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 Summary of work

 Should be self-contained (no references)

 1-2 sentences for each of the 5 main parts

(introduction, method, results, discussion,
conclusions) – then streamline

 High information content

 No abbreviations
 An abstract can be defined as a summary of the
information in a document
 It is of fundamental importance that the abstract be
written clearly and simply, as it is the first and
sometimes the only part of the manuscript read.
 It should provide a brief summary of each of the
main sections of the paper:
1. State the principal objective and scope of the
2. Describe the methods used
3. Summarize the results, and
4. State the principal conclusions
 It is easier to write the abstract after completion of
the paper
 It should not exceed 250 words
 It should be written in one paragraph.
 It should be written in the past tense as it refers to work
 Long words should be followed by its abbreviation
which would be used through out the abstract and
 It should not cite any references (except in rare cases)
 It should never give any information or conclusion that
is not stated in the paper
 Must be accurate with respect to figures quoted in the
main text.
 The abstract is to be in fully-justified italicized text,at
the top of the left-hand column as it is here, below the
author information.
 Use the word “Abstract” as the title, in 12 points Times
New Roman, boldface type.
 The abstract is to be in 10-point,single-spaced
type,may be up to 3 inch(7.62 cm long).
 Start the first line leaving the space of 2.5 cm or 1.0
inch on the upper side.
 Leave two blank lines after the abstract, then begin the
main text.
 All manuscripts must be in English.
Its an abstract of IEEE paper of multiplier.