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HOW TO DO RESEARCH

By : REYNALDA B. GARCIA, EdD, DPA, PhD


Understanding research
 research is a scientific investigation attempting
to answer certain questions that have not been
answered till date (Research
Meaning,http://www.indiastudychannel.com,2011).

 Research is a more systematic activity that is


directed towards discovery and development of
organized body of knowledge (Best and Khan,
http://www.bestugnetguide.in/2015).
Purposes of Research
 to explore a topic, familiarize oneself with the
topic, analyze in depth
 to describe and explain situations and events
 to find solutions to problems
 to come up with new concepts, new
generalizations, innovations and improvement of
life and systems
 to contribute to sustainable development life and
systems
Steps in Doing Research

1. Identification of problem area


 State the major problem In declarative
form. The major problem should state
what the research intends to describe,
find out, discover or evaluate.
 If objectives will be used, both the
major and specific problems are stated
in the form of objective(APA style)
Steps in Doing Research
2. Collection and organization of data
 This will determine what action needs
to be taken, and how it should be
presented.
 Data should be presented in tabular
graphical form as in quantitative
research; but not in qualitative
research that is presented in mostly in
words (paragraphs).
Steps in Doing Research

3. Interpretation and Analysis of data


 Analyze and identify major
theme, data that are quantifiable
 Note down important elements to
support major ideas
 Discuss the cause result
relationships between condition
and outcomes
 Support with related
literature/studies
Steps in Doing Research
4. Recommend Action based on data
 Use the information from the
data collection and review of
related literature
 Make recommendations that will
allow you to make a change or
find solutions to problems/
weaknesses noted
Detailed Format of Thesis / research.
APA STYLE

• Title Page
• Approval Sheet
• Table of Contents
• Abstract
Introduction
Objectives of the Study
Review of Literature /
(Conceptual /theoretical framework)
Detailed Format of Thesis/Research
APA Style

Method
Method
• Research Design
• Participants
• Instrument
• Procedure
• Data Analysis
• Ethical considerations
Detailed Format of Thesis/research
APA style

Results and Discussion


Conclusion
Recommendation
References
Appendix
Curriculum vitae of the author
Format of Thesis research

 Abstract (7-10 sentences summary of the research


paper) This includes the general introduction and
rationale of the study, method of research, participants
of the study, findings and conclusions and the intended
outcome based on the results of the study

-
 Introduction
*starts with the brief background of the problem
*uses relevant research and describe what other
researchers have said or done to investigate
the problem
* discuss briefly the key concepts identified in the
research title
*gives brief description of the subjects of the study
*discusses the parameters and rationale /significance
of the study / intended outcome of the study
(educational contribution / utility value of the
research
1. Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA
9344): Inputs to Policy Amendments

