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SIAP

SUSTAINABLE& INTELLIGENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE


Presented by Ir. Ravi Menon
MODULE 33: agronomy & related topics
( 55 )
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
1. Grooming up to be a Good Planter

I like to present to you something


that will make you think and enable you
to have access to an infinite number of opportunities to
become an Expert in GAP (Good Agricultural Practice)
All of you have the talents but some of you think that you
have reached your limits . Why?
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be a Good Planter

Because you think your battery has exhausted.


Reached the final end of acquiring knowledge?
None can reach that target because it continuously moves
as and when you
acquire more and more knowledge
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be a Good Planter

I shall tell you how to become an excellent planter.


It will only take you a very short time to meet this target.
But if you hesitate and ignore what I am telling ,
you will never make it.
Think positively and with an open mind
keep saying I will make it
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be good Planter

Almost every one on this planet earth has the same volume of brain.
Some use more of it, that obviously means some use less of it.
This presentation emphasise a lot on waking up the hidden
potentials in you so that you will become an expert in your skills as a
planter who is capable of solving all the problems that you
may encounter during the performance of your duties.
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be good Planter

The secret of quality palm products lies in the delivery of


quality crop to the mill as FAST as you can.
Do not leave this responsibility
to the supervisory staff as
they also will pass this on to the drivers.
This is the most popular failure pattern.
Get personally involved- at least for 6 months
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be good Planter

It is shameful if the junior executive (JE)in charge of


a division is unaware which fields in his division are
currently being harvested!
This is a true statement. Many JEs belong to this class.
The JE assumes his manager is unaware of this.
A drastic mistake- Mistake no.1 (M1)
Remember this: The manager has his net work of faithful spies!
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAPOM)
Grooming up to be good Planter
Note that the estate manager is aware of your following shortcomings:
1. That you seldom supervise the field activities like harvesting, weeding, spraying
pruning etc.
2. That you do not deliver fresh fruit bunches (FFB) to the mills but off –quality
crop laden with high % of trash.
3. That you do not recover the recommended 8% loose fruits for delivery to the
mills.
But when these issues are raised by the mill management your manager does not
expose your short comings.
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
Awareness
Please note the following
OIL IS MADE IN THE PLANTATION
Mill can not make even one teaspoon of palm oil.
Once the bunch is harvested
it can not produce any oil
Milling process is a mechanical extraction process.
It can not extract 100% of the oil in the fruit.
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
Awareness
Please note the following
About 1.5% to 1.8% oil as a ratio to FFB
will be lost during processing
You have to accept it
The main losses are in the following areas:
Empty fruit bunches ( this is like the blotting paper),
Mesocarp fibre, Sludge water
Details of milling losses are given in the next slide
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP
SOURCES OF OIL LOSSES Ng NS 1993 (P102)

AREAS OF OIL LOSS % to FFB Possible Reduction

1 Fruit trapped in Empty fruit Bunches (EFB) 0.02 0.00


2 Unstripped bunches (USB) 0.05 0.00
3 Oil absorbed by the EFB 0.45 0.05
4 Oil loss in the sterilizer condensate 0.10 0.02
5 Oil on the surface of the nuts after pressing 0.05 0.00
6 Oil absorbed by the Pericarp fibre after pressing 0.55 0.10
7 Residual oil in the sludge water ex- sludge separator 0.45 0.05
8 Spillage, wash water etc (by difference; affluent - sludge) 0.10 0.05
TOTAL 1.77 0.27
Maximum the mill can reduce is 0.27% and that too is a very difficult task
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP
How to compute Theoretical OER Ng.NS 1993 (P.1020

Estimated Mill OER Percentage Achievement based on Theoretical OER


Based on KGSB Techniques 1969
Ng 1993 NS (P102) Year D x P est. OER FFB delivered Theoretical OER
Ton
Age of Estimated mill Estimated Mill
Palm OER D x P OER D X D
3 16.0 200 @16.0% = 32

