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Unit One: Cell Biology

National 4/5
Units:
• Complete Life on Earth – mid Sept
• Cell Biology – Sept - Dec
• Multicellular Animals – Jan - April

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


How is the course assessed?
• Course work:
– 3 end of unit tests (one for each unit) – can
have resits if necessary
– One Practical investigation
– One mini research project (100 words)
– One LARGE research project (Added Value)
(500-800 words)
– NATIONAL 5 – Final exam!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Work
Classwork to be done in jotter.
Remember it every day!

You will get set homework sometimes –


but expected to learn the work done
each day as you go along!!!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


What is in Unit One?
• Cell Biology:
– Cell Structure
– Transport across membranes
– Producing new cells
– DNA and protein production
– Genetic engineering
– Proteins and enzymes
– Aerobic respiration
– Photosynthesis

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


1: Cell Structure
Cell structure
LI: 1. Identify and name the structures
found in an animal cell.
2. State the function of the structures in
an animal cell.
3. Identify and name the structures
found in an plant cell.
2. State the function of the structures in
an plant cell.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell Structure
Cells are the building blocks of all life.

Cells video

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell Structure

We will be looking at 4 different cell types:-

• Animal cells
• Plant cells
• Bacterial cells, and
• Fungal cells.

You have already looked at the basic structure of


animal and plant cells in S1- S3. We will be
looking at all of these cells in greater detail.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
What can you remember from
last year?
Task One: Complete the revision
worksheet on cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell Structure
Task 2: Prepare slides for examination under a
light microscope.

Using the help sheets provided prepare one


type of slide – cheek cell, onion cell or Elodea
pondweed. After you have examined your own
slide share your slide with a group that has
prepared a different slide . You should look at
all 3 cell types.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cheek Cells
These are cheek cells viewed at 100x magnification
using a light microscope.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1

http://www.stancoe.org/patterson/cms/staff/humancheekcellwebpage.htm
Onion Skin Cells
These are onion skin cells viewed at 40x
magnification using a light microscope.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


http://www.baileybio.com/plogger/images/biology/lab_-_plant___animal_cells/onion_cells.jpg
Elodea Pondweed Cells
These are Elodea pondweed cells viewed at
100x magnification using a light microscope

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


http://seys-science.wikispaces.com/elodea+g
Cell Structure
We will now look in more
detail at the structure of
animal and plant cells.

To see more detail or the


ultra structure of cells
we need to use and
electron microscope.
Image from Wikipedia commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_Microscope.jpg

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell Structure - Organelles
Organelle is the name given to the
structures found inside the cell e.g.
Nucleus, vacuole, chloroplasts etc.

You need to know about 2 more organelles.

Mitochondria and Ribosomes

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Mitochondria
Mitochondria are the power houses of
cells. They convert energy into forms
that are usable by the cell. They are
found in the cytoplasm and are the sites
of cellular respiration which generates
fuel for the cell's activities.
Mitochondria are found in the
cytoplasm of the cell.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Electron microscope
image of a
mitochondrion
(credit: Tom Deerinck and Jeff Martell/MIT)

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/ritchiso/mitochondrion2.gif
Ribosomes
Ribosomes can be found
floating free in the
cytoplasm or attached to
another type of organelle
called Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum or R.E.R. for
short. (you don’t have to
know about R.E.R!)

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Electron Microscope image of
Ribosomes are
ribosomes. responsible for
protein synthesis,
i.e. this is where
amino acids are
assembled into
proteins.

http://www.cbv.ns.ca/bec/science/cell/page11a.gif

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/genweb/molecular/theory/translation/ribosome.jpg

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell Structure – Organelles
Task 3 – Collect the diagram sheets of
the animal cell and the plant cell. Label
any structures you recognise.

You will need to include:- Cell membrane,


nucleus, cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast,
cytoplasm, ribosome and mitochondria.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Animal Cell Diagram
Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Ribosomes Mitochondrion

Cell Membrane

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Plant Cell Diagram
Ribosomes Mitochondria Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm

Cell
Wall

Nucleus Chloroplast Vacuole

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Cell Structure - Organelles
Task 4 – Collect and complete the
worksheet :–

Cell structures and functions.

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Bacteria and fungi
LI: 1. Identify and name the structures
found in a bacterial cell.
2. State the function of the structures in
a bacterial cell.
3. Identify and name the structures
found in a fungal cell.
4. State the function of the structures in
a fungal cell.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Bacterial Cells

“For the first half of geological time our


ancestors were bacteria. Most creatures still
are bacteria, and each one of our trillions of
cells is a colony of bacteria.”
Richard Dawkins

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Bacteria
TThey are the oldest living
organisms on earth. They are
everywhere. We find them on and in
the human body, in the air we
breathe, on the surfaces we touch,
in the food we eat. Almost 99% of
these bacteria are helpful,
whereas the remaining are the
notorious ones. Some are essential
for proper growth of other living
beings. They are either free-living
or form a symbiotic relationship
with animals or plants.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gram_Stain_Anthrax.jpg

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Structure of Bacteria
Bacteria can occur in different shapes. However
their basic structure is the same.