In the Philippines, the number of Filipino children in conflict with the law is
increasing. CNN (2010) reported that there were more or less 20, 000 juveniles and youthful
offenders detained in various prisons in the Philippines.
A youthful offender can be a child, minor, or one who is emancipated in accordance
with law and over nine years old but under eighteen years of age at the time of the
commission of the crime. Undeniably, the problem of juvenile misbehaviour and delinquency
presents a threat to national security and development. For instance, the National People’s
Army (NPA) and many crime organizations or syndicates are recruiting minor fighters
knowing that not only will these minors not be held accountable for their actions, they, the
NPA’s and syndicates, cannot also be held liable for any crimes committed by youthful
offender. While this phenomenon is advantageous to the offenders, there are claims that the
juvenile from different sectors is disadvantageous considering the concern that need to be
addressed during the process of implementation.
Under Section 4 (e) of RA 9344, A Child in Conflict with the Law (CICL) refers to a child
who is alleged as, accused of, or adjudged as, having committed an offense under Philippine
laws. The children in conflict with the law are youthful offenders known also as chronic
juvenile offenders chronic delinquents or chronic recidivists. These are the youth who had
been arrested four or more times during their minority and had perpetuated a striking majority
of serious criminal acts (Seigel, Welch and Senna, 2006). Children have the right to be
protected from abuse, exploitation and discrimination that has been articulated in several
declarations, codes and laws.
Batangas City interventions to reduce crime should take a different form
depending upon the degree to which high crime is the result of prevalence or
concentration. Performance indicators should include both prevalence and
concentration. Regular audits of crime trends should also report on these
counts in addition to crime incidence. Successful crime reduction strategies
will be those that are tailored to the distribution of crime in an area, be that
high prevalence, high concentration or a mixture of both. The important
difference between the two sets of strategy is the level of coverage and the
targeting of resources. High levels of concentration point to victim based
targeting that focuses resources at the most vulnerable. In areas of high
prevalence the focus should be wider with area based initiatives. The
Batangas City Police, CSWD and Family Court personnel in dealing with
delinquents, the difficulty of gaining their confidence is the fundamental
stumbling block. Indeed, Charles W. Slack, (http://www. the crimson,com/
2013) assistant professor of clinical psychology is virtually the first to meet
this problem successfully with a standard and easily communicable method.
Slack believes that delinquents, refuse to acknowledge in any way that they
might need "treatment," that there is any insufficiency in themselves
It is in the interest of policy evaluation and possible
amendment of the law, the researcher was prompted to
conduct this study. The researcher believes that through
the study, possible amendment of the law specifically in
Section Six which provides a child 15 years of age or
under at the time of the commission of the offense be
exempted from criminal liability.
Further as a concerned public servant, and as a
member of the Philippine National Police, the researcher
deemed this study appropriate and significant in the
context of police community relation and participation of
public officials in the implementation and amendment to
the RA 9344 otherwise known as Juvenile Justice and
Welfare Act of 2006.
Objectives of the Study
- In declarative form, state the major objective that the study seeks
to pursue or achieve . The specific objectives should state what
the research intends to describe, find out, discover or evaluate.

The researcher analyzed the Implementation of the Juvenile Justice


and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA 9344) in Batangas City and further identified
its inputs towards policy amendments.
Specifically, it sought to achieve the following objectives:
1. To assess the status of the implementation of RA 9344 as perceived by the
three groups of respondents: a) police; b) city social welfare and
development and c) family court with respect to:
1.1.objectives; 1.2.compliance to requirements; and 1.3. monitoring and
evaluation; (basis of the questionnaire)
2.To identify the problems encountered by Police, City Social Welfare and
Development (CSWD) and Family Court in the implementation of Juvenile
Justice and Welfare Act of 2006; ( with questionnaire)
3.To determine the implication of the implementation of RA 9344 to the
community as perceived by the three groups of respondents;
Specific objectives

4. To test the significant difference of the


responses as to:
4.1. the status of implementation of RA 9344;
4.2. problems encountered;
4.3 implication of exemption of youthful
offender in criminal responsibility;
5. To propose inputs to policy amendments
(quali)

Hypothesis – no need
Review of Literature
 should be organized by major topics (based on the
statement of objectives)
 Do not separate local and foreign literature
 may use library and on-line references, journals, and
other credible sources – to be properly cited
Review of Literature
Example:
Title : Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA
9344): Inputs to Policy Amendments

Main topics
 Juvenile Justice Welfare Act of 2006 (concepts, background, legalities,
rules and regulations in terms of 1.1. objectives; 1.2.compliance to
requirements; and 1.3. monitoring and evaluation
 Effects Observed and Problems encountered in the Implementation of
the JJWA of 2006
 Interventions/Plan of action made and implemented
Method
-includes the method used in conducting the
study, participants of the study, data
gathering instruments and procedures, data
analysis, ethical consideration
METHOD
 Research Design
The researcher used the descriptive correlational
method, which is designed to ascertain the facts
concerning the present status of the situation, to gather
information regarding the topic “Implementation of the
Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA 9344):
Inputs to Policy Amendments”. Descriptive method is
investigation to gather information about present and
existing conditions (Calderon, 2011). The researcher
employed the research triangulation approach which
makes use of documents, parametric data and interviews
with respondents.

 .
Participants of the Study

 Respondents of the study are all personnel assigned at


Batangas City Police Stations, personnel of City Social
Welfare and Development (CSWD) Batangas and personnel
of Family Court of Batangas City. The respondents include
one hundred sixty five (65) PNP personnel, sixty five (65)
City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD) personnel and
thirteen (13) Family Court personnel or a total of 143.

