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Lifestyle Diseases

Forrest Dolgener, Ph.D.


Professor
School Health, Physical Education
and Leisure Services
Cardiovascular Diseases Incidence

• High Blood Pressure - 50,000,000


• Coronary Heart Disease - 13,900,000
• Stroke - 4,000,000
• Rheumatic fever/heart disease - 1,800,000
• More than 1 in 5 males and females have
some form of CVD
Deaths from CVD
• Almost 1,000,000 deaths in 2005
– CAD is #1 cause of death in US
– Stroke is #3 cause of death in US
• ~ 40% of all deaths
• Since 1900, CVD has been the No. 1 killer in U.S
• More than 2,600 Americans die each day from
CVD
• CVD claims more lives than next 7 causes
Deaths from CVD
• Approximately half the deaths are females
and half are males
• 36% of deaths occur prematurely (before
age 75)
• If all forms of major cardiovascular disease
were eliminated, life expectancy would rise
by 10 years; If cancer were eliminated, life
expectancy would rise 3 years.
HEART
BLOOD
DISTRIBUTION
AT REST
Coronary Heart Disease
• Single largest killer of males and females
• Almost 500,000 deaths per year
• Half die within 1 hour of onset of symptoms
• In 48% of men and 63% of women who die
suddenly, there were no previous symptoms
Women and CHD
• Women suffer heart attacks an average 10
years later than men
• Since 1984, CVD has killed more women
than men
• 1 in 2 women will die from CVD; 1 in 26
will die from breast cancer.
Unalterable Risk Factors
• Age
• Gender
• Heredity
Alterable Risk Factors
• Sedentary Life Style
• High Blood Pressure
• High Blood Cholesterol
• Smoking
• Diabetes Mellitus
Heart Attack Warning Signs
• Chest Discomfort (angina pectoris)
• Discomfort in other areas of upper body
• Shortness of breath
• Cold sweat
• Nausea
• Light headedness
Cholesterol Types & Values
• Major cholesterol types
– High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
– Low Density Lipoportein (LDL)
– Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)
• Total Cholesterol = HLD + LDL + VLDL
– TC < 200 mg/dl
– LDL < 130 mg/dl
Risk Ratio (RR)
• RR = Total Cholesterol/HDL
– if RR > 4.0 = increased risk
– if RR < 4.0 = decreased risk
• You can lower your risk by either increasing
HDL or decreasing TC or both
Risk Ratio Example
• Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl
– HDL = 40 mg/dl
– RR = 250/40 = 6.25 (risky)
• Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl
– HDL = 65 mg/dl
– RR = 3.8 (good)
Lowering Your Cholesterol
• Consume less saturated fat in the diet
– eat lean meat and low fat dairyfoods
– eat less processed foods
– cook only with mono- or polyunsaturates
• Consume less cholesterol in the diet
– eat lean meat and low fat dairy foods
– use only vegetable oils (no tropical oils)
Hypertension
• Ideal pressure is < 120/80
• Hypertension is >140/90.
• Hypertension can be reduced by:
– Regular exercise program
– Reduced sodium intake
– Drugs
CEREBRAL INFARCTION AND
HEMORRHAGE

