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•In determining the research topic or

problem, the researcher must look at
the significant real life problem.
•Formulating a
requires describing the undesirable
situations related to the problem and
the needed knowledge or information
in order to solve that problem.
•The of the research describes
how the study will fill this “knowledge
gap”. To address this purpose, the
researcher must formulate necessary
questions that will help distinguish the
significant points of research.
•The may either framed
in quantitative (how much, how often, to
what extent) or qualitative (what, why,
how) manner. The possible answers to
research questions are the hypotheses,
which will either be confirmed or rejected
by the data collected in the study.
•Lastly, the is an
outline or paradigm that presents the
topics to be studied, the various
variables and contexts, and how these
are related to or influence each other.
•The analyzes the
existing knowledge regarding the topic.
It identifies the gaps in information that
may be addressed by research.
•It also an important basis of the
conceptual framework of the study.
•With the existing knowledge about the
study, the
identifies what is the best means to collect
and analyze data in the study.
•The design is used to clarify and improve
the research problem, purpose and
•Having the best way to gather the data,
the researcher will proceed to the data
gives the methods to
determine who will be the participants
in the study, how the variables will be
measured, and how the data will be
documented and collected.
•The collected data will then undergo
which consists of the
strategies and methods that makes
sense of the data to answer the research
problem and questions.
• Finally, the summarizes the
key results of the study and discusses
how these are relevant to the research
problem. At this point, the researcher
addresses the hypotheses and determine
if they are accepted or rejected. It also
addresses the knowledge gap and
presents new insights into the problem.
Activity: ROLE Model

•Go back to the definitions and

characteristics of research. Based on
what you’ve learned, give the roles of
a researcher.
Some of the goals for research are as follows:
1. To produce evidence-based practice
• Every discipline or institution must provide
the best practice of operation based from
research studies.
•Examples: clinical/medical practices,
educational approaches, processes and
standard operating procedures.
2. To establish credibility in the profession
• Research is essential for a profession in
producing new procedures, programs and
•This continuous improvement leads to
distinctiveness which can only be achieved
when there are special practices and
peculiarity of services in a given area or field.
3. To observe accountability for the profession
• Every action conducted by a professional must
have a rationale. There are principles that
justify why a professional do a certain practice.
• The professional must be accountable for each
task he or she performs. All tasks must be
carried out with the circumspect care and
awareness that everything has to be done
4. To promote cost-effectiveness through
• The findings of research must be shared with
and utilized by the individuals, group, and
community for which the study is intended.
They are useless if these results are not made
known publicly.
• These results, however, must first satisfy the
researcher’s goal before he or she can share
them with other researchers and professionals
who may find these findings beneficial.
• Anybody who is in the same condition as the
subject/s of the study may also utilize the
findings, thus saving on the expenses for doing
the same research again.