4 18.0 2400 @18.0 % = 432


3 16.0 14.0
4 18.0 15.0 5 19.5 1400 @ 19.5% = 273

5 19.5 16.0 Ng 1993 NS (P.102) 4000 737


6 21.0 16.5
(737/4000) x 100 = 18.43% If the mill OER = 18.02
7 22.0 16.5 % achievement = (18.02/18.43)x 100 = 97.8%
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP
MILLING EFFICIENCY Ng 1993 (P103)

Milling efficiency can be defined as the ratio of the mill OER to the sum of mill
OER and the total mill losses. The milling efficiency is a more sensible tool for
comparing different mills than the OER alone. Examine the following cases

Mill A Mill B Mill C Mill D


MILL OIL EXTRACTION RATIO % 18.00 19.00 20.00 23.00
MILLING LOSSES % 1.40 2.00 1.30 2.00
TOTAL OIL % 19.40 21.00 21.30 25.00
MILLING EFFICIENCY (18/19.4)x100 (19/21)x 100 (20/21.3) x 100 (23/25)x 100
= 92.0 7% = 90.48% = 93.9 0 % = 92.00 %

MILL C IS PERFORMING THE BEST FOLLOWED BY MILL D, and B the last


1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
SOURCES OF OIL LOSSES Ng NS 1993 (P102)

AREAS OF OIL LOSS % to FFB On 360,000 t FFB


1 Fruit trapped in Empty fruit Bunches (EFB) piggy back 0.02 72 t
2 Unstripped bunches (USB) 0.05 180 t
3 Oil absorbed by the EFB 0.45 1,620 t
4 Oil loss in the sterilizer condensate 0.10 360 t
5 Oil on the surface of the nuts after pressing 0.05 180 t
6 Oil absorbed by the Pericarp fibre after pressing 0.55 1980 t
7 Residual oil in the sludge water ex- sludge separator 0.45 1,620 t
8 Spillage, wash water etc (by difference; affluent - sludge) 0.10 360 t
TOTAL 1.77 6,372 t
BOTTOM LINE: @1.77% loss = 19 mln.( RM 3k/t) @ 1.5 % loss =5,400 t, cost RM 16 mln, Savings =RM 3 mln
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
Reviewing the losses-fruits Piggy back (pickaback from pick pack 1560) ride
No pig is involved here. The word originated from
pickaback that is carrying some one on our back.
In this case the loose fruit that happened to fall on the
EFB will go along with it. How do we prevent this?
The loss of 0.02 is not significant enough to justify corrective actions.
Any way let us quantify this for a 60 tph mill processing say 300,000 tone per year.
3000,000 x 0.02 = 6,000 fruits
if each weighed 12 gms = 72,000 gms
= 72 kg oil
Recovery: Not justified
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)

What the plantation management should know


The mill is part of the plantation
It is a service oriented entity.
It does not produce anything.
A mill can not manufacture any palm products
A mill can only extract the oil and the kernel from the fruits.
If the plantation choose to give good crop to a mill the mill can process it and
Give the oil and kernel back to the Plantation.
Let us investigate how the plantations can help to improve mill OER
Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
Impact of Rain on OER -Forcast NS 1993 Ho (P.43)

No RAINFALL PATTERN PERIOD IMPACT

1 Heavy rain – Direct Impact Same month DEPRESS OER: Excessive moisture in the bunch.
Or Dealers spray water on bunch
2 Low rainfall Low OER in Aug, Sept, Oct 2020 [ 2 months lag)
Jun, Jul, Aug 2020 Low OER in May, Jun, Jul 2021 [ 11 months lag]

3 Low Rain fall Feb 2020 Low OER in January 2021


4 Heavy rainfall High OER in Sep, Oct, Nov 2021 [ 11 months lag]
Oct, Nov, Dec 2020 High OER in Dec, Jan, Feb 2020 [ 2 months lag]
Low OER in Oct , Nov, Dec 2020 [ Direct impact-
moisture]
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP)
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practices(SIAP
Impact of moisture – (Rain) GUESS WHAT THE DEAALER WILL DO?
IMPACT OF RAIN (MOISTURE) ON FFB Ng NS 1993 (P 103)

