INTELLIGENCE Defining intelligence

‡ Spearman (1923) defined it as a general ability involving mainly the ability to see relations and correlates ‡ Wechsler (1939) defined it as the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment ‡ Piaget (1972) defined it as referring to the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the to the physical and social environment ‡ Sternberg (1985) defined it as the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behavior in response to novelty ‡ Gardner (1986) defined it as the ability to solve problems or fashion products valued within some setting.

Defining intelligence
‡ You can take your pick of definitions but most agree that intelligence has to do with the related capacities of:
i.) Learning from experience ii.) Adapting to ones environment

‡ Think of a person lacking either of these, and you pick out people who seem to lack intelligence ‡ Note however that very few formal tests of intelligence really demand subjects to do either of these!

Psychological Measurement of intelligence in the 19th Century
‡ Interest in science and measurement ‡ Emergence of psychology as an experimental and quantitative science ‡ Interest in hereditary and neurological ( measurable ) basis of cognitive abilities (Galton)

The History of IQ testing
‡ First IQ tests developed by Alfred Binet
± Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon ± 30 items of increasing difficulty - 1905 ± Revision 1908 age specific versions

‡ These were developed to identify children who needed µspecial¶ education ‡ Binet believed that IQ could be increased by education

The history of IQ testing
‡ Early IQ tests gave estimate of children¶s MENTAL age by comparing their performance on various tasks with performance of children at various ages

History of Intelligence Testing
1. Head Circumference (Francis Galton 1880) first attempts to measure intelligence 2. Binet-Simon (Alfred Binet 1909) first intelligence test
± ± ± comissioned by French gov to separate children into vocational vs academic schooling did not design test to measure intelligence created concept of mental age (MA)

Lewis Terman (1916-72)
3. Lewis Terman (1916-72) first U.S. intelligence test
± Interested in gifted children ± translated and modified Binet s scale ± Heavy reliance on vocabulary/language skills


incorporated old items from the Binet scale, plus some new items
± poorly standardized on 1000 children and 400 adults who were not selected with care

Lewis Terman (1916-72)
± Developed Intelligence Quotient
IQ = (MA/CA)*100 MA= Mental Age; CA = Chronological Age

‡ calculated as ‡ IQ = Mental Age Chronological age

x 100

Nowadays NORM referenced.. that is the average performance of a group is calculated, then individual comparison

Weschler Intelligence Scale
4. Weschler Intelligence Scale (David Weschler, 1939-81) designed to show subtest scores
± Less reliant on language/vocabulary skills ± Contains Verbal and Performance subtests ± Performance compared to same age peers raw score has different interpretation depending on age ± Designed widely used test for adults (WAIS), children (WISC), and preschoolers (WPPSI)

‡ SOI Model
± Structure of Intelligence ± Each cube represents an intersection of operations, products and contents to create 150 components of intelligence

Cattell s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
‡ Fluid intelligence -Fluid intelligence is the ability to find meaning in confusion and solve new problems. It is the ability to draw inferences and understand the relationships of various concepts, independent of acquired knowledge.
± Ability to reason and use information ± Peaks approximately at age 20

Cattell s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
‡ Crystallized intelligence Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory.
± Acquired skill and learned knowledge ± Continues to increase into old age

Carroll s Three-Strata Model
Stratum III: General g Stratum II: Broad abilities
crystalized memory Visual perception Auditory perception retrieval Cognitive Processing speed speed

Stratum I: Narrow abilities


Perceptual speed

Word fluency

Word recognition

Gardner s Multiple Intelligences
‡ Eight types of abilities that are independent of one another
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Visual / Spatial Intelligence Musical Intelligence Verbal Intelligence Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence Naturalist Intelligence

Gardner s Theory
‡ Is modular, each type is independent of another

Sternberg s Triarchic Theory
‡ Emphasizes how 3 types of abilities work together to create intelligent behavior
Triarchic Theory

Analytical Compare, Evaluate & Analyze

Creative Practical Insights, Dealing with Synthesis, Everyday tasks Adapting in unique Relating to world situations

Sternberg s Triarchic Theory
‡ Intelligence involves not merely adapting to one s environment but in some cases modifying the environment or selecting another ‡ Intelligences are developing abilities not fixed characteristics of an individual; Traditional definitions conceptualize intelligence to remain essentially constant throughout an adult life ‡ Intelligence means adapting using your strengths and improving or compensating for your weaknesses

