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Water Dispenser With RO dubai

 Drinking water system


 Water filter prices
 Reversed osmosis
 Ro water purifier home

http://aqua-pro.ae
Water Purification System for a
Laboratory Facility

Millipore Corporation
Bioscience Division
Christopher Yarima
Mike Kelly
http://aqua-pro.ae
Outline

 Contaminants in Water
 Pure Water Applications and Quality Standards
 Water Purification Technologies
 Key Water Purification System Design Steps
Systems
 Questions

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Water Chemistry – Contaminants

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Ground & Surface Water

Surface Water
- Lower in dissolved ions
- Higher in organic materials
- Higher in particulates
- Higher in biological material

Ground Water
- Higher in dissolved ions
- Lower in organic
materials
- Lower in particulates
- Lower in biological
Material
http://aqua-pro.ae
Contaminants in Potable Water

Inorganic Ions Cations Anions


Na+ Cl-
Ca+2 HCO-3
Organics HH
Natural Man Made
H-C-C-OH Tannic Acid Pesticides
HH
Humic Acid Herbicides
Particles Non Dissolved Solid Matter
(Colloids) (Small deformable solids with a net negative
charge)
Microorganisms Bacteria , Algae , Microfungi
(Endotoxin) (Lipopolysaccharide fragment of Gram
negative bacterial cell wall)
http://aqua-pro.ae
Measurement of Contaminant level
Contaminant Measurement Unit
Inorganic Ions Conductivity μs/cm
(Resistivity) MΩ.cm

Organics Total Oxidizable ppb (μg/L)


Carbon (T.O.C.)

Particles (Colloids) Silt Density Index / Rate of pluggage of


Fouling Index 0.45 μm
membrane.
Bacteria Colony count on 0.45 cfu/ml
μm membrane.

Endotoxin -Rabbit Inoculation Endotoxin units/ml


test
-LAL Test
http://aqua-pro.ae
Measurement Units

 Thickness of a Human hair = 90 microns


 Smallest visible particle = 40 microns
 1 Micron = 10-6 Meters
 Smallest bacteria = 0.22 micron
 ppm : Parts per Million = mg/Liter
 ppb : Parts per Billion = microgram/Liter
 ppt : Parts per Trillion = nanogram/Liter

 1 ppb = 1 Second in 32 Years. !!!

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Water Standards

http://aqua-pro.ae
Standards and Common Terms
Ultrapure/Reagent Grade
Critical Applications
“Ultrapure” Water for HPLC,GC, HPLC ,AA , ICP-MS, for
buffers and culture media for mammalian cell
Type 1 culture & IVF, reagents for molecular biology...

Pure/Analytical Grade
Standard Applications
Buffers, pH solutions,culture media
Type II preparation ,clinical analysers and
“Pure” weatherometers feed.

Pure/Laboratory Grade
General Applications
Glassware rinsing, heating baths,
Type III humidifiers and autoclaves filling

http://aqua-pro.ae
Laboratory Water Purity Specifications
Consolidated Guidelines

Contaminant Parameter (units) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3


Ions Resistivity (M-cm) > 18.0 > 1.0 > 0.05
Silica (ppb) < 10 < 100 < 1000
Organics TOC (ppb) < 20 < 50 < 200
Particles particles > 0.2 um (#/ml) <1 NA NA
Bacteria Bacteria (cfu/ml) <1 < 100 < 1000
Endotoxin (EU/ml) < 0.001 NA NA
• Regulatory Agencies with Published Standards:
• ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
• CLSI: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
(previously NCCLS: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards)
• CAP: College of American Pathologists
• ISO: International Organization for Standardization
• USP: United States Pharmacopoeia
• EU: European Pharmacopoeia
http://aqua-pro.ae
ASTM Standards for Laboratory Reagent Water

Contaminant Parameter (units) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3


Ions Resistivity (M-cm) > 18.0 > 1.0 > 4.0
Silica (ppb) <3 <3 < 500
Organics TOC (ppb) < 100 < 50 < 200
Particles particles > 0.2 um (#/ml) <1 NA NA
Bacteria Bacteria (cfu/ml) 10/1000 10/100 100/10
ml ml ml
Endotoxin (EU/ml) < 0.03 0.25 NA