Task: Collect the bacterial cell diagram handout


and the information sheet.

Use the information to complete the labels on


the diagram and to complete the table.

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Cytoplasm

Cell Wall

Capsule

Plasmid

Genetic
material
Cell
Membrane

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Structure Function and importance

Capsule Provides additional protection from the


environment
Cell Wall It strengthens and supports the cell

Cell Membrane
Controls the movement of substances into and out of
the cell
Genetic Material Made of DNA and controls the activities of the cell

Plasmid
Circular genetic material. Can convey special
abilities, e.g. a resistance to certain antibiotics.
They can be manipulated by man to produce
bacterial cells that produce useful products e.g.
Insulin, hormones and enzymes.

Cytoplasm Most chemical processes take place


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controlled by enzymes
Structure of a fungal cell
Task: Collect the diagram sheet and label
any of the structures and organelles you
recognise.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Structure of a fungal cell
Cell Wall Nucleus
Cytoplasm

Cell Membrane Vacuole

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


All the cell parts are now familiar. You should be able to
compare all the cell types and identify which parts
are similar and which are not. While all the cell parts
have the same functions as before there is one
difference.

The fungal cell wall.


Just as the bacterial cell wall has a different chemical
structure from a plant cell wall, so does the fungal cell
wall.

The fungal cell wall is made from a chemical called


chitin.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


It is important that you know

The cell walls in plant, bacterial and


fungal cells is structurally and
chemically different.

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Measuring cell size
LI: 1. Be able to calculate the length and
breadth of cell seen through a
microscope.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Just how tiny are cells?
“How big?”
This link will show you how tiny cells are.

Cells can be seen more clearly using a


microscope.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Magnification
Total magnification is Eyepiece
worked out by Lens
multiplying the
eyepiece lens
Objective
magnification by Lens
the objective lens
magnification.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Copy and complete this table
Eyepiece lens Objective lens Total
magnification magnification magnification
X 10 X4

X 10

X 100

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Working out the size of a cell
The field of view is the
Field of view = 2 mm area you can see down the
microscope.
Field of view Length
= of each cell
Number of cells
(mm)

e.g. 2 ÷ 5 = 0.4 mm
So each cell
measures 0.4 mm.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Field of view = 2 mm
Collect a version
of this diagram.
Your teacher will
tell you how
many cells to
draw in the
circle.
Calculate the
length of your
cell in
millimetres (mm).
Swap with other
and calculate the
length of their
cells.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
2. Transport across cell
membranes
The cell membrane
LI: 1. Describe the composition of the cell
membrane
2. Describe how the structure of the
membrane relates to its permeability.
3. Define the term “passive transport”

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The Cell Membrane
• The cell membrane (or plasma
membrane) is made up of a bilayer of
lipids with protein scattered throughout
and is selectively permeable.
• Proteins can;
– be attached to the surface
– be embedded within the bilayer
– span the whole bilayer
– form channels in the lipid bilayer
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
• Small molecules can pass through pores
in the membrane made by channel
forming proteins and enter or leave the
cell. This is why the plasma membrane is
selectively permeable.
• This transport of molecules is passive
and requires no energy as it is with the
concentration gradient.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Diffusion
LI: 1. Define the term “diffusion”
2. Explain how the process of diffusion
occurs across a selectively permeable
membrane.

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Diffusion
• Diffusion is the name given to this
movement of the molecules of a
substance from a region of high
concentration of that substance to a
region of low concentration of that
substance until the concentration
becomes equal.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Diffusion Activity
• Cut a 20cm piece of visking tubing and tie a knot
in one end.
• Soak the tubing in water and never let it dry out
during the experiment.
• Fill the visking tubing with 5-10cm3 starch and
glucose solution and seal with another knot.
• Place this in a boiling tube of water completely
submerged and leave until the next lesson.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Take a small sample of the water from around
the test tube. Test for starch and sugar
Test
for 2. Add 4
starch drops of
IODINE
1. Put sample on 3. If starch is present it goes
tray from brown to black

2. Add 4
Test for
drops of
sugar BOILING
BENEDICTS
WATER
SOLUTION
3. If sugar is present it goes from
1. Put sample in test tube – IN a blue to orange
beaker of BOILING National
WATER 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Activity
• Perform Benedict’s test and starch test
on the water in the boiling tube from
Diffusion in a Model Cell experiment you
set up last lesson.
• Explain your results in terms of
diffusion. (LO1 assessment).