What is aptitude?
‡ Aptitude refers to an individual's ability to learn or perform certain skills ‡ Aptitude tests refer to standardized tests designed to measure an individual's ability to develop certain skills

Measuring Aptitude
‡ WHAT IS AN APTITUDE TEST ? Like intelligence tests, aptitude tests measure a student's overall performance across a broad range of mental capabilities. But aptitude tests also often include items which measure more specialized abilities--such as verbal and numerical skills--that predict scholastic performance in educational programs

‡ Research data show that individually administered aptitude tests have the following qualities: ‡ * They are excellent predictors of future scholastic achievement. ‡ * They provide ways of comparing a child's performance with that of other children in the same situation. ‡ * They provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses. ‡ * They assess differences among individuals. ‡ * They have uncovered hidden talents in some children, thus improving their educational opportunities. ‡ * They are valuable tools for working with handicapped children.

In general, aptitude test results have three major uses Instructional-aptitude test results to adapt their curricula to match the level of their students, or to design assignments for students who differ widely Knowing something about the aptitude level of students in a given class can help a teacher identify which students are not learning as much as could be predicted on the basis of aptitude scores administrative- Aptitude test scores can identify the general aptitude level of a high school, for example. This can be helpful in determining how much emphasis should be given to college preparatory programs. Aptitude tests can be used to help identify students to be accelerated or given extra attention, for grouping, and in predicting job training performance


guidance Guidance counselors use aptitude tests to help parents develop realistic expectations for their child's school performance and to help students understand their own strengths and weaknesses

Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification
‡ A state of mental defect from birth, or from an early age, due to incomplete cerebral development, in consequence of which the person affected is unable to perform his duties as member of society in the position of life to which he is born (TREDGOLD,1908) ‡ Mental retardation refers to subaverage general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairment in one or more of the following: (1) maturation, (2)learning (3) social adjustment ‡ IQ-Cutoff: less than one standard deviation below the population mean of the age group involved in measures of general intellectual functioning ‡ Both required : standardised IQ measures and measure of impairment in one or more aspects of adaptive behavior (e.g. Vineland) ‡ The developmental period: runs from birth through approximately 16 years ‡ (HEBER, 1959)

assessment of intellectual functioning
‡ GARDNER (1998): multiple intelligences (naturalist linguistic logical mathematical spatial musical bodily kinesthetic - interpersonal - intrapersonal ) ‡ GREENSPAN (since 1981): tripartite model (conceptual intelligence practical intelligence social intelligence)

Degree-of-Impairment Classification System
‡ ‡ Mild mental retardation (IQ 55 70) These individuals appear similar to typical individuals, and often blend into the nonretarded population in the years before and after formal schooling, some of these individuals hold jobs, marry, and raise families and are indistinguishable from nonretarded people Moderate mental retardation (IQ 40 54) -individuals who are more impaired intellectually and adaptively. More of these individuals are diagnosed as having mental retardation during the preschool years persons with moderate mental retardation require few supportive services, most continue to require some help throughout life. In one study, 20% of persons with IQs from 40 to 49 lived independently, 60% were considered dependent, and 20% were totally dependent on others Severe mental retardation (IQ 25 39)-This category refers to persons with more severe impairments. The majority of these individuals suffer from one or more organic causes of mental retardation Profound mental retardation (IQ below 25 or 20 )-These persons generally learn only the rudiments of communicative skills, and intensive training is required to teach basic eating, grooming, toileting, and dressing behaviors. Persons with profound mental retardation require lifelong care and assistance

‡ ‡

Multiple Intelligence Theory
The theory of multiple intelligences is Howard Gardner s theory that proposes that people are not born with all of the intelligence they will ever have. It says that intelligence can be learned throughout life. Also, it claims that everyone is intelligent in at least seven different ways and can develop each aspect of intelligence to an average level of competency. Intelligence, as defined by Gardner, is the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are valuable in one or more cultural settings.

The 7 intelligences included in Gardner s theory are:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ *Verbal/ Linguistic *Visual/ Spatial *Interpersonal *Musical/ Rhythmic *Logical/ Mathematical *Intrapersonal *Bodily/ Kinesthetic

There are 8 Criteria for Defining Multiple Intelligences:
‡ *Each of the intelligences can potentially be isolated by brain damage. ‡ *Each of the intelligences exists in exceptional people (savants or prodigies). ‡ *Each of the intelligences has a process of developing during normal child development and has a peak end-state performance. ‡ *Each of the intelligences is evidenced in species other than human beings. ‡ *Each of the intelligences has been tested using various measures not necessarily associated with intelligence. ‡ *Each of the intelligences can work without the others being present. ‡ *Each of the intelligences has a set of identifiable operations. ‡ *Each of the intelligences can be symbolized or has its own unique symbol or set of symbols.