Infarction Hemorrhage
Stroke Warning Signs
• Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, leg,
especially on one side of body
• Sudden confusion, problems speaking or
understanding
• Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
• Sudden loss of coordination, trouble walking,
dizzy
• Sudden severe headache with no known cause
Unalterable Stroke Risk Factors
• Age
• Heredity
• Race
• Gender
• Previous transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Alterable Stroke Risk Factors
• High Blood Pressure
• Smoking
• Diabetes Mellitus
• High Cholesterol
• Physical Inactivity
• Obesity
• Atrial fibrillation
• Carotid or peripheral artery disease
Cancer
• Second leading cause of death
• Prostate - 334,000 (99%)
• Breast - 180,200 (97%)
• Lung - 178,000 (14%)
• Colon & Rectum - 131,200 (61%)
• Testicular - 7,200 (91%)
Early Warning Signs
• C - Change in bowel or bladder habits
• A - A sore throat that does not heal
• U - Unusual bleeding or discharge
• T - Thickening or lump
• I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
• O - Obvious change in wart or mole
• N - Nagging cough or hoarseness
Risk Factors
• Heredity
• Nutrition
– high fat
– low vegetables & fruits (anti-oxidants, fiber)
• Smoking
• Environment
• Sedentary Lifestyle
Causes of Skin Cancer
• Total amount of sun received
• Acute overexposure (sunburn)
• Most receive 80% of exposure by age 18
• 1 in 7 will develop some form of skin
cancer in their lifetime
Tanning
• Tanning is the skin’s normal response to UV
light
• Tanning is protective reaction to prevent
further injury
• Tanning does not prevent skin cancer
Factors Determining UV Level
• UV light is greater today than in the past
due to reduction in ozone layer
• The following increase UV light:
– Altitude
– Proximity to the equator
– Less cloud cover
Risk Factors for Skin Cancer
• Genetics
– Northern European heritage
– Fair skin
• Environment
– Geography
– Sun Exposure
Types of Skin Cancer
• Basal Cell Carcinoma
• Squamous Cell Carcinoma
• Melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
• Most common form of cancer
• Occurs in basal cells at the bottom of the
epidermis
• Occurs most often in males
• Occurs on most exposed areas: face, ears,
neck, scalp, shoulders, back
• Rarely does it go deeper than epidermis and
metastasize
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
• Occurs in outer most cells of epidermis
• Second most common form of skin cancer
• Usually confined to epidermis but will
eventually penetrate the underlying tissues
and can metastasize.
• Most often occurs on exposed areas like
basal cell carcinoma.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Melanoma
• Arises in melanocytes
• Most serious form of skin cancer
• Most rapidly increasing from of cancer
• Penetrates and metastasizes quickly
• Successful treatment dependent on early
diagnosis.
Melanoma
Preventing Skin Cancer
• Minimize exposure to sun between hours of
10:00 am and 3:00 pm
• Apply SPF-15 sunscreen or higher when
exposed
• Wear protective clothing & sun glasses
• Avoid UV radiation from tanning beds
• Protect your children!!
• Examine skin head to toe every 3 months
Clinical Screenings
TEST Gender AGE Freq.
Sigmoidoscopy M&F >50 3-5
Fecal Blood M&F >50 yearly
Digital Rectal M&F >40 yearly
Prostate & PSA M >50 yearly
Mammography F 40? 1-2
Pap Test F >18 yearly
Top 10 Ways to Avoid Cancer
• Don’t smoke or chew
• Check your house for radon
• Perform regular BSE and TSE
• Females get annual pap test
• Get regular clinical screenings when age
appropriate
Top 10 Continued
• Avoid sunburns
• Eat lots of vegetables
• Eat low fat
• Eat moderate protein
• Exercise
Diabetes Mellitus
• Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism due to
lack of insulin or decreased insulin
sensitivity
• Type I - insulin-dependent (IDDM)
• Type II - non-insulin dependent (NIDDM)
Symptoms of Diabetes
• Thirst
• Fatigue & Weakness
• Weight Loss
• Hunger
• Overeating
• Blurred Vision
Risk Factors for Diabetes
• Heredity
• Age
• Obesity
• Physical Inactivity
Diabetes Risk and Obesity
3

2.5

1.73
Relative Risk

1.5 1.1
1

0.5

0
<23 23-24.4 24.5-26.4 >26.4
Body Mass Index
Benefits of Exercise
• Helps control weight
• Has an insulin-like effect
• May reduce the requirement for insulin
Osteoporosis
• Disease characterized by low bone mass
and deterioration of bone tissue
• Increases rate of bone fractures and skeletal
abnormalities
Factors Affecting
Peak Bone Mass
• Heredity
• Mechanical
• Gender
• Nutrition
• Endocrine
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
• Age
• Gender
• Race
• Skeletal structure
• Menopause/menstrual history
• Lifestyle
• Family history
• Medications & Diseases
Bone Mass and Activity
115

110
% Sedentary Control

105

100

95

90

85

80
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