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Importance of diffusion to
cells
In an animal cell, food (such as glucose),
oxygen and carbon dioxide will diffuse
like this:

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Carbon dioxide

Oxygen
Glucose

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Substances which diffuse in
or out of cells
Diffuse IN Diffuse OUT
Oxygen (raw material for Carbon dioxide (waste from
respiration) respiration)
Carbon dioxide (PLANTS Oxygen (PLANTS ONLY,
ONLY, raw material for made in photosynthesis)
photosynthesis)
Glucose (raw material for Urea (a cell waste product)
respiration)
Amino acids (raw materials
to build the cell)

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Osmosis
LI: 1. Define the term “osmosis”
2. Explain how the process of osmosis
occurs across cell membranes.
3. Describe the effects of osmosis on
animal and plant cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Gummi bears in water
1. Take a gummi bear (Haribo works
best) and measure its height and
width.
2. Place in a 50 ml beaker of water.
3. Leave for several days.
4. Carefully remove from the water, and
measure the height and width.
What has happened to the Gummi bear?
Why has this happened?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Osmosis: the diffusion of
water

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Osmosis
• The diffusion of water through a
selectively-permeable membrane from
an area of high concentration of water
molecules to an area of low
concentration of water molecules is
called osmosis.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Effects of Osmosis on Plant Cells

Cells in a Cells in the Cells in Plasmolysed


dilute same concentrated cell – cytoplasm
solution solution stay solutions is pulled away
become the same. become from the cell
turgid wall.
flaccid.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Turgid Cells
• Osmosis makes plant cells
swell. Water moves into
the plant cell vacuole and
pushes against the cell wall.
The cell wall stops the cell
from bursting. We say
that the plant is turgid.
This is useful as it gives
plant stems support.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Flaccid Cells
• If a plant lacks water, it
wilts and the cells become
flaccid as water has moved
out of the cell. If alot of
water leaves the cell, the
cytoplasm starts to peel
away from the cell wall.
We say the cell has
undergone plasmolysis.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Osmosis in Animal Cells

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Active transport
LI:
1. Define the term “active transport”
2. Explain how active transport occurs
across cell membranes.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Active Transport
• Active transport is the movement of
molecules across a cell membrane from a
low to a high concentration i.e against a
concentration gradient.
• Active transport works in the opposite
direction to the passive transport of
diffusion and always requires energy.
• This energy is released during
respiration.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
ENERGY

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


3. Producing New Cells
Producing new cells
LI:
1. Describe the stages of mitosis.
2. Describe the maintenance of the
diploid chromosome complement by
mitosis.
3. Explain why mitosis is used by cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Everyone in this room
started life as a single
cell, a fusion of a sperm
and egg cell.

What processes must


have happened to develop
you from that single cell?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


How many new cells do you
think you will make in a day?
Cell Division throughout Life

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330 000 000 in 20 minutes
so…
23,760,000,000 new cells every
day!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


What do these pictures all have
in common?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


They are all examples of Cell
Division in action for growth or
repair!

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How do Cells Divide?
Mitosis – watch this clip on the process of
mitosis and answer the following questions:
1.How are new cells produced?
2.What are chromosomes? Where are they
found?
3.What kind of cells undergo mitosis?
4.What are the only kind of cells that do not
undergo mitosis?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Put the following stages of
mitosis in the correct order:
• New nuclear membranes form around the
chromosomes, followed by new cell membranes,
creating two new identical cells.
• Chromosomes replicate to form identical chromatids.
• Spindle fibres then pull the matching chromatids
apart, to opposite poles of the cell.
• The membrane around the nucleus breaks down, and
spindle fibres attach to the chromatids and line them
up in the centre of the cell - equator.

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Why do chromosomes need to be
copied so carefully and put into each
new cell?
• Chromosomes carry GENES, which are
stretches of DNA.
• Each GENE codes for one protein e.g.
one gene codes for haemoglobin, the
substance in red blood cells that carries
oxygen. Other genes will code for other
molecules that make up the body.

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Chromosome Complement
• The number of chromosomes that a
species of animal or plant possesses.

• Why so you think it is important that


each new cell has the same chromosome
complement as the parent cell?

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• During growth and development of an
organism will be able to provide the
animal or plant with all the
characteristics of its species.

• Losing any chromosome would mean a


loss of genetic information – the
information that forms the code
allowing the cell
National 4/5to function
Biology correctly!
Course Unit 1
What goes wrong in Cancer?
Decreased
Ability to invade
cell death
surrounding tissues
= more
cells

3 33 4 4 4 5
111 2 2 3 3 5 5
1 1 22 22 33 33 3 44
44
44 4 55 5 5
1 1 2 3 33 44 4 5
2 22 3 3 3 444 5 5 5 5
2 2 3 3 33 4 4 5 55 5
3 3 3 4 4 5 55
43 5 4 4 5
5 5
Increased
Loss of
cell contact Ability to move
division = inhibition – - metastasis
more cells the cells no
longer stay Escape from immune
National in4/5
Loss of DNA oneBiology
place Course Unit 1 = cells not
surveillance
Repair destroyed
Cancer cells – Research Task
1. Find out the meaning of the following terms…
• Benign
• Malignant
• Metastasis
2. Research a type of cancer and find out the following:
• What part of the body does this cancer affect?
• What are the clinical symptoms?
• How common is this cancer (in the UK)?
• What is the treatment given for this cancer?
• What research is being done on this cancer?
• Is there a charity fundraising to help support people
affected by this type of cancer?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell culture
LI:
1. Describe how cells are produced using
cell-culture techniques.
2. Describe the aseptic techniques that
are used when culturing cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Cell culture
Growing cells in the laboratory is known as
cell culture.
To grow cells in the lab you need:
• A suitable growing medium
• Availability of oxygen
• A suitable temperature
• A suitable pH level

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Cells can be grown in
nutrient broth in
fermenters or flasks.
Or the broth can be
mixed with agar to make
a solid agar plate.