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials


http://aqua-pro.ae
CLSI*, water quality specifications
CLSI guidelines should be read to understand scope and detail for each requirement
• CLRW; Clinical Laboratory Reagent Water
Contaminant Parameter (units) CLRW
Ions Resistivity (M-cm) > 10.0
Organics TOC (ppb) < 500
Bacteria Bacteria (cfu/ml) <10
Particles include 0.22 micron filter
• SRW; Special Reagent Water
• CLRW water quality with additional quality parameters and levels defined by
the laboratory to meet the requirements of a specific application
• For example: CLRW quality with low silica and CO2 levels
• Instrument Feed Water
• Confirm use of CLRW quality with manufacturer
• Water quality must meet instrument manufacturers specifications
• Also defined:
• Commercially bottled purified water, autoclave and wash water and water
supplied by a method manufacturer (use as diluent or reagent)
*CLSI: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
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(previously NCCLS)
US and European Pharmacopoeia Pure Water

Purified and Highly Purified Water*


USP Purified EU Purified EU Highly Purified
Conductivity: <1.3 uS/cm at 25oC <4.3 uS/cm at 20oC <1.1 uS/cm at 20oC
TOC: < 500 ppb < 500 ppb <500 ppb
Bacteria: <100 cfu/ml <100 cfu/ml <10 cfu/100 ml
Endotoxin: N/A N/A <0.25 EU/ml

* Overview of USP28 and EP 4th edition, (refer to detailed specifications for exact norms).

http://aqua-pro.ae
Purification Technologies

Overview of Key Technologies


Advantages/Disadvantages
Summary

http://aqua-pro.ae
Purification Technologies
 Filtration – Depth and Screen Filters
 Activated Carbon and chlorine removal
 Mineral scale control – Softening and Sequestering
 Distillation
 Reverse Osmosis
 Deionization
 Electrodeionization
 Ultraviolet light

http://aqua-pro.ae
Purification Technologies
 Filtration Summary
 Depth Filters
 Random Structure
 Nominal retention rating
 Works by entrapment within “depths” of filter
media
 High “dirt” holding capacity
 Screen/Membrane Filters
 Uniform Structure
 Absolute retention rating
 Works largely by surface sieving
 Low dirt holding capacity

http://aqua-pro.ae
Activated Carbon
 Granules or beads of carbon
activated to create a highly porous
structure with very high surface area
 Activation can be heat or chemical
 Pore sizes typically <100 to 2000 Å
 Surface area typically 500 to >2000
m2/gram
 Removal of organics by adsorption
 Removal of chlorine by adsorption-
reduction

http://aqua-pro.ae
Mineral Scale Control
 Calcium and carbonate ions are common in tap water supplies
 Scale forms when concentration exceeds solubility limits and CaCO3
precipitates as a solid
 Higher concentrations increase risk of scale formation
 Higher pH and higher temperature increase risk of scale formation
 Important in domestic water systems and purification technologies

Ca++ + CO3= CaCO3(S)


Calcium carbonate scale

CO3= CO3=

Ca++

CO3= CO3=

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Scale Control – Ion-exchange Softening
"Hard water"
Cation
Ca++ + 2 Cl- Exchange Resin
Mg++ + 2 Cl-

R Na Na R

R Na Na R

R Ca R

R Mg R

4 Na+ + 4 Cl-
"Soft water"
http://aqua-pro.ae
Scale Control
Ion-exchange Softener Regeneration

Regenerated resin

R Na Na R Na+ Cl-
R Na Na R

R Ca R
conc. NaCl
Mg++ + 2 CL- R Mg R
Ca++ + 2 Cl-
EXCESS Na+ Cl-
Exhausted resin
Softeners are regenerated using a concentrated “brine” flush
http://aqua-pro.ae
Scale Control – Chemical Sequestering
 Chemical sequestering “weakly binds” calcium ion preventing
calcium and carbonate ions from forming scale
 Liquid and solid chemical options available
 Solid polyphosphate shown as example illustration

Ca++ + CO3= _ CaCO3 (S)



CO3= CO3=

Ca++

CO3= _ CO3=

http://aqua-pro.ae
Polyphosphate chain
Double Distillation Principal
Benefits
 Removes wide class of
Recondense contaminants
by cooling vapor Cooling water
jacket  Bacteria / pyrogen-free
 Low capital cost

