplier?

3 types of lever

Pivot is between effort and load. Could be a forcemultiplier or a distancemultiplier (eg seesaw)

Effort is between pivot and load. Always a distancemultiplier (eg biceps and elbow)

Load is between effort and pivot. Always a forcemultiplier (eg wheelbarrow)

Equilibrium
‡ For a body to be in equilibrium, both the forces and the moments must balance :

10N 10N 10N The forces are balanced, but the moments are not balanced : the box will rotate The forces and the moments are balanced : this box is in equilibrium 10N

Equilibrium?
Lift 100 000N

Weight 100 000N

‡ The plane would tilt backwards (µpitch¶) because there is an anticlockwise moment, even though the forces are balanced.

Equilibrium?
Lift 90 000N

Lift 10 000N Weight 100 000N

‡ The extra lift at the back of the plane makes it much easier for the plane to stay balanced.