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To provide
ideal growing
conditions
cultures are
grown in
incubators.
These allow
temperature,
humidity, pH,
carbon dioxide
and oxygen
levels to be
controlled.
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Aseptic techniques
In order to work with cell cultures you
have to use aseptic techniques in order
to prevent contamination.

Your teacher will then show you how to


streak out bacterial colonies using
aseptic techniques.

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Read page 45 of the textbook. Using what
you learned streaking out the bacteria,
take a page in your jotter and create a
“Guide to being aseptic”.

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4. DNA and Protein
Production
DNA
LI:
1. Describe the structure of DNA.
2. State the names of the four bases
that make up the genetic code.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


What is DNA?
Watch the following video that introduces DNA and its
importance.

DNA video

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DNA, genes and chromosomes
Chromosomes
The cell’s nucleus contains chromosomes made from long
DNA molecules.

DNA
DNA molecules are large and complex. They carry the
genetic code that determines the characteristics of a
living thing.

Genes
Think back to the last section!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


DNA, genes and
chromosomes
The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its
nucleus and the chromosomes in the nucleus that are made
up of DNA, and genes.

DNA

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Collect the handout sheet and stick it into your jotters.
From Genes to Proteins?

Watch the following video that gives a basic


definition of a gene and what genes do.

What exactly is a gene?

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DNA Structure
DNA consists of two molecules that are
arranged into a ladder-like structure called a
Double Helix.

A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny


subunits called Nucleotides.

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Nucleotide Structure
Each nucleotide consists of:

Phosphate
Group
Organic
Base

Deoxyribose
Sugar
Copy this diagram into your jotters.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


DNA Structure
The phosphate and
sugar form the
backbone of the
DNA molecule,
whereas the
bases form the
“rungs”. Collect
the handout and
stick it into your
jotters.

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The Genetic Code
The genetic code determines the order in which
amino acids are joined together to produce a
specific protein.

The code itself is determined by the order of the


organic bases in the DNA molecule.

There are 4 different bases.

Guanine Cytosine Adenine and Thymine

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Each base can only join with one other type of
base:-
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
Adenine always pairs with Thymine

G-C
and
A-T

These are called complementary base


pairs.

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Complementary Base Pairs

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Build your own DNA
Molecule
Task 1: Collect the handout sheets

DNA origami instructions and template

Follow the instructions to complete your own


model DNA!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


LI: DNA and proteins
1. Explain the relationship between DNA
and proteins.
2. Explain the relationship between the
order of bases on DNA and the amino
acids in a protein.
3. Describe the role of mRNA in protein
production.
4. Name the basic units that proteins are
made from and where protein synthesis
takes place.

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Protein Structure
Proteins are made up of amino acids.

The order of the amino acids determines


the proteins molecular structure, its shape
and its function.

The order of the amino acids is


determined by the order of the bases in
the DNA molecule – the genetic code.

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So how does the genetic code get translated
into a protein?

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Watch Again
Watch the ‘What is DNA?’ video again. This time try to
answer the following questions:- Video

• How is the genetic code from the DNA molecule


copied?

• What happens to the copy of the genetic code?


Where does it go?

• In which organelle is the copy of the genetic code


translated to form proteins?

• How are the National


proteins 4/5formed?
Biology Course Unit 1
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Translating the genetic
code
Task 1: Using the information in the video, the questions
and discussion with your teacher write a short paragraph to
describe how the genetic code from the DNA is translated
into a protein.

You could use a


diagram to help
illustrate you
description.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Translating the genetic code
The genetic code in the DNA is copied or
transcribed by another molecule called
Messenger RNA (mRNA).

The mRNA carries the code out of the nucleus to


the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

The ribosomes then translate the code from the


mRNA into the specific protein using amino acids
found free in the cytoplasm.

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mRNA
The DNA for the gene being turned into a
protein is copied into a mRNA molecule.
It is different from DNA, it is:
• Shorter
• Single stranded
• Have URACIL instead of THYMINE.

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How does mRNA become a
protein
Every 3 letters in the mRNA tell the
ribosome which amino acid to add to the
protein.
AUGCGAUGGACG mRNA

Alanine Serine Glycine Proline

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Translating the genetic
code
Task 3: In groups produce an A4 poster to illustrate
protein synthesis.

Your poster should contain the following information:-

• DNA carries the genetic code for producing proteins


• mRNA copies the code
• mRNA carries the copy of the code to the ribosomes
• The ribosomes translate the copy of the code to
produce proteins

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5. Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering
LI:
1. Describe how genetic information can
be transferred from one cell to
another.
2. Explain the process of genetic
engineering and the stages involved.

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What is genetic
engineering?

What is it used for?