DRY DAY NORMAL DAY WET DAY

FFB weight at the mill (tonne) 95 .0 100.0 105.0


Moisture loss on sterilization 8.4 % 13.0 % 17.1 %
Sterilized FFB (tonne) 87.0 87.0 87.0
Oil recovered 20.0 20.0 20.0
Oil Extraction ratio 21.1 20.0 19.0
DID ANY ONE REALISETHE IMPACT OF RAIN ON OER? EVEN SOME MILLERS ARE UNAWARE OF THIS!
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Palm Oil Milling (SIAP)
FFB GRADING DEFINITIONS: GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE ( Abdul Jalil, PORLA) NS1993 (P 113)
No Category Criteria Deiscription
1 Ripe bunches MORE than 90% >10 sockets, > 50% attached fruits, reddish orange
2 Long stalk bunches LESS than 5% Stalk more than 5 cm
3 Under ripe bunches LESS than 10% <10 sockets. Reddish orange
4 Unripe bunches REJECT Purplish black colour, no sockets
5 Dura bunches REJECT Shell 2-8mm, shell to fruit: 25-50%, mesocarp to fruit: 20-60% ,
kernel to nut 4-20%
6 Empty fruit bunches REJECT > 90% detached fruits
7 Rotten bunches REJECT Partly or wholly have turned blackish in colour, rotten and mouldy
8 Dirty bunches REJECT > half the surface covered with mud, sand foreign matter
9 Over ripe Darkish red colour. >50% detached fruits, 10% still attached
10 Un-fresh Dry blackish bunch. 48 hors after harvesting
11 Diseased bunch More than 50% parhenocarpic
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
Some research findings that could be of interest to you
RIPE FRUIT:
Is defined (Aziz) as one whose fatty acid composition is similar
to the crude palm oil with , HIGH C 18:1 at 38%, LOW C 18:2 at 14%
Low C 18: 3 at about 0.3%.
Thus a fully biochemically ripe bunch is one with ONE RIPE FRUIT
abscised from the bunch Irrespective of whether it is from
the top , middle or bottom section of the bunch.
This is interpreted as ALL OTHER FRUITS , despite still being attached
to the bunch would have ceased their biochemical oil synthesis.
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)

MAXIMUM OIL : Is present with the minimum ripeness standard of 2-4 loose fruits/ kg of bunch
How the harvesters are going to implement this regime in harvesting is a question mark
courtesy: Wood et al LOOSE FRUITS ( 5-DAY Harvesting Round)
No BUNCH WEIGHT @ 2 loose fruits/kg @3 loose fruits/kg @ 4 loose fruits/kg
1 10 20 30 40
2 12 24 36 48
3 14 28 42 56
4 18 36 54 72
5 20 40 60 80
6 25 50 75 100
7 30 60 90 120
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
Ripeness standard vs OER and FFA (Coutesy: SIME Darby,Ebor Research-Gan et al (1983)
Study carefully and memorise -to frequently remind your team
Teaching is the best way to remember

No BATCH MINIMUM HARVESTING STANDARD FFB Harvesting Batch Size MILL FFA
grading intervals (tonne ) OER
1 4 loose fruits per kg. Very Ripe 20-30 days 199 21.26 3.42
2 1 loose fruit per bunch Std. Ripe (R) 2 d after R 206 21.24 2.59
3 Sign of colour change Rather unripe 2 d after R 202 19.14 2.01
4 10 loose fruit per bunch Ripe 7 d after R 175 21.41 2.11
5 Sign of colour change Rather unripe 7 d after R 206 19.64 2.18
6 Fully formed but black Unripe 7 d after R 207 17.61 1.83
7 4 loose fruit per kg. Erratic harvesting intervals. Ripe 7-10 d after R
Loose fruits not recovered. Poor management
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
IMPACT OF LOOSE FRUIT ON OER . (Courtesy: Wood at al 1985) NS 1993 (P71)
BUNCH WEIGHT, % OIL IN L/F OF THE BUNCH, WEIGHT OF OIL IN THE LF OF THE BUNCH, KERNEL TO BUNCH RATIO %