Limitations
 High maintenance
 High operating cost

Heat to  Low resistivity


vapor  Organic carryover
 Low product flow
 High waste water flow
http://aqua-pro.ae
 Water storage
Natural Osmosis
• Pure water will pass though the membrane trying to dilute the contaminants

Osmotic
Pressure
Water
Plus
Contaminants
Pure
Water

~100 ppm NaCl Semi-Permeable


= 1 psi of osmotic pressure Reverse Osmosis
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Membrane
Reverse Osmosis
• Pressure applied in the reverse direction exceeding the osmotic pressure
will force pure water through the membrane
• A reject line is added to rinse contaminants to drain
Pressure

Water
Plus
Contaminants Pure
Water

Semi-Permeable
Reject Reverse Osmosis
http://aqua-pro.ae
Membrane
Reverse Osmosis Summary

Benefits Limitations
 All types of contaminants removed:  Not enough contaminants removed for
ions, organics - pyrogens, viruses, Type II water.
bacteria, particulates & colloids.
 RO membrane sensitivity to plugging
 Low operating costs due to low energy (particulates), fouling (organic,colloids),
needs. piercing (particle, chemical attack) and
 Minimum maintenance (no strong acid scaling (CaCO3) in the long run if not
or bases cleaning) properly protected.
 Good control of operating parameters.  Need of right pressure (5 bars) & right pH
 Ideal protection for ion-exchange resin for proper ion rejection.
polisher: a large ionic part already  Flow fluctuation with pressure and
removed (↑ resin lifetime), particulates,
temperature.
organics, colloids also eliminated (no
fouling).  Membrane sensitivity to back pressure
 Preservative rinsing needed
 Need optimized reject
http://aqua-pro.ae
Ion Exchange
Cation Exchange Resin

R - SO-3 H+ + Na+ R - SO-3 Na+ + H+ IX resin (+)

Ion (-)

Particulate
H2O
Colloid (-)

Organics

R - NH4OH- + Cl- R - NH4 Cl- + OH- Fines (-)


Anion Exchange Resin

Benefits Limitations
 Effective at removing ions  Limited or no removal of particles, colloids, organics
  Resistivity 1-10 MΩ.cm with a single pass or microorganisms
through the resin bed.  Capacity related to flow rate and water ionic content
  Resistivity 18 MΩ.cm with proper pretreatment  Regeneration needed using strong acid and base
 Easy to use: Simply open the tap and get water  Prone to organic fouling
 Low capital cost  Multiple regenerations can result in resin breakdown
and water contamination
 Risk of organic contamination from previous uses
http://aqua-pro.ae
Electrodeionization (EDI, CDI, ELIX, CIX)
RO Feed Water Continuous deionization technique
Ion Exchange Resin
where mixed bed ion-exchange
resins, ion-exchange membranes and
a small DC electric current
+ A C A C - continuously remove ions from water
(commercialize by Millipore in mid 80’s)
Na+ Cl- OH- Conductive
H+ Cl- Na+ Carbon
Beads
Performance enhancements:
Cl-- Na+
Ion-exchange added to waste
OH- channels improve ion transfer and
H+ Cl- Na+ removal.
Na+ Cl-
Conductive beads aded to cathode
Waste electrode channel reduces risk of
Product
scale and use of a softener

 Cations driven toward negative electrode by DC current


 Anions driven toward positive electrode by DC current
 Alternating anion permeable and cation permeable membranes effectively separate
ions from water
 RO feed water: Avoids plugging, fouling and scaling of the EDIhttp://aqua-pro.ae
module
Electrodeionization
Benefit Limitations
 Very efficient removal of ions  Good feed water quality required
and small MW charged organic to prevent plugging and fouling of
(Resitivity > 5 MΩ-cm) ion-exchange and scaling at
 Low energy consumption cathode electrode
 Typical <100 watt light bulb  RO feed water ideal

 High water recovery  New enhancements minimize


risk of scale.
 No chemical regeneration  Weakly charged ions more
 Low operating cost difficult to remove
 Low maintenance  Dissolve CO2 and silica
 No particulates or organic  Moderate capital investment
contamination (smooth,
continuous regeneration by
weak electric current)

http://aqua-pro.ae
Contaminant Removal Efficiency

Distillation
Reverse Osmosis
Ultrapure Ion Exchange
Electrodeionization
Ultraviolet light
Carbon
Ultrafiltration
Microporous Filtration http://aqua-pro.ae
2311BD10
Water Purification System Design
Multi-Step Purification Process