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Watch the following clip on Genetic
Engineering and in pairs answer the
following questions:
1.What 3 things are produced by
genetically modifying microbes?
2.Name the first organisms to be
genetically modified and when this was
done.
3.What does insulin
National normally
4/5 Biology do?1 What
Course Unit
condition arises from not making insulin?
GMO Defined…
• An organism that is generated through
genetic engineering is considered to be
a genetically modified organism (GMO).
• The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973;
GM mice were generated in 1974.
Insulin-producing bacteria were
commercialized in 1982 and genetically
modified food has been sold since 1994.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The process of Genetic
Engineering
• The control of all the normal activities of a
bacterium depends upon its single
chromosome and small rings of genes called
plasmids.
• In genetic engineering pieces of chromosome
from a different organism can be inserted
into a plasmid. This allows the bacteria to
make a new substance.

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Task 1 – Use the cut out sheet
and put the stages of genetic
engineering in the correct
order.
Use the following diagram to
help you.

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National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Uses of Genetic Engineering 1
Genetic engineering is used for the production
of substances which used to be both expensive
and difficult to produce. Examples include:
•insulin for the control of diabetes
•antibiotics such as penicillin
•various vaccines for the control of disease
•enzymes for laundry detergent

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Uses of Genetic Engineering 2
Genetic engineering is a way of producing
organisms which have genotypes best suited for
a particular function. In the past man has used
selective breeding to achieve this. This was
done by choosing only his most suitable animals
and plants for breeding.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Genetic engineering has several advantages over
selective breeding. Some are:
• particular single characteristics can be
selected
• the selection may be quicker
• a desirable characteristic can be transferred
from one species to another

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Genetic Engineering – now and
the future?
• It is not just bacteria that can be genetically
modified, plants and animals can be modified
too.
• It is therefore possible to genetically engineer
people!
• It holds the promise of curing genetic diseases
like cystic fibrosis, and increasing the immunity
of people to viruses.

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• It is speculated that genetic engineering could
be used to change physical appearance,
metabolism, and even improve mental faculties
like memory and intelligence, although for now
these uses seem to be of lower priority to
researchers and are therefore limited to
science fiction.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Issues?

• There are dangers involved with genetic


engineering since it involves creating
completely new strains of bacteria.
There is a possibility of creating some
which are harmful to animal or plant
life.
• What is your opinion on GM Food (plant
and animal), GM organisms for research
and GM People?
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Task 2 – Genetically Engineering
the Future
• Thinking about the possibilities and issues
surrounding genetic engineering, I want you to
imagine 50 years from now. Technology has
moved on and GMO is commonplace in
agriculture, medicine and all organisms.
• Write a letter to your present self,
describing this new world. Be honest in this
letter, what are the good and bad points
about GMO in the future?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


6. Proteins and Enzymes
Protein structure
LI:
1. Explain how the variety of protein
shapes and functions arises.
2. Describe some of the main functions
of proteins.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Protein structure
• Proteins are made up of sub-units called
amino acids.
• There are 21 amino acids.
• The order of amino acids in a protein is
dictated by the genetic code.
• Every protein has different amino acids
in different orders.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• The order of the amino acids affects
the shape of the protein.
• Proteins can be fibrous or globular:
• GLOBULAR – enzymes
• FIBROUS – keratin (hair)

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Protein functions
Read pages 58 – 60.
Make a mind-map showing the 5 main
functions of proteins.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


LI: Enzymes
1. State what enzymes are and where they
can be found.
2. Describe the main function of an
enzyme.
3. Define the terms “active site” and
“substrate”.
4. Explain the relationship between the
active site of an enzyme and its
substrate.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Catalysts
A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction,
but is unchanged in the process and can
be used over and over again.

In living things, catalysts are known as


enzymes.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


If cells did not have enzymes in their
cytoplasm, then the chemical reactions
which happen in our cells would happen
so slowly that life would be impossible!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


An example of an enzyme:
CATALASE
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a liquid
similar to water (H2O), but with one
extra oxygen.

Over a long period of time hydrogen


peroxide naturally breaks down into
water and oxygen.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The word equation for this reaction is:

Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen

This process can be sped up using an


enzyme.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Into each test tube – measure out 5 ml of
Hydrogen peroxide AND 5 drops of
detergent.

CAUTION!!
Hydrogen
peroxide is a
dangerous
chemical.
Safety goggles
must be worn!!

1. Add nothing 2. Potato 3. Carrot 4. Liver

Leave for 10 minutes.


National Measure
4/5 Biology Coursethe
Unit 1
height of the foam bubbles.
Test tube contents Height of foam (mm)

Nothing – “CONTROL”

Potato

Carrot

Liver

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Conclusion
Only the plant and animal tissues speed up
the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

This is because the cells contain catalase.


Catalase is an enzyme found in living
cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Catalase
Hydrogen peroxide water + oxygen

The tissue which contained the most


catalase was ______________.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Breakdown and Synthesis
Catalase is an enzyme involved in chemical
breakdown.