No L/FRUIT TO BUNCH (%) BUNCH WEIGHT L/F OIL % IN BUNCH OIL IN BUNCH (kg) KERNEL TO BUNCH (%)

1 0 19.1 24.3 4.7 6.7


0-3 21.1 24.4 5.2 6.7
2 3-6 21.3 25.3 5.4 6.5
3 6-9 21.9 25.7 5.6 6.4
4 9-12 21.2 28.8 5.5 6.4
5 12-15 21.1 26.1 5.5 6.2
6 15-18 19.0 26.4 5.0 6.3
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
IMPACT OF LOOSE FRUIT ON OER . (Courtesy: Wood at al 1985) Potential OER: 21% NS 1993 (P74)
NO YEARS IN ASSUMED FRUITS LOST/ BUNCH REDUCTION IN EXPECTED OER
HARVESTING BUNCH WT @ 10g/fruit (oil/bunch 46%) OER (potential 21%)
1 1 (oil =4.6 g) 0.05 20.95
1-5 10 kg 10 (oil=46 g) 0.46 20.54
20 (oil=92 g) 0.92 20.08
40 (oil 184 g) 1.84 19.16
2 20 Kg 1 (oil =4.6 g) 0.02 20.98
6-15 10 (oil=46 g) 0.23 20.77
20 (oil=92 g) 0.46 20.54
40 (oil 184 g) 0.92 20.08
3 25 kg 1 (oil =4.6 g) 0.002 20.99
>15 10 (oil=46 g) 0.18 20.82
20 (oil=92 g) 0.37 20.63
40 (oil 184 g) 0.74 20.26
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
IMPACT OF LOOSE FRUIT ON OER . (Courtesy: Wood at al 1985) Potential OER: 21% NS 1993 (P.74)
1 % loose fruit not collected, 0.46% OER lost in the field
NO YEARS IN ASSUMED FRUITS LOST/ BUNCH REDUCTION IN
HARVESTING BUNCH WT @ 10g/fruit (oil/bunch 46%) OER
LOSS IN THE
FIELD
1 1% = 100 gm fruit FROM 21%
1-5 10 kg 100 gm fruit = 46 g moil
0.46 %
(OER= 46/10,000) x 100 = 0.46 TO 20.54
2 6-15 20 Kg 1%= 200 gm fruit FROM 21%
200 gm fruit = 92 gm oil %
0.46%
OER= (92/20,000) x 100 = 0.46 TO 20.54
%
3 25 kg 1% = 250 gm fruit FROM 21%
>15 250 gm fruit = 115 gm oil
0.46%
OER= (115/25,000) x 100 = TO 20.54
0.46
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
IMPACT OF GAP ON OER – SARAWAK LAND DEVELOPMENT BOARD 1992
See what happens when estates swing into action instead of blaming the mill for low OER. In
1991, there were no controls and no loose fruit collection and see the OER 19.71% . In 1992
within 5 months the OER shot up to 20.14%. In 1993 quality control was further intensified , the
RIPE category crop reached almost 95%! And nd OER also improved further