RO systems
Both
RO + EDI systems
Progard Pack Reverse Elix Technology UV Lamp
Pretreatment Osmosis Electrodeionization Production of
pack Remove up to Consistent water with low
RO cartridge 99% of feed production levels of
protection water of high resistivity Bacteria
contaminants and low TOC water
Product
1 2 3 4 Water

Tap water Type III Type II Low Bacteria


http://aqua-pro.ae
Water Purification System
Overview of Design Considerations

http://aqua-pro.ae
Major phases in a project

 Definition of the needs


 Design of a total solution
 Budget estimation
 Tender (Bid) process
 Delivery of the units, accessories and consumables
 Installation
 Users training/Commissioning
 Additional phases
 Preventive maintenance
 Full support for validation

http://aqua-pro.ae
Major phases in a project

 Definition of the needs


 Design of a total solution
 Budget estimation
 Tender (Bid) process
 Delivery of the units, accessories and consumables
 Installation
 Users training/Commissioning
 Additional phases
 Preventive maintenance
 Full support for validation

http://aqua-pro.ae
Design Process
Key Steps
Dishwasher
Direct Feed

1 Define the pure water requirements and


specifications
Ultrapure
Polishing
for HPLC
General
Glassware
Rinsing

monitoring

2
UV

Design the distribution loop sterile


pump
filtration

3 Design the makeup system and storage tank


Tap
Pure
Water Water
Storage
4 Review and Finalize specifications and design

http://aqua-pro.ae
Design Process: Step 1
1

 Defining the pure water requirements and


specifications

Dishwasher

 What purity level? Direct Feed

Ultrapure
General
Polishing
Glassware
 How much water? for HPLC
Rinsing

 When is it needed?
 Where is it needed?

http://aqua-pro.ae
1
Defining the pure water requirements and specifications
 What purity level?
 What labs and locations need purified water?
 What kind of work will be carried out in each lab, at each location?
 General rinsing/washing to sensitive trace analysis,…?
 Are there instruments that will need pure water?
 Glassware washers, steam sterilizers, autoclaves…..?
 Are there any “maximum” purity level requirements?
 What water quality is needed for each location?
 Ionic, Organic, and Microbiological Quality?
 Are there alert and action levels? Dishwasher
Direct Feed
 Are there standard specifications to follow?

 How much water? When? Where? Ultrapure


General
Polishing
Glassware
for HPLC
Rinsing

http://aqua-pro.ae
Definition of the needs 1
Questions to select the right configuration and design

 What purity level?


 How much water? When? Where?
 How much water is needed each day?
 In each lab, at each location,..?
 By the individual users, instruments, ultrapure polishing systems?
 How is the demand distributed during the day?
 Steady demand over the course of a day?
 Peak demands at certain times of the day?
 How many floors need water?
Dishwasher
 Where is each location? Direct Feed

 Are there remote locations that need water?


Ultrapure
 What are the distances between each location? Polishing
General
Glassware
for HPLC
Rinsing

http://aqua-pro.ae
Defining the pure water requirements and specifications
1
 What purity level?
 How much water? When? Where?
 Additional questions:
 Does the equipment need to be validated?
 At all locations?
 Who will do the maintenance?
 Is a service/maintenance contact required?
 Are the water quality requirements similar between locations?
 How many researchers/scientists will work in each lab?
Dishwasher
 Where can the equipment be located (space)? Direct Feed

 Where can piping be run?


Ultrapure
 Are there plans for future expansion? Polishing
General
Glassware
for HPLC
Rinsing

http://aqua-pro.ae
Step 2: Designing the Distribution Loop 2

 Define the distribution piping


 Design Layout
 Materials, welding method, valve type, pipe diameter
 Design Considerations

 Define Loop Purification and Monitoring Equipment

 Determine distribution pump performance


 Flow rate and pressure

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Distribution Loop Layout Options: 2
Gravity Feed

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Distribution Loop Layout Options: 2
Single Loop and make-up system Central Location

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Distribution Loop Layout Options: 2
Single Loop and Duplex-central make-up system

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Distribution Loop Layout Options: 2
Multiple Loop and make-up systems

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Distribution Loop Layout Options: 2
Multiple Loop and make-up systems and POU systems

“Satellite” Units

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Design Considerations; Avoid Dead legs
2
 “6D rule” CFR212 regulations of 1976
 Good Engineering practice requires
minimizing the length of dead legs and
there are many good instrument and valve
designs available to do so.