“Breakdown” means chopping up larger


molecules into smaller molecules.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Other enzymes do the opposite – the
build large molecules from smaller
molecules. This is called synthesis.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


An example of a synthesis
enzyme: Phosphorylase
Glucose-1-phosphate is a chemical made
by plants during photosynthesis. It is
stored in plant cells be converting it
into a large molecule called starch.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Phosphorylase

Phosphorylase
Glucose-1-phosphate Starch

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Substrates and products
The substrate is the substance the
enzyme works on.
The product is the substance the enzyme
makes.
Enzyme
Substrate Product

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Enzyme Substrate Product

Catalase

Phosphorylase

Amylase

Pepsin

Lipase

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


How enzymes work
Enzymes are made of protein. This
protein has a special shape which is
unique to each enzyme.

Enzyme Active site

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Substrate

Enzyme

The active site is the correct shape to fit the


substrate.
Substrate

Turned into
Enzyme
the products

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Substrate

Enzyme

Other substrates are the wrong shape to fit in


the active site of the enzyme.
Therefore the enzyme will only work with one
substrate. This is described as being SPECIFIC.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


“Specific”
When talking about enzymes, SPECIFIC
means that the ENZYME WILL ONLY
WORK WITH ONE SUBSTRATE.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


One enzyme = one substrate
5 ml Starch 5 ml Starch 5 ml Starch 5 ml Starch

3 ml Water 3 ml Amylase 3 ml Pepsin 3 ml Lipase


Put in waterbath for 10 minutes. Test all 4 test-tubes with
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Benedict’s Solution
Results
Sugar present?

Starch + water

Starch + amylase

Starch + Pepsin

Starch + Lipase
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Conclusion
The test-tube containing Starch and
Amylase had the most sugar.

This shows that only Amylase can convert


starch to sugar.

Amylase is said to be SPECIFIC to starch.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Factors affecting enzyme
LI:
activity
1. Explain the meaning of the term
“optimum” as applied to enzymes.
2. Give factors that affect enzymes and
their proteins, and describe their
effect.
3. Explain the meaning of the term
“denatured” and why it happens to
enzymes.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Effect of temperature on
enzymes

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


5 ml Starch 5 ml Starch 5 ml Starch
3 ml Cold Amylase 3 ml Amylase 3 ml 80oC Amylase

Iced water 37oC 80oC


Put in waterbath for 10
National 4/5minutes. Test allUnit
Biology Course 3 test-tubes
1 with
Benedict’s Solution
Temperature Was sugar present?

0 oC

37 oC

80 oC

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


All enzymes have a temperature at which
the work fastest.

This is called the optimum temperature.

In humans the optimum temperature for


all enzymes is 37oC.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Enzymes work slowly at cold
temperatures.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


At very high temperatures enzymes
become changed and do not work.

This is called being denatured.

Once an enzyme is denatured it will never


work again.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The effect of pH on enzymes
Into all 5 test tubes put 5ml Hydrogen Peroxide and 5
drops of soap

3ml pH1 buffer 3ml pH4 buffer 3ml pH7 buffer 3ml pH9 buffer 3ml pH 14 buffer

LAST: Add 1 cm cylinder of potato to each


test tube. Measure height of foam after 10
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
minutes.
Results
pH Height of foam (mm)

14
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Conclusion
The optimum pH for the catalase enzyme
is pH _______.

All enzymes have a different optimum pH


depending on where they are found in
the body.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Uses of enzymes

Yoghurt and cheese making


Biological detergents
Yoghurt and cheese
Yoghurt and cheese making depend on the
activities of enzymes in bacteria.
Bacteria used lactose sugar in milk as a
source of energy.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


They make the waste product called lactic
acid which makes the milk increasingly
acidic and sour tasting.

Lactose energy + lactic acid

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• This is another example of
fermentation.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


1. Yoghurt making
• Milk is heated to kill microbes
• Special yoghurt bacteria are added
• The lactose in the milk is fermented
by the bacteria.
• The milk becomes acidic and so it:
– Thickens
– Tastes sour

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


2. Cheese making

The process is similar to yoghurt making,


but after the fermentation, rennet is
added which curdles the milk.
The solid curds are separated from the
liquid whey.
The curds are then pressed into hard
cheese.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Task 3 – Note Taking
• The following slides will tell you about biological
detergents; how they are made, why they are
useful and their environmental impact.
• Your task is to take notes from the slides – this
could be mind mapping key words and concepts
under the headings above or a table of
information or bullet point. Decide quickly which
method you find most useful when revising and
try it this way.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


How Biological Detergents are
produced:
• Biological detergents contain enzymes such as protease,
amylase and lipase to digest proteins, starch and fats
respectively.
• Enzymes can be produced using bacteria that have been
genetically engineered to make these enzymes. They
are grown in industrial fermenters in vast quantities.
This equipment ensures that the bacteria receive food
and oxygen so that they grow well. The bacteria will
produce the enzymes and pass them out into the culture
liquid. The bacteria and the filtered off and the
enzymes extracted from the liquid. The enzymes are
purified and added to washing powder.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Value and Use of Product:
• Advantages of using biological detergents
include reducing fuel costs as clothes can be
washed at lower temperatures reducing the
electricity consumption; Less damage to
delicate fabrics such as acrylic and wool
whilst still cleaning effectively and the ability
to remove difficult stains such as grass and
blood. These will be completely removed by
biological washing powder but not by non-
biological even at high temperatures.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Environmental Impact 1:
• Reduced Fuel Consumption - using
Biological Detergents has a positive
impact on our environment as it reduces
CO2 and SO2 production from burning
fossil fuels in Power Stations to
generate electricity.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Environmental Impact 2:
• Detergents are rich in chemicals called phosphates.
This chemical passes from waste water from people’s
homes to sewage works. Unfortunately it is hard to
remove during processing and can end up in local
rivers where they cause algal bloom. This single celled
plant can overwhelm the balance of the ecosystem
and when it dies can cause bacterial numbers to
increase. The bacteria use up oxygen in the water
which leads to the death of other organisms.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Task 3 – Note Taking
• Your task was to take notes from the
slides – it would be useful to check your
notes with a peer. Have you covered
similar key areas?
• If you are not sure, the check with your
teacher!