No CROP QUALITY CATEGORY YEAR 1991 YEAR 1992 (%) YEAR NOV 1993 (%)
1 UN RIPE NO GAP 3.34 0.89
2 UNDER RIPE NO GAP 4.6 2.8
3 RIPE NO GAP 88.1 94.9
4 OVER RIPE NO GAP 3.41 1.34
5 ROTTEN NO GAP 0.48 0.07
6 EMPTY FRUIT BINCHES NO GAP 0.05 0
7 OIL EXTRACTION RATIO 19.71 21.14 20.18
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP
Possible causes for declining OER
1 Poor Loose fruit collection especially when the harvesting rounds are extended. Loose
fruits are outer fruits that contains maximum (83%) of mesocarp compared to middle
(76%) and the inner layer (70%) as well as oil
2 In the mills oil loss can be caused by the loss of loose fruits when the tractor wheels run
over them when pushing the bunches into the hopper and also loss of fruits due to
spillage from the ramp.
3 The loss of oil due to the emulsification as well as fragmentation of oil to sub-micron
particles when subjected to high speed rotation by the centrifugal pumps. The emulsified
oil and sub-micron particles can not be separated in a clarification tank and eventually be
lost in the waste water.
4
1. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
Possible causes for decline of OER
5 High trash content in the FFB can be avoided by providing a side tray welded to the
trailer body for transporting loose fruits. Bottom needs perforations or expanded metal
to sieve out sand/ stones. The contamination originates from loose fruits not bunches.
FOR EVERY 1% TRASH THE OER DECLINES BY 0.22% ! Who will take the blame for this?
6 THIS IS LITTLE KNOWN TO THE INDUSTRY. Over dilution will a cause high oil losses as the
residual oil in the centrifuge discharge is fixed irrespective of the rate of dilution of the
sludge in the underflow.
Assume the effluent produced by a 60 tph mill is 40,000 litres/hr
Centrifuge separators have a minimum loss of say 0.4% (This is fixed)
As such absolute oil loss in normal effluent = 160 lit/hr
If you dilute 50% water to the effluent the effluent produced = 60,000 lit/hr
Absolute oil loss now would be = 240 litre/hr. So avoid dilution.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.1.1INTRODUCTION

Another one is the process oil losses


which can influence the OER.
For the owners the requirement is:
There should not be any back-log of crop
If these are the only job you do,
your thinking faculties will get frozen.
No! this is not good enough
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.1.3: INTRODUCTION-contd

But for this you must know the fundamentals first.


Fundamental are like alphabets.
The trillions and trillions of written
materials in English language sprang up
from a mere 26 alphabets.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.1.3: INTRODUCTION-contd
.
LIKE WISE, EVERY SINGLE PROBLEM IN PALM
OIL PROCESSING HAS ITS ORIGIN IN ONLY A HANDFUL OF
FUNDAMENTALS.
IF YOU KNOW THOSE ALL THESE
FUNDAMENTALS YOU CAN
SOLVE ALL ISSUES
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.1.3: INTRODUCTION-contd

Some millers with 30 years experience


may not be able to solve all problems
simply because they were not strong in their fundamentals.
My job here is to give the millers those
fundamentals so that they can be
independent and operate their mills intelligently
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.1: The crop-garbage

Common sense dictates that


If Garbage is sent to the mill you can expect Garbage to exit
It is popularly known as GIGO
I know that as millers, they all will agree with GIGO.
But they should also agree when adverse statements are made about
milling operations that may not be favourable to them.
I AM GOING TO ELABORATE ON THE LAST ITEM
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.4: The crop-garbage

What type of fruit bunches are


the millers looking for? Perfect crop?
The Fresh Fruit Bunches and nothing else?
But unfortunately this is a theoretical
term that can never be achieved as long as
human handling and nature are involved.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.5: The Crop-Ripe
Ideal crop is RIPE Fresh Fruit Bunches.

There is no need to spell out to you what is good crop

100% RIPE BUNCHES? NO WAY!


It is difficult to achieve because of many imperfections
In the bunch ripening process
So we are obliged to compromise and that is wrong.
.
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.5: The Crop-Ripe

With certain allowances, we may settle for say:


1. Ripe : 95 % You can get a DOBI value of 3 plus!
2. Un-ripe : 2% Must be as low as possible as unripe crop
causes oxidation of the CPO
3. Over-ripe: 3 % Must be as low as possible as over-ripe crop
is worse than under-ripe
THIS IS NOT WITHING YOUR SCOPE but you may request for
the above from the estate.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.4: The crop-garbage

So you must be able to accept whatever crop is delivered


to your mill without complaining as they are negative
traits that does not solve anything.
If garbage is sent to the refinery, they are not
allowed to produce garbage as then
no one will want to buy garbage in the highly competitive
vegetable oil market
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP))
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop ? Oxidation issue