‡ The theory of multiple intelligences has encouraged the idea that a person is not born with all the intelligence they will ever possess. ‡ In the rest this slide show, each of the intelligences will be explained to give you a better understanding of Howard Gardner s theory.

Linguistic Intelligence

~*Linguistic Intelligence*~
Gardner's Definition:

Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart) is the capacity to use language, your native language, and perhaps other languages, to express what's on your mind and to understand other people.
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Criteria Used for Linguistic Intelligence Can understand words and manipulate the structure of language Has highly developed communication skills including writing, speaking, and story-telling Knows and correctly uses rules of grammar Enjoys reading, writing, and speaking Has a large vocabulary This person learns best by: Saying, hearing, and seeing words Writing Talking Reading

These people would do well in these careers.
Author Journalist Poet Playwright Radio Announcer Speech Pathologist (one who interprets Typist Novelist Comedian Politician Orator Actor Curator

Famous People With Linguistic Intelligence
‡ William Shakespeare ‡ Edgar Allen Poe ‡ Earnest Hemmingway ‡ F. Scott Fitzgerald ‡ Emily Dickinson ‡ Agatha Christie ‡ T.S. Eliot ‡ Rudyard Kipling

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
‡ Logical-mathematical intelligence is the capacity to use numbers effectively and reason well. Someone who has this kind of intelligence is able to see cause and effect really well; also, they are able to identify a problem and solve it right there on the spot. People with this intelligence think by reasoning, and they love experimenting, questioning, figuring out logical puzzles, and calculating.

What kinds of processes are used in the logicalmathematical intelligence sequence?

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Categorization Classification Inference Generalization Calculation Hypothesis testing

Accountant Actuary Auditor Banker Bookkeeper Businessperson Computer Analyst Computer Programmer Doctor Economist Legal Assistant Mathematician Purchasing Agent Science Researcher Science Teacher Statistician Technician Underwriter

Famous Mathematicians
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Einstein Pythagoras Newton Pascal Archimedes Euclid Copernicus Plato Galileo Aristotle

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Analyzing Categorizing Formulas Logic Games Numbers Outlining Patterns Problem Solving ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reasoning Time Lines Synthesis Sequencing Rational Thinking Scientific Thinking Venn Diagrams Statistics

Spatial Intelligence
‡ What is spatial intelligence? Spatial intelligence is the brain·s ability to perceive and interpret visual stimuli. In other words, it·s how our minds process what we see. Although not very recognized, spatial intelligence is very important in the arts and in everyday life.

Why is spatial intelligence important?
The way that we visually perceive and interpret the world around us is an important quality to have. In the arts, the ability to transfer a vision to a painting, sculpture, or film is a key quality. Careers such as architecture, require a person to transfer a vision of a structure into a blueprint. Spatial intelligence is even used by average people to remember small, but important facts; like how to travel from your school to your house. Everyone uses spatial intelligence in everyday life.

Possible Careers
‡ Advertising Agent ‡ Architect ‡ Cartographer(Map Maker) ‡ Drafter ‡ Engineer ‡ Fine Artist ‡ Graphic Designer ‡ Fashion Designer
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Interior Designer Inventor Painter Photographer Pilot Sculptor Surveyor Urban Planner

Famous People With High Spatial Intelligence
Leonardo Da Vinci Pablo Picasso Spike Lee Vincent Van Gogh Frank Lloyd Wright (architect) ‡ Steven Spielberg ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ansel Adams (photographer) ‡ Amelia Earhart ‡ Auguste Rodin (sculptor) ‡ Robert Fulton (inventor) ‡ Michelangelo

Lesson planning activities for spatial intelligence
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Brochures Collages Designs Drawings Flow Charts Mapping Molding Clay Patterns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Painting Photography Posters Pretending Sculpting Visualization Idea Sketching Labeling

What is Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence?
It is expertise in using one s whole body to express ideas and feelings. Examples: acting, dancing, sports, and using body language It is the ability to use one s hands to produce or transform things. Examples: sculpting clay and hands-on learning

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence


Dancing Running Jumping Building Touching Gesturing

Role play Drama Movement Things to build Sports and physical games  Tactile (touchable) experiences  Hands-on learning