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


7. Respiration
Cellular respiration
LI:
1. Explain what is meant by the term
“respiration”.
2. Describe the build up and break down
of ATP in cells.
3. Name the cellular uses of ATP.
4. Give the summary word equation for
aerobic respiration.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Why do cells need energy?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Respiration
Why do cells need energy?
Living cells need energy to carry out a variety of
cell functions.
chemical
reactions cell
cell
division growth
energy in
living cells

muscular
nerve contraction
impulses building
up large
molecules

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


energy from food

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• The three main food groups are _____,
____________, and __________.
• _____ contains the most energy.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Aerobic Respiration

Energy in a cell is produced by a chemical


reaction called aerobic respiration.

carbon
glucose + oxygen water +
dioxide

energy released

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


ATP
The energy produced during aerobic
respiration is stored in a molecule called
ATP (Adenosine triphosphate).

Every molecule of glucose that is “burned”


in the cell produces 38 ATP molecules.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


ATP structure
ATP is made up of one Adenosine and
three phosphates
High Energy
Bond

ADENOSINE P P P

3 PHOSPHATE
GROUPS

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


ATP is made by joining ADP (Adenosine
diphosphate) and phosphate.

ADP  Pi ATP

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• As a molecule to transfer energy in cells

Carbon e.g.
Dioxide ATP Amino
+ Energy Acids
Energy
Water
RESPIRATION ENERGY WORK
TRANSFER

Energy Energy
Glucose ADP
+ Protein
+ molecule
Oxygen Pi

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Aerobic respiration
LI:
1. Describe the stages of aerobic
respiration with reference to the
number of ATP molecules produced.
2. State the location of aerobic
respiration in cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Glycolysis
Respiration should be seen as a series of
enzyme controlled reactions in which
• 6-carbon glucose is oxidised (broken
down) to form carbon dioxide
• this is accompanied by the synthesis of
ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and
inorganic phosphate (Pi).

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Glucose (6C)

2ADP + 2Pi
2ATP

Pyruvic Acid
(2x3C)

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The first stage of respiration is called Glycolysis.
• This process takes place within the cytoplasm.
• does not require oxygen
• involves the step by step breakdown of a 6-
carbon sugar such as glucose to form two 3-
carbon pyruvic acid units

Glycolysis results in a production of 2ATP.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


What happens next?

If there is oxygen available ( the normal


situation), then the pyruvic acid produced
by glycolysis diffuses into an organelle
called mitochondrion for further
breakdown if oxygen becomes available.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Structure of a
Mitochondrion Outer Membrane

Cristae Inner Membrane

Matrix Fluid

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• Pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuses
into central matrix fluid

• Pyruvic acid is broken down further in


the presence of oxygen by a cycle of
reactions called the Kreb’s cycle
releasing most of the 38 ATP produced
during respiration

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Anaerobic respiration
LI:
1. State when anaerobic respiration
occurs.
2. Describe what happens in anaerobic
respiration in animal cell.
3. Describe what happens in anaerobic
respiration (fermentation) in
yeast/plant cells.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Anaerobic respiration
• If there is no Oxygen- Anaerobic
Respiration occurs.

• Anaerobic respiration occurs in human


after heavy exercise.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Pyruvic acid is converted to either
(i) Lactic Acid (in animal and bacterial cells)
(ii) Ethanol and carbon dioxide (in plant and
fungal cells)

• No further ATP is made – so only the net 2


ATPs are produced.
• In animal cells the Lactic Acid is converted
back to Pyruvic Acid when oxygen becomes
available.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Complete this summary table
Aerobic Anaerobic respiration
respiration
Humans Yeast/Plant
Site in the
cell
Number of
ATP
Final
products

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Complete this summary table
Aerobic Anaerobic respiration
respiration
Humans Yeast/Plant
Site in the Cytoplasm & Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
cell
Number of 38 2 2
ATP
Final Carbon Lactic acid Ethanol &
products dioxide & Carbon
water
dioxide

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


8. Photosynthesis
The importance of plants
LI:
1. Explain why plants are important.
2. Give examples of plants that are
useful to man, and explain what they
are used for.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Photosynthesis
 Why are plants important?

 What is photosynthesis?

 What do plants need for


photosynthesis?