The over ripe, un-ripe and under-ripe crop;


all these three categories contribute
towards oxidation of the CPO and
this is indicated by the bleach ability index
(DOBI value) of the CPO which will
plunge down to below 2.3.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop ? Oxidation issue

If the group estates sent the non-compliant


crop to the mill it can mean the following:
The plantation management is
unaware of the implication of such
an action
“un-scientific operation”
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop ? Oxidation issue

They are aware but do not wish to comply,


as it is of no concern to them.
“ I am only interested in yield and I am
willing to do anything to get it”, if necessary by adding
thrash into the crop or harvesting unripe crop”.
Again this is un-scientific.
The top management needs to change their
mind set to demand
Good Agricultural Practice (GAP)
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop? FFA issue

FFA is a highly abused parameter by BOTH


estates and Mills.
The FFA of a bruised bunch can
reach three times within 15 minutes
While still attached to the bunches the FFA
of the oil in the fruit is only 1.2%
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop? FFA issue

Once detached, it can easily go up to 5%


if processing is delayed.
Process delay is inevitable and we need
only 55 deg C to inactivate the enzyme
that causes the hydrolysis.
Intelligent actions are given below:
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.2.6: Why Ideal crop? Intelligent solution

Steam blasting at some point while on hopper or


in cages or in the field can counter the FFA rise.
It is not an impossible task.
Solar energy can generate the steam at any bunch
collection point in the estate to blast on bunches on the ground.
Bunches can easily be sterilized before delivery to the mill.
What if this action produces CPO at 2% FFA?
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2. 1 : Botany fundamentals for millers
Rain fall: Need about 200 cm/ha/year for maximum yield
Should not have prolonged periods of rain or dry spells
Favourable temperature is 29 to 32 deg C ,
5 hrs /day , 7 hrs some months
At age 5 palm will have 35 to 40 fronds
later declines to 20-25
Same palm will produce
male & female inflorescence
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2. 1 : Botany fundamentals for millers
They will produce 100 to 200 spikelet that will carry the flowers
Female inflorescence will carry a few thousand flowers
Male inflorescence will carry 700 to 1200 flowers
within 2 days and shed pollen
Pollen weight is about 25-50gms
Anthesis ( full bloom) takes place at 6th week after
which pollination takes place
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2. 1 : Botany fundamentals for millers
After Anthesis 5 ½ to 6 months fruit develops
and become ripe.
All fruits do not ripen at the same time
as it is based on exposure to sun light
Fruits can be 20 mm to 50 mm weighing 15 to 30 gms
Fruits in bunch: 1,600 for old palm bunches
The nuts are surrounded by pericarp
which itself is mesocarp surrounded by endocarp .
. Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2. 1 : Botany fundamentals for millers
Mesocarp to fruit ratio is about 60%-96%. Bunch weight is 5kg
to 7 kg at age 3 rising to 20 kg or more at 20 years.
Oil Palm fruit from bud to developed ripe fruit can take 39
months with the stages marked as
(a) sex differentiation: 9 months
(b) followed by 24 months Anthesis
(c) 5 to 6 months fruit development and ripening.
For Malaysia it is 101 to189 days, West Africa 140 to 158 days.
Fruit length: 5 cm weight:15 gm to 30 gm
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.2: Fruit development
During development stage, most of the time
it has a high % of water, carbohydrate
but very little oil
At 8-16 weeks there will be
2% fat to 300% to 500
8-19 weeks before ripening.
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.2: Fruit development

When fruit is ripe the % of fat


would be 70 to 75% of the
dry weight
OIL RODUCTION STOPS
WHEN THE BUNCH IS CUT.
Note this!
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.2: Fruit development