 If not total population, there is a need for sampling


technique
Instrument Used

The questionnaires contain three parts: Part 1 deals


about the implementation of RA 9344; part two includes the
problems encountered by the three groups of respondents
and the third part includes the possible impact of exempting
youthful offenders.
Results of the survey were statistically treated to
become the basis for the results and discussion.
Method
Data Gathering Procedures

Prior to the formulation of the questionnaire, the researcher


conducted a pre- survey through an interview regarding the
implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act. The information
gathered was used as basis in the construction of the questionnaire. The
content of the law on Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act was used, while
the problems were taken from interview. The instrument was validated by
Chief of Police of Batangas City, Family Court, City Social Welfare and
Development (CSWD) Batangas and research adviser.
The researcher interviewed the Chief of Police of Batangas City,
Judge of the Family Court and the Social Workers personnel of Batangas
City to ask permission to distribute questionnaire to their personnel.
The researcher personally administered the questionnaires among
the police personnel assigned at Batangas City Police Stations, Family
Court and to the City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD) Batangas. It
took two weeks to finish the distribution and retrieval of the questionnaire.
Data Analysis

Data were analyzed and interpreted with the use of Percentage


Distribution, Ranking, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Percentage Distribution. This was used to show how the


magnitude of the frequency in relation to the total number of violent
crimes committed and the factors that contributed to their occurrence.
Ranking. This was used in order to answer problems concerning
violent crimes committed and the factors that contributed to the
commission of the violent crimes by the youthful offender.

Cronbach Alpha (CA) was used to test reliability. Based from the
result, the obtained cronbach alpha is very high which is 0.946 which
means that the item tested are acceptable and the reliability is high.
However, item number 1, 9 and 10 on problems encountered need to be
modified since the correlation is very small.
Ethical considerations

example:
Ethics is an essential part of every research study. In
this study, the researchers took into consideration that
every respondent read and understand the consent form
and accept the terms of the study before participating.
Confidentiality of the participants’ personal information
was given utmost importance. The researchers did not
force any of the participants to answer questions they do
not want to. Ethical consideration was also applied in the
related literature gathered in this study by citing their
appropriate sources.
Format
Resultsof
andaction research
Discussions

 gives the interpretation and discussion of the data


 Data should be in graphical or tabular form. In case
of qualitative form, narrate in details the process
 Explain/analyze the tabular results presented (if
qualitative, give a more in depth discussion of the
data gathered) - based on existing knowledge,
concepts, interviews, FGD, research triangulation, etc.)
 Evidences and supporting details must validate the
analysis (related literature, concepts, studies,
interviews, etc.)
Results and discussion
and analysis

(see sample of data interpretation and analysis …table 1 presented –


explain the 3 items with highest weighted means and the 3 with lowest
WM)