Other Activities that Would be Enjoyed
Acting Charades Collections Demonstratio ns ‡ Experiments ‡ Field Trips ‡ Gymnastics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Impersonation s ‡ Inventing ‡ Martial Arts ‡ Miming ‡ Puppetry ‡ Visiting ‡ Exercise

Possible Career Choices
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Actor Athlete Carpenter Choreographer (creates and arranges dances) Craftsman Dancer Farmer Forest Ranger ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Inventor Jeweler Mechanic Mime P.E. Teacher Physical Therapist Recreational Director ‡ Actress

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Babe Ruth Jim Thorpe Kristi Yamaguchi Mickey Mantle Thomas Edison

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Isadora Duncan Cincinnatus Fabergè Wilbur Wright Orville Wright

´Introduction to Emotional Intelligenceµ


1. Definition of EI 2. The impact of EI on business 3. The Business Cases 4. EI Yesterday 5. EI Today 

The Four Dimensions 18 Core Competencies The Algorithm Sample Competency

Definition ² Daniel Goleman The capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and others.

Its about: 
    Managing ourselves Managing our interaction with others Understanding more about human behaviour Understanding consequences more A language or a framework

EI origins stem back to the 30·s & 40·s Social versus cognitive intelligence Daniel Goleman·s and McLelland·s work on Competencies ² mid 1990·s What distinguishes typical performance from outstanding performance? Management theory -previously EI versus IQ

Research suggests that the key ingredients of a ´star performerµ: - 33% IQ and technical skills - 67% EI ‡ Outstanding Leaders: - 15% IQ and technical skills - 85% EI (Source: Goleman, Working With Emotional Intelligence)


´What Makes a Leader?µ (HBR Daniel Goleman) Leader?µ ´What Makes a (HBR Daniel Goleman)
Five Competencies

Self Awareness

Self Regulation Motivation

Social Skills

‡ Self Awareness ‡ Emotional SelfAwareness ‡ Accurate Self Assessment ‡ Self-confidence Self Management Emotional Self-Control Transparency Adaptability Achievement Initiative Optimism Social Awareness Empathy Organisational Awareness Service Orientation

Relationship Mgmt Developing others Inspirational Leadership Change Catalyst Influence Conflict Management Teamwork and Collaboration

There is no doubt and the results clearly show that EI is essential to success in: 

Leadership Sales Service Change Management Mentoring


‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Introduction History AI performances Application of AI Importance of AI Future Perspective Demos Conclusion

‡ AI is a branch of Computer Science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems. ‡ AI exhibits some form of intelligence: ± systems that learn new concepts and tasks, ± can reason and draw useful conclusions about the world. ‡ AI systems also can understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene, and perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence.

Introduction (counted.)



‡ 1940 - 1950; knowledge of the basic physiology and function of neurons in the brain. ‡ Revolutions have occurred in robotics, computer vision, machine learning (including neural networks) and knowledge representation.

AI performances
‡ Knowledge representation is a design for knowledge based agent. ‡ Expert systems are programs that mimic the behavior of a human expert. They use information that the user supplies to sender an opinion on a certain subject. The expert system asks user questions until it can identify an object that matches with the answer from the user. ‡ Natural Language Processing (NLP) tries to make the computer capable of understanding commands written in standard human languages. ‡ Robotics:Industrial assembly robots are used in a controlled environment. It can perform only programmed task.

Importance of AI
‡ AI is the field where human brain and machine talks together. The importance of AI is very wide. Human brain can be transformed into a machine format and all the research is done through AI. ‡ Cognitive Psychology and AI are very related. ‡ Cognitive Psychology discusses on human behavior and AI deals how to transform machine close to human.

Future Perspective
‡ (1) Reducing the time and cost of development is a big plan for AI. ‡ (2) Allowing students to work collaboratively is another plan from Researchers. ‡ Perfect rationality: the classical notion of rationality in decision theory. ‡ Bounded optimality: A bounded optimal agent behaves as well as possible given its computational resources. ‡ Game theory studies decision problems in which the utility of a given action depends not only on chancing events in the environment but also on the actions of other agents.

‡ AI just finished with its period of infancy. It has ramifications that yet remain unknown to everyone. The effort and research can bring the surprising innovations. ‡ There are also results which cannot be foreseen when the computer begins to think for itself. A computer it can be used in different ways depending on the user s needs.