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


The importance of plants

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Raw materials

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Food

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Medicines

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Photosynthesis
Importance of plants

FOOD RAW MATERIALS MEDICINES

Wheat – for bread Wood – for building Poppy – pain killers

Grapes – for wine Cotton – for clothes Foxglove – heart


medicine
Sugar cane – for Flowers – for Mint – menthol for
sugar perfumes cough sweets

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Photosynthesis
LI:
1. Give the summary word equation for
photosynthesis.
2. Describe what happens during the
light reaction.
3. Describe what happens during carbon
fixation.
4. State the possible uses of the sugar
made in photosynthesis.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Photosynthesis
Green plants make their own food using
light energy

Green plants convert


light energy to
chemical energy (food)
using a green pigment
in the leaves called
chlorophyll.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Carbon Dioxide
Glucose taken up from air
used for energy
or stored as
Light energy starch
- from sun

Oxygen given
off as waste
Water - from soil

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


This can be summarised by the following
equation
Carbon Water Light energy Glucose Oxygen
dioxide Chlorophyll
Energy
Products
Raw Materials source
Glucose is used for
and pigment
energy, stored as
which
starch or built up into
traps it
cellulose

Oxygen is waste gas

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Chloroplast structure

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Stages of Photosynthesis
biochemistry
• There are two stages of photosynthesis. The
equation you have just learned is actually
more complex and occurs at two separate
stages.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Stage 1
• The first stage is called PHOTOLYSIS.
• This stage involves using energy from the
sunlight to split water molecules into
hydrogen and oxygen.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


WATER

Oxygen ATP Hydrogen


Released to the
air as oxygen gas
ENERGY Passed on to
second stage
Passed on to
second stage

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Light energy

Chlorophyll

ADP + Pi Water
Chemical
energy
ATP Hydrogen + Oxygen

Passed on to Passed on to Released to the


second stage second stage air as oxygen gas

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Stage 2
• The second stage is known as the
Carbon Fixation stage
• Here the energy and hydrogen from
stage one are used along with the
carbon dioxide.
• It is at this stage where glucose
molecules are produced.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


From the first From the first
stage stage

ATP ADP + Pi
Hydrogen

Glucose

Carbon
dioxide Enzyme
controlled
reactions

From the air

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


• This stage is energy consuming so that
is where the ATP comes in.
• This stage is also controlled by
enzymes.
• Carbon dioxide and hydrogen join to give
us glucose

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


What happens to the glucose?
• Glucose which are used for energy
(respiration)

• Storage carbohydrates such as starch -


these can be broken
down to simple sugars if needed
• Structural carbohydrates such as
cellulose - these are used to build
the cell wall

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Limiting factors
LI:
1. Describe the limiting factors of
photosynthesis.
2. Explain the impact of limiting factors
on photosynthesis and growth.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Limiting factors
Three possible factors can limit the rate of
photosynthesis in a plant when they are in
short supply :-
• Light intensity – this limits the energy
available.
• Carbon dioxide concentration – this is an
essential raw material
• Temperature – this limits the rate at which the
enzymes controlling photosynthesis work.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Effect of light on the rate of photosynthesis
We can use the rate of production of oxygen
bubbles by pond weed to measure the rate of
photosynthesis
Diagram “bubbler”

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
• A large water trough or sheet of glass
stops the heat from the lamp from
affecting the experiment.

• Lamp moved away -> less oxygen bubbles


produced

• The amount of light therefore limits the


rate of photosynthesis. It is called a
limiting factor.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Point X Optimum

photosynthesis
Increasing rate
of

Increasing light intensity

Part B
Part A
Further increases in light causes
As light intensity no further increase in the rate of
increases the rate of photosynthesis since the rate is
photosynthesis limited by a shortage of some other
increases. National 4/5factor
Biologye.g.
Course Unit dioxide
carbon 1 or
temperature
Point X Optimum

photosynthesis
Increasing rate
of

Carbon Dioxide Concentration

Part B
Part A
Further increases in CO2 conc.
As CO2 conc.
causes no further increase in the
increases the rate of
rate of photosynthesis since the
photosynthesis
rate is limited by a shortage of
increases. National 4/5some
Biologyother
Course Unit e.g.
factor 1 light or
temperature
photosynthesis
0.4% CO2
Increasing rate

0.3% CO2
0.2% CO2
of

Increasing light intensity

light intensity is CO2 is limiting factor


limiting factor

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


Point X Optimum

photosynthesis
Increasing rate
of

Increasing temperature

Part A Part B
As temperature Further increases in
increases the rate temperature results in a drop in
of photosynthesis the rate due to the denaturing
increases. National 4/5of
Biology Course Unit
the enzymes 1 carry out
that
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis and horticulture

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1
Photosynthesis and horticulture
Horticulture is the cultivation of plants in
gardens and greenhouses.
The use of a greenhouse helps remove
limiting factors:

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


(a) Lighting and heat

By increasing the light, the rate of


photosynthesis increases and leads to
an increase in the growth rate of the
crop:
• crop is ready to be picked earlier.
• increased crop yield.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1


(b) Carbon dioxide enrichment
Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
increases the yield (size) of crops. This
happens because the rate of photosynthesis
is increased.

National 4/5 Biology Course Unit 1