“6D rule”

Ø 0.59”

 Maximum dead leg = 6 times the pipe diameter


Ø 0.59” X 6 = 3.5”
Maximum dead length of 3.5 inches

Maximum length 6X pipe diameter


(our example max is 3.5 inches)

http://aqua-pro.ae
Design Considerations; Flow Velocity
2
 Design system for 3 to 5 f/s (~1 to 1.5 m/s) to:
 Maintain turbulent flow
 Minimize biofilm on internal walls
 Balance between velocity and pressure drop
 Higher velocity results in too high a pressure drop
– Requiring a larger pump and risk of increased water temperature

http://aqua-pro.ae
Define Loop Purification and Monitoring
Equipment
2
 Loop purification equipment to maintain water quality
– UV lamp
» Bacteria control
» TOC Reduction
– Filtration
» Membranes for Bacteria and particle control
» Ultra-filtration for Pyrogen removal
– Deionization – Ion removal
 Loop Water Purity Monitoring
– Resistivity
– TOC
– Bacteria
– Temperature
– Sanitant Monitors (Ozone)

http://aqua-pro.ae
Loop Monitoring
2

Sanitary Sampling Valve


TOC

Resistivity http://aqua-pro.ae
Loop Bacteria Sampling
2

Sanitary Sampling Valve

 Designed for sanitary


sampling (bacteria and
endotoxin)
 Mid-stream sampling
 Zero-Dead leg when closed
 Sanitize easily in place
 Direct attachment to samplers

http://aqua-pro.ae
Determine the Distribution Pump
Requirements
2
 Pump selection is based on flow rate and pressure requirements
 Flow rate required defined in step 1
 Pressure requirement
Total Pressure requirement can be estimated by adding:
piping pressure loss
+
loop equipment pressure loss
+
pressure due to elevation changes
+
pressure required at furthest point of use (25 psi typical)

 Select a pump that delivers the required flow rate and pressure
 Reduce pressure loss by increasing pipe diameter, (keeping balance
with flow required and target velocity)
 For added reliability a duplex pumping system can be used
http://aqua-pro.ae
Distribution Systems
Water Flow Dynamics; Pressure drop
2
 Determining pressure drop through fittings:
 Fittings; (elbows, tees, unions, etc…..)
 Flow through fittings creates turbulence and adds to
pressure drop
 “Equivalent pipe length” method most common
 Express each fitting as a length of pipe
1 foot

Example:
2 ft + 1 ft + (1) 90o elbow
90o elbow = 2 equivalent feet of pipe
2 + 1 + 2 eq-ft = 5 feet total length
90o
2 feet elbow

http://aqua-pro.ae
Distribution Systems
Water Flow Dynamics; Pressure drop
2
 Determining pressure drop through additional loop equipment
 Refer to manufacturers specifications
 UV lamps: Typically 2 to 3 psi
 Filters and housings:
 Pressure loss data

20 inch Code-0 Durapore


http://aqua-pro.ae
Determine the Distribution Pump Requirements 2
Case Study Pressure drop and Pump Requirement Calculations

