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Is defined as a process designated (selected) to create conditions of economic and

social process for the whole community with its active participation and the fullest
possible reliance on the community’s initiatives.

Community Development
The process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of
governmental authorities to improve economic, social, and cultural conditions of
communities” (Bujold, 1995 cited in Fennell 1999:214).
If tourism is to be used successfully as an agent of development at the
community level, it is important to put in to consideration the following
i. Enhancing Community Capacity Building
ii. Promoting Community Participation
iii. Emphasizing on Collaboration And Partnership
iv. Mobilizing Community Change
v. Enhancing Community Empowerment
Community Change
The community are required to change their perception and attitude towards
tourism development that takes place in their destination.
Communities need to be proactive and to identify their visions before proposals
for development occur.
Communities should not only become tourist attractions but also they should
receive and generate tourists.
Strategies to enhance community change
i. Mass mobilization
ii. Citizen participation
iii. Popular education
Community empowerment

Empowerment refers to a process of enabling local communities to obtain the

authority to gather resources to meet their needs, make decisions, take action and
to achieve social justice.
Empowerment of locals should come after awareness and capacity building
through training and education.
The role Of CBT on achieving community development
CBT is a tool to achieve Community development .The main aspects of the
development of CBT in the form of five dimensions, which are as follows
1. The economic dimension
2. The social dimension
3. Cultural dimension
4. Environmental dimensions
5. Political dimension
1) The economic dimension
o Funding for community development,
o Job creation in the tourism sector,
o The emergence of local people's income from the tourism sector;
2) The social dimension
o Improved quality of life;
o Increase community pride;
o Equitable division of roles between men, women, youth, and parents;
build community organizational strengthening;
3) Cultural dimension
o Encouraging people to respect different cultures
o Fosters the exchange of culture
o Development culture surrounded (embedded) in the local culture
4) Environmental dimensions
o Increase direct income for conservation efforts
o Set garbage disposal,
o Increase awareness of the need for conservation;
5) Political dimension
o Increasing the participation of the local population
o The increase in power of a larger community
o Guarantee the rights in the management of natural resources.
Community Empowerment refers to a process in which local communities acquire
the right and power to gather resources to meet their needs as well as make
decision and control changes in order to achieve social justice and to
maximize quality of their lives.
Community empowerment efforts are more directed to:-
strengthen the people abilities in the tourism decision making
enhance people ability to develop creative and innovative activities in relation to
Community empowerment, therefore, is more than the involvement, participation or
engagement of communities.
Basically, empowerment has four main elements according to world bank (2002).
Access to information
Community who has sufficient information will have better position in using the
opportunity, easier to get service access, using their rights, also asking for
responsibility of the stake holders.
chance to participate in tourism development, either is planning,
implementation or result use are very important to local community.
With those participation, all decisions can be based on local
knowledge, as well as the priorities are match with local community

Accountability of all stakeholders are needed, including in developing the role,

implementation, or any kind of resources usage including funds.
Accountability must be done in order to get community trust, in the other side
community are also educated to develop their accountability amongst them.
Local organizational capacity.
Community empowerment process must be consisted of quality ability
development, ability to work in a team, develop and strengthen local organization,
as well as mobilization resources to anticipate any problems.
Community will be able to speak out their need and aspiration in a group than
Four levels or types (dimensions) of empowerment

1. Economic empowerment focus on access towards capital and resources.

2. Political empowerment refers to the extent to which all community members
have a voice in the decision-making over the conception and implementation
development process
3. Political empowerment include representational democracy wherein residents
can voice opinions and raise concerns about development Initiatives
4. Psychological empowerment refers to the extent to which members of local
community have pride and self-esteem in their cultural traditions and natural
values and have a positive belief in their future.
Economic empowerment

Signs of empowerment in tourism

 It brings lasting economic gains to a local community.
 Cash earned is shared between many households in the community.
 There are visible signs of improvements from the cash that is earned (e.g.
improved water systems, houses made of more permanent materials).
Psychological empowerment

Signs of empowerment in tourism

Self-esteem of many community members is enhanced because of outside
recognition of the uniqueness and value of their culture, their natural resources and
their traditional knowledge.
Increasing confidence of community members leads them to seek out further
education and training opportunities.
Access to employment and cash leads to an increase in status for traditionally low-
status sectors of society e.g. women, youths.
Social empowerment

Signs of empowerment in tourism

 It maintains or enhances the local community’s equilibrium.
 Community cohesion is improved as individuals and families work together to
build a successful tourism venture.
 Some funds raised are used for community development purposes, e.g. to build
schools or improve roads.
Political empowerment

Signs of empowerment in tourism

The community’s political structure, which fairly represents the needs and interests
of all community groups, provides a forum through which people can raise
questions relating to the tourism venture .
Agencies initiating or implementing the tourism venture seek out the opinions of
community groups and provide opportunities for them to be represented on
decision-making bodies.
Challenges Of Community Based Tourism

Lack of Entrepreneurship and Managerial Skills

 Communities lack Skill to manage the projects this lead them to rely on
partnership hence they lose control.
 Community can not innovate the small project that appropriate to their financial
ability and skills
 Poor utilization of funds collected from the projects
Luck of Understanding of the tourism Concepts

The relative newness of the industry itself in most places has led to inadequate
local expertise in area of CBT
Also this condition prevent many people from becoming part in decision making
and in the benefits of tourism .
Some time they are not able to identify the tourism business opportunities.
Reliance on Outside Assistance
Most of the tourism projects are supported by government and donors for the sake
of the communities mainly in
 Providing funds for training,
 Production of management plans
 Establishing tourism infrastructure.
 Promoting the project locally and internationally
When the government and donor agencies withdraw from the project the
community can not ensure the continuity of the project as result the projects
Poor Distribution of Financial and Employment Benefits

Some of the CBT project accumulate a lot of funds but only a few people benefit
from funds derived from projects while the majority of the community members
derive little or no benefit at all.
This lead to the sabotage of project infrastructures and conflict among society
hence project collapse.
Prevalence of gender and ethnicity

Some ethnic minorities have little power have marginalized in decision-making and
the benefits of tourism.
Some cultural customs restricts or exclude woman from participating in decision
also being involved in tourism activities
This has led to an under representation of a huge population
Marketing difficulties

Community tourism ventures generally lack the capacity to market them selves
internationally because they don’t afford to design advertising outlets, use
reservation system and adequate transportation services.
Hence they fail to attract international target market and become dependent on
domestic market which is nor reliable.
Lack of cooperation/partnerships

In developing countries there has traditionally been a lack of coordinated efforts

among producers and regulators of tourism.
Each tourism stakeholder is most interested in achieving its own goals without
discussing actions with other agencies and stakeholders who may have related