The % oil in the fruit will increase simply because


of moisture loss. A lot of misunderstanding take place
as a result of the apparent rise in the % of the oil.
When ripe,
oil % will be 49%, water 35%,Non-oily solids: 16%
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.4.1: Biochemistry of Fruit Development
No
1 In the early stages the concentration of lipids is only 1% being mostly phospholipids
2 It is the phospholipids that forms the cell walls and cell membranes even though the
proportion of phospholipids in the ripe fruit will be very low
3 Tannin (acidic) is also produced by the metabolism of carbohydrate, the proportion
being constant.
4 Proteins responsible for cell formation and as enzymes for all bio-chemical reactions
will remain at 0.1% concentration throughout the stages development
5 The hydrolyses of lipids to glycerol and FFA is initiated by Senescence.
6 The mesocarp is responsible for the biosynthesis of carbohydrate into lipids
commencing after the formation of kernel and is maximum at about the 20th week after
pollination
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.4.1: Biochemistry of Fruit Development

7 Carbohydrates play a vital role at the early stages.


8 Chlorophyll can also contribute towards the formation of carbohydrates
9 Carbohydrates after much synthesis will be converted to lipids at the end.
10 Carotene and certain pigments are also formed keeping pace with the
conversion of lipids.
11 Tocopherol also starts to increase their proportion
12 In the early stages the concentration of lipids is only 1% being mostly
phospholipids
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
2.4.2:
• FATTY ACID CONTENT
Sample Volume NaOH in % FFA
McOH
7th week (Young fruit) 0.2 ml 0.1
Ripe fruit 0.5-1 ml 0.25-0.5
Ripe fruit ready to detach 2.5 ml 1.3
Senescence fruit 10.8 5.5
(following the fully ripe stage)
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1.
Table showing Oil and moisture content
SAMPLE OIL TO BUNCH OIL TO FRUIT RATIO Moisture
RATIO

Ripe fruit (Mill extraction) 20 % - 22 %


Ripe fruit ( at Laboratory) 30 % 45 % 40 %
8th week (at laboratory) - < 1% 80 %
10th week (at laboratory) - 1% 80 %
1. . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP)
1. FRUT RIPENESS
The rate at which the fruit ripens is not uniform
and this causes serious problem to the harvesters
In dry weather ripening slows down but after rain increases.
Ripening starts at the bunch tip and gradually towards the base.
For young palms first time harvesting , the time from colour change to full ripeness
with most fruits detached can take place within a week.
For mid harvest years (15 years, 15-25 kg bunches) its 10-15 days
and another 7-14 days for 10% to be detached.
For palms above 25 kg 10% detachment in 10 to 15 days or even 3 weeks
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP))
NO COMPONENTS UNITS SMALL FRUITS LARGE FRUITS

1
Points to note:
Mean Fruit weight g 3.66 26.44
Palm Kernel Oil was assumed to equal half by
2 Mean bunch weight kg 6.96 7.32
weight of Palm Kernel
3 Mean fruits in the bunch number 1217 180
4 Total mean fruit weight kg 4.45 4.76 Ratio of fruits in bunches with large fruits and
5 Fruit/ bunch weight % 63.98 65.03 small fruits is 6.8
6 Mesocarp/ fruit weight % 70.19 83.09
7 Shell/ fruit weight % 17.35 12.27 There is no significant variation in the total
8 Kernel/fruit weight % 12.46 4.64
fruit weight.4.45 kg vs 4.76 kg\
9 (Shell+ kernel)/ fruit Weight % 29.81 16.91 Mesocarp to fruit ratio is 18% more than
10 Oil / wet mesocarp weight % 41.99 50.78 small fruits in for large fruits
11 Oil/bunch weight % 18.86 27.58 Data taken from Rajanaidu and Jalani 1994
12 Kernel/ bunch weight % 8.05 3.04 Courtesy: HANSON, I. E. (1996). The Role of Bunch
13 Total oil (mesocarp oil+ kernel oil) kg 1.59 2.13 Components in Determining Oil and Kernel Yields of oil
14 Palm- A review In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on
Total oil to bunch weight % 22.8 29.1
Kernel Production In Oil Palm- a Global Perspective (eds.
15 Shell/ bunch weight % 11.1 12.2 Rajanaidu N, Hansen I.E. and Jalani B.S ) Pp 171, 151-208
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP))
1 . Sustainable and Intelligent Agricultural Practice (SIAP))
1.