# IGCSE Science (Physics

)

Unit P3

The Strength of Solids Moments

Lesson Objectives
 State and use the formula for calculating the moment of a force  Apply ideas about moments to simple machines (levers)  Explain how, for an object to be in equilibrium, both the forces and the moments need to be balanced (s)  Explain the difference between vector and scalar quantities (s)  Add together vector quantities, including those not along the same line (s)

Moments
A moment is a turning force. The size of the moment is given by: Moment (in Nm) = force (in N) x distance from pivot (in m) Calculate the following moments: 5m Pivot 2m

100 N

200 N

Pivot

Unbalanced moments
2m 2m

200N

100N

Total ANTI-CLOCKWISE moment = 200x2 = 400Nm

Total CLOCKWISE moment = 100x2 = 200Nm

The anti-clockwise moment is bigger so the seesaw will turn anti-clockwise

Balanced moments
1m 2m

200N

100N

Total ANTI-CLOCKWISE moment = 200x1 = 200Nm

Total CLOCKWISE moment = 100x2 = 200Nm

The moments are equal and opposite, so the see-saw is balanced

Balanced or unbalanced?

Try These«
1. How far does the boy need to stand away from the pivot to balance the man?

2m 600N

? 400N

2.

2m ?

2.5m 400N

If this seesaw is balanced, what is the weight of the man?

Moving a Heavy Rock«.

(Pivot)

 Moments can be used to multiply your force  The pivot needs to be closer to the load than to the effort

This type of simple machine is called a lever

Opening a Paint Can«..
 The load is very close to the pivot (fulcrum)
WIS Paint

 This is a strong forcemultiplier

Levers
A lever is a simple machine which uses moments, like this nutcracker:

The effort is further away from the pivot than the load is. This means that the nutcracker will multiply your force.

Levers
Pivot Effort
30N

100N

10cm 3cm

Load x distance from pivot = effort x distance from pivot Load x 3cm = 30N x 10cm so Load = 300/3 = 100N

Spanner
Pivot

Effort

 The load is very close to the pivot, so the spanner strongly multiplies your force

Wheelbarrow
Effort

 The wheel barrow is another forcemultiplier

Pivot

Multiple Levers

 A bolt cutter like this has more than one lever, so it multiplies your force more than once. How many pivots can you see?

Biceps and Elbow
Effort

 Here, the effort is much closer to the pivot than the load is. This is a distancemultiplier. In this case, the load is smaller than the effort

Pivot

Golf
 Try to identify the load, effort and pivot  In fact there is more than one lever here  Is it a forcemultiplier, or a distancemultiplier?

3 types of lever

Pivot is between effort and load. Could be a forcemultiplier or a distancemultiplier (eg seesaw)

Effort is between pivot and load. Always a distancemultiplier (eg biceps and elbow)

Load is between effort and pivot. Always a forcemultiplier (eg wheelbarrow)

Equilibrium
 For a body to be in equilibrium, both the forces and the moments must balance :

10N 10N 10N The forces are balanced, but the moments are not balanced : the box will rotate The forces and the moments are balanced : this box is in equilibrium 10N

Equilibrium?
Lift 100 000N

Weight 100 000N

 The plane would tilt backwards (µpitch¶) because there is an anticlockwise moment, even though the forces are balanced.

Equilibrium?
Lift 90 000N

Lift 10 000N Weight 100 000N

 The extra lift at the back of the plane makes it much easier for the plane to stay balanced.