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4.

2 ENLIGHTENED
ABSOLUTISM
WELCOME! AGENDA:
LEARNING TARGET: 1. Recap Enlightenment
Evaluate the effectiveness 2. Overview of Enlightened
of the Enlightened Absolutism (aka
Despots. Enlightened Despotism)
SUCCESS CRITERIA 3. Report Card Assignment
Grade each monarch and (due tomorrow end of
rank them in order of
class)
effectiveness.
RECAP: ENLIGHTENMENT
Major People and Ideas: Causes:

Effects/Impacts:
ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM
 Aka: Enlightened Despots
 Eastern and central Europe

 Goal: apply principles of Enlightenment to kingdoms

 Inspired and supported by philosophes

 Absolute rulers should promote the good of the

people – top-down approach


MODEST REFORMS
 Religious toleration
 Streamlined legal codes

 Increased access to education

 Reduction of elimination of torture and death

penalty
Catherine II Frederick II Joseph II
(Russia) (Prussia) (Austria)
FREDERICK THE GREAT
 Frederick II of Prussia
 r. 1740-1786

 Wars:

AustrianSuccession
Diplomatic Revolution
Seven Years War
FREDERICK THE GREAT
 “First servant of the state”
 Patron of Voltaire

 Religious toleration

Jews: 1794, after death


 Codified and streamlined laws

 Freed serfs on crown lands, 1763


FREDERICK THE GREAT
 Promotion through merit 
education
 Reduced censorship

 Encouraged immigration,

agriculture, and industry


CATHERINE THE GREAT
 Catherine II of Russia
 r. 1762-1796

 Murder of Peter III

 Russia = backwards
CATHERINE THE GREAT
 Huge patron of arts +
educational reforms
 Imported Western

culture
 Pugachev’s Rebellion

Gave nobles absolute


control over serfs
 Restricted torture
CATHERINE THE GREAT
 Limited religious toleration
 Local elected councils of nobles

 Limitations: only
nobles and state
benefited, serfdom
more severe
CATHERINE THE GREAT
 Significant territorial growth
Partitions
of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795
Ottoman land in Crimea
Caucasus
JOSEPH II
 Joseph II of
Austria
 r. 1762-1796

 Son of Maria

Theresa
 Co-ruled until
her death in
1780
JOSEPH II
 Abolished serfdom and
feudal dues, 1781
 Freedom of religion and civic

rights to Protestants and Jews


Centralize the large, multi-
ethnic empire
 Freedom of the press
JOSEPH II
 Reformed justice system
Abolished torture and death
penalty
 Expanded state schools
 Established hospitals, insane

asylums, poorhouses, and


orphanages
JOSEPH II
 Empire declined
Defeats vs. Ottomans
Netherlands revolted
Russian threat
Leopold II reversed reforms
REPORT CARD ASSIGNMENT
LEARNING  Use a variety of resources to research the
TARGET: three monarchs.
Evaluate the  This PPT, another textbook reading, and
effectiveness of the Dunbar’s outline are on the class website.
Enlightened Despots.
You can also use other resources as well.
SUCCESS CRITERIA
Grade each  Grade the monarchs in each category and

monarch and rank justify/explain. Then, rank them in order


them in order of of success as an enlightened despot.
effectiveness.  It is due tomorrow at the end of class.