Velocity and Pressure drop Table Piping Loop


Type in the yellow cells. Diameter of PP pipe
External diameter (in) 1 1/4 (Ashai-America)
nominal Ext Ø Nominal
PN thick.
Internal diameter (in) 1.28 pipe inch inside Ø
Flowrate in the loop (gal/min)
(see Flowrate Table)
15
1/2 250.79 0.098 0.59 Example worksheet tool
Total length of the loop (ft) 2000 1/2 250.79 0.098 0.59
Fittings (eq. length in m of PVC tube) Qty Eq. 3/4 250.98 0.106 0.79
Elbows 90° 90 315 1 161.26 0.118 0.95  Helps track and
Long Elbows 90° 0 0 1 1/4 161.57 0.146 1.28
Elbows 45° 0 0 Flowrate Table automatically calculate all
Tees (straight) 30 75 Instant. Q POU Qty Total Instant. Q
Tees (90°) 0 0 15 gpm 1 15 gpm key parameters
Ball valves in line 5 2 gpm 0 gpm
Union fittings 15 60 gpm 0 gpm
Total eq. length (in ft of pipe) 452 gpm 0 pgm  Sizing and selection of
Total length of the pipe (pipe + fittings) (ft) 2452 gpm 0 gpm
Sum of Total instant. Q 15 gpm correct pump is a key step
Total Pressure Drop 47.5 psi 48 Simult. use factor 100%
Velocity 3.8 f/s 3.8 Total flowrate in the loop 15 gpm in the design process
Required Velocity : 4 ± 1 f/s Velocity OK

Distribution Pump specs Table


( Pressure drop of loop and accessories )
Accessories psi
Pump feed pressure 0
Loop pressure drop 47.5 from above
UV Lamp 3.0
5 µm loop filter 0.0
DI tanks 0
Super-Q 0
0.22 loop filter 10 details
other (to be specified) 0
other (to be specified) details
Adjusted pressure on BPR 25.0
Highest elevation difference (ft)
Total pressure drop in the Loop
0 0.0
85.5 http://aqua-pro.ae
Required pressure @ distribution pump outlet 86 psi 198 feet
Required flowrate @ distribution pump outlet 15 gpm 15 gpm
Determine the Distribution Pump Requirements 2

Pump performance curve


 15 GPM and 180 feet of
head (~78 psi) shown as
an example
 Select the pump that
meets the minimum
requirements

http://aqua-pro.ae
Step 3 - Design the Makeup Purification 3
System and Storage Tank

 Select the make-up purification system to match the water


quality required

 Size the makeup purification system to match the quantity


required per day

 Size the storage tank to meet peak demands during the day

 Determine the pretreatment needed

http://aqua-pro.ae
Makeup System Sizing and Quality
3
 Match to the quality requirement (defined in step 1)
 RO/EDI or RO/DI system for Type 2 pure water applications

 RO system for Type 3 more general applications

 Size the makeup system to match the quantity required per day
(defined in step 1)
 Plans for future expansion?

 Are Duplex systems needed?


– Back-up for maintenance-down time.
– Option to add for future expansion

http://aqua-pro.ae
Sizing Makeup System and Tank
3
Sizing the makeup system is done in
conjunction with the storage tank
Sizing Examples:
 Company A needs water to clean vessels in the first two hours of
the day shift. They need a total of 1200 Gallons in two hours.
 1500 Gallon Tank with 100 gph make-up rate

 Company B needs pure water to feed automated Filling machine.


They need 200 gallons per hour for an 8 hour shift.
 200 Gallon Tank with 200 gph make-up rate

http://aqua-pro.ae
Determine the pretreatment needed for
the makeup water system
3
 Determine feed flow rate base on the make-up system water
recovery rate
 Feed Flow Rate = RO Product / RO recovery rate
 Complete feed water analysis
 conductivity, chlorine, fouling index, pH, hardness, alkalinity……..
 Select pretreatment options based on feed water analysis and
manufacturers recommendations
 Multimedia Sand – Particulate contamination
 Carbon Filters – Chlorine and some organic removal
 Softeners – Hard water (Mg++ or Ca++ contamination)
 Cartridge Filters – Particulate and carbon options

http://aqua-pro.ae
Design Process Step 4 4

 Step 4 - Finalize Design


 Prepare Process Flow Diagram (PFD),
supporting documents and specifications
 Design Controls and Monitoring
 Review Validation requirements
 Review who will maintain the equipment
 Consider service/maintenance plans

 Review requirements, specifications, design,


equipment and PFD with customer/client
 Update and Finalize design as needed

http://aqua-pro.ae
Outline

 Contaminants in Water
 Pure Water Applications and Quality Standards
 Water Purification Technologies
 Key Water Purification System Design Steps
Systems

 Questions ???

http://aqua-pro.ae
Water Purification System for a
Laboratory Facility

Thank You!! Millipore Corporation


Bioscience Division
Christopher Yarima
Mike Kelly

http://aqua-pro.ae