Table 1 revealed that Security and safety of children in youth detention


home are the most primary concern of DSWD/CSWD with the highest
weighted mean of 4. 5 verbally interpreted as Strongly agree. Their main
aim is to reform the child inside the youth detention home. This is to avoid
the escalating percentage of crimes committed by the child offenders. The said
agency imposes certain measures to ensure the security and safety of
children by trying to improve and facilities with the available budget and
resources on hand, and by coordinating closely with the agencies particularly
the police department, and also the governmental and non-governmental
agencies. The agency also provides services to develop the holistic well-
being of the child offenders such as guidance and counseling, sports and
physical development programs, recreation and value orientation seminars
and creative / livelihood projects that will develop their self esteem and self
confidence as well as the necessary communal and personal values.
Results and discussion
 This was supported by Lago (Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/, 2013). The
Philippine government today has proven its commitment to abide by the
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). This is a great example on how a
group working together can achieve something as groundbreaking as this law.
“Now, we must concentrate on implementing it. Children in conflict with the law
(CICL) have been waiting far too long for a law to help them in their
situation.” Lina Lago said we finally hurdled the first step. The second step, the
implementation, is the difficult part. We must make sure that the service
providers namely, social workers, police, local government units, NGO and other
concerned parties know the law. We must also educate parents on how to
discipline their children in a constructive and not a punitive manner.
 The Philippines’ Commission on Human Rights (CHR) also monitors the
implementation of the law in observance of the best interest of the child. Dr.
Purificacion Quisumbing, CHR Chairperson, said that the law can improve the
delivery of justice for the youth and likewise improve the justice system on the
whole. “However, we still need resources. Dr. Quisumbing said we need to build
separate jails and detention centers. We need rehabilitation programs for
CICL(http://www.unicef,org/philippines,2013).
The following items got the lowest weighted means : Security of
evidence against the child in conflict with the law, reparation of injury to the
victim (WM=3.54) and change of attitude or behavior of the child in conflict
with the law (WM=3.69). These are the lowest since it is the main function of
police and DSWD. Under the guidance of the Department of Social Welfare and
Development (DSWD), a Social Services and Counseling Division (SSCD) shall
be established in each judicial region as the Supreme Court shall deem
necessary based on the number of juvenile and family cases existing in such
jurisdiction. It shall provide appropriate social services to all juvenile and
family cases filed with the court and recommend the proper social action. It
shall also develop programs, formulate uniform policies and procedures, and
provide technical supervision and monitoring of all SSCD in coordination with
the judge (http:www.chanrobles,com, 2013).
The Batangas City Police, CSWD and Family Court treat all the
records of the case with confidentiality and they used code name to
protect the rights of the child. However, there are times that the
police exercise police discretion on the extent and other factors that
may affect the situation where the police have the ability to decide
to apprehend or not apprehend the offender.
Based on observation, the Batangas City police monitors the
record of the case and assure that the child is protected from the
victim’s revenge.
The Security and safety of children in youth detention home is
also primary concern of CSWD but there still lacks the financial
resources to create programs for these children.
On the part of the Family Court, Batangas City Family Court
performs their mandate with respect to the confidentiality of
records of the case of youthful offenders and ensures the
constitutional rights of the offenders.
Proposed inputs to policy amendments of RA 9344

The following are the proposed inputs to policy to policy amendments of RA


9344 to curb the incidence of youthful offender.
SEC. 16 of RA 9344 provides “All LGUs shall appoint a duly licensed social
worker as its local social welfare and development officer tasked to assist children
in conflict with the law”. It must also put up rehabilitation
centers in each province particularly in CALABARZON area manned by competent
staff.
RA 9344 Title V Chapter 1, Sec 21 “require police and other law enforcers
to immediately turn over to social workers children caught committing criminal
acts”. This resulted to government social workers getting swamped with problems
that the law’s authors obviously did not anticipate. The law should provide the
availability of youth desk in every police station for the immediate transfer of
custody of the minor offender to the CSWD/DSWD.
There should also be assistance of CSWD/DSWD to accreditation of child
social worker in each police station/office in Batangas Province; provision of youth
desk and social workers in each police station/office. Consequently, there should be
additional budget for compensation and benefits of youth desk officers.
 RA9344, Section 6 provides that the minimum age of the criminal
responsibility is 15. Title IV, Sec 20 further stated that children below the age of criminal responsibility, 15
years old, are absolutely exempt from criminal liability.It is recommended that the provision of RA 9344
fixing the age criminal responsibility to 15 years old be amended and the age be lowered from 15 to 9
years old. This safeguards their psychological, values and behavior regarding the commitment of crimes
among juveniles.

As stated in Section 53 of RA 9344. The youth rehabilitation center shall


provide 24-hour group care, treatment and rehabilitation services under the guidance of a trained staff
where residents are cared for under a structured therapeutic environment with the end view of
reintegrating them in their families and communities as socially functioning individuals. A quarterly report
shall be submitted by the center to the proper court on the progress of the children in conflict with the law.

 The law should provide for Youth Welfare Program of DSWD that includes the rehabilitation of youth
offenders by adding child psychologist and healthcare members who are experts in youth and child
psychology. There should also be complete meals, basic needs and facilities. for each individual.
Proposed Intervention program (based on the findings of the
study)

KRA Specific obj. Activities/ Persons Expected


strategies Responsible Outcome
Format of action
Conclusions andresearch
Recommendations

 Conclusions narrates the generalizations out


of the findings (chronologically arranged based
on specific objectives)

 Recommendations presents the suggestions


based on the conclusions/generalizations
given.
Conclusions

Based on the findings, the researcher arrived at the following conclusions:

1. There is high degree of implementation of RA 9344 with respect to


objectives, compliance to requirements and monitoring and evaluation.
2. Each sector experiences problems in implementing RA 9344. The police
foremost problems encountered are insufficient knowledge of the child
and lack of cooperation among parents of the child in conflict with the
law. As to the City social Welfare and Development the major
problems encountered are lack of interest and sense of responsibility
of parents of the child regarding the consequence of child’s act
followed by lack of primary source/information as to preliminary
background investigation of Child in conflict with the law then by Lack
of the child’s interest/understanding to comprehend his constitutional
rights. On the part of family court the foremost problems encountered
are lack of budget for proper implementation, lack of lack of proper
facilities/equipment and financial resources and inadequate programs
for rehabilitation of minors.
Conclusions

3. Exemption of youth offenders from criminal


responsibility has resulted to increase volumes of crimes
of youthful offender.
4. There is significant difference between the status of
implementation of RA 9344 and the problems
encountered. Further, there is difference between the
responses of the three groups of respondents with
respect to problems encountered and impact of
exemption of youthful offender in criminal responsibility.
5. Inputs to policy formulation are proposed to enhance the
efficiency and effectiveness of RA 9344 specifically
section 6 which exempt youthful offender.
Recommendations (maybe more than 5 but logically and
chronologically arranged)
Based on the conclusions of the study, the following are recommended:
onologically arranged)
1. Continuous monitoring by the police, CSWD and family court of strict compliance
in the implementation of RA 9344.
2. Child management training may be provided by the government for those parents
who have problems in their children and may strengthen their supervision in their
children 9 years old and above. The DSWD/CSWD may conduct also seminars for
parents to encourage their youth to avoid committing crimes.
3. A rehabilitative program of continuous education for juvenile offenders may be
offered to parents wherein they can decide if the child will be staying under the
custody of CSWD/DSWD for a certain time frame depending on the severity of the
crime committed.
4. The education program should be under the supervision of DepEd and the students
(youth offenders) may have weekly/monthly/annually counseling. This program
should be strictly confidential to maintain self worth and dignity of juvenile
offenders.
5. Rehabilitation centers particularly in the CALABARZON area manned by
competent staff, maybe established.
Recommendations
6. A review and validation of the proposed measures by the concerned
authority for future standardized implementation is recommended. The
result of this study may be shared to the concerned department for
them to design the necessary interventions, changes and that the
proposed policy inputs may be considered and evaluated thereafter.
7. Future researchers may conduct an in-depth study exploring other
variables like the parents and the five pillars of Criminal Justice
Systems and using different locale.
8. To amend RA 9344 in aid of its legislation particularly the age of the
minor offender.
9. Inputs to amend RA 9344 maybe proposed for trial and evaluation.
References

References/Bibliography includes at least five


printed references from books and journals or
web pages, and other sources. Add related
studies – alphabetically arranged
References
Ballot G. Taymaz, E. (2001). Fires Human Capital: A study on French and Swedish fires.
Labor economics., RB publications.

Batangas City Socio-Economic Profile.(2009).

Bilog , Freddie (2013). Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006
(RA 9344): Inputs to Policy Amendments , Unpublished Thesis, LPU- Batangas,

Craft Industry Impacts On the Environment and a Community’s Social Welfare. Accessed
July 21, 2011 from www.jsd- africa.com.

Daneshfard K. Alipour, K. (2010). The effect of in-service training on improving teaching


skills of faculty members, Tadbir Journal pp.34-36.

Economic Impacts of Gambling. Accessed March 15,2013 from www.libary.ca.gov.

Emerging Risks: Impacts of Key Environmental Trends in Asia accessed September 14,
2013 from www, wri.org.
References

Farnham. Martin. How to Write a Referee Report (2017) accessed


from http://web.uvic.ca/-mfarnhan/phd_seminar/how to
referee.pdf

Research Meaning, characterestics and Types. Retrieved from


http://www.bestugcnetguide.in/, 2015

Technical Job Skills, accessed 12/17/2017 from


https://www.investopedia.com.

Tips For Conducting An Excellent Final Edit: accessed, December


12,2017 from http://www.editorialveramar.com/how-to-edit-a-
research-paper-property-useful-tips
Appendices
 to include interview questions, questionnaires,
observation checklists, pictures of
activities related to the study, supporting
documents, curriculum vitae, vital statistical
results, etc.