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Prevention and Early Detection

From the National Cancer Institute

Presented By:
Kelly S. Salvador, MD.
Medical Oncologist
Philippine Cancer Society
Understanding Cancer

Normally, cells grow and divide new cells

cells grow old, they die and new cells

New cells form when the body does not need them,
and old cells do not die when they should. These extra
cells can form a mass of tissue called growth or
Understanding Cancer

Tumors may be BENIGN or MALIGNANT

Benign tumors are not cancer

Rarely life-threatening

After removing it, they usually do not grow back.

They do not invade the tissues around them.

They do not spread to other parts of the body.

Understanding Cancer
Malignant tumors are cancer.

May be life-threatening.

If tumor is small, may be removed, but sometimes they

grow back.

They may invade and damage nearby tissues or organs.

They can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

Understanding Cancer
Risk Factors
Doctors often cannot explain why one person develops cancer and
another does not. But research shows that certain RISK FACTORS
increase the chance that a person will develop cancer. These are
the most common risk factors for cancer:

Growing Older - higher risk for people over 65

Ionizing radiation
Certain chemicals and other substances
Some viruses and bacteria
Family history of cancer – could not be avoided
Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight
Risk Factors
Cancer Facts - 2005

106,844 – New Cases

72,846 – Deaths

Cancers are curable if detected EARLY and

treated PROPERLY.

Reference: Philippine Cancer Facts and Estimate 2005

Estimated Ten Leading Cancer
(in Both Sexes)
Philippines, 2005
1. LUNG 17238
2. BREAST 14043
3. COLON / RECTUM 8585
4. LIVER 7629
6. PROSTATE 4254
7. LEUKEMIA 4202
8. STOMACH 3932
9. THYROID 3521
10. OVARY 3283
Estimated Ten Leading Cancer
(in MALE)
Philippines, 2005
1. LUNG 13273
2. LIVER 5660
4. PROSTATE 4254
5. STOMACH 2368
6. LEUKEMIA 2243
10. LARYNX 1464
Estimated Ten Leading Cancer
Philippines, 2005
1. BREAST 14043
2. CERVIX ; UTERI 7277
3. LUNG 3965
5. OVARY 3283
6. THYROID 2766
7. LIVER 1969
8. LEUKEMIA 1959
10. STOMACH 1564
 Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) -- may cause Cervical Cancer

 Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C – may cause Liver Cancer

 Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma virus – increase risk for

Lymphoma and Leukemia

 Human Immunodeficiency virus -- HIV is the virus that causes

AIDS and in turn, AIDS patients may be at risk to get Lymphoma
and Kaposi’s Sarcoma.

 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -- at risk to get Lymphoma and

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

 Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) – risk factor for Kaposi’s Sarcoma

 Helicobacter pylori – may cause stomach ulcers, stomach cancer and

lymphoma in the stomach lining.
 Breast : A Mammogram is the best tool doctors have to
find breast cancer early. NCI recommends that women
above age of 40 should have mammograms every 1 to 2
years. Those at high risk should speak to their doctors
if they should have a mammogram before the age of 40
and how often they should be doing it.

 Cervix: The Pap Test or Pap Smear is used to check

cells from the cervix. Women should begin having Pap
tests 3 years after they begin having sexual intercourse
or when they reach age 21, whichever comes first. Most
women should have a Pap test at least once every 3
 Colon and Rectum:

Fecal Occult Blood Test: Sometimes cancer or polyps bleed.

Sigmoidoscopy: This lighted tube may see inside the rectum and
lower part of the colon and may remove polyps.

Colonoscopy: This lighted tube may see inside the rectum and
entire colon and may also remove polyps.

Double-contrast barium enema: This procedure involves several

x-rays of the colon and rectum. The patient is given an enema
with a barium solution and air is pumped into the rectum. The
barium and air improve the x-ray images of the colon and rectum.

Digital Rectal exam: This is often part of a routine physical exam.

The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to
feel for abnormal areas. A digital rectal exam allows for
examination of only the lowest part of the rectum.
Prevention of Lung Cancer

 There is no screening
procedure that can effectively
prevent Lung Cancer.

 To prevent Lung Cancer, one

Prevention of Liver Cancer

 Hepa-B Vaccination
 Regular check-up on
Hepa-B virus
 Regulate intake of
Early Detection for Cervical Cancer
 Pap smear can detect early Cervix cancer and pre-
cancerous lesions.
 Pap Smear should be done 3 years after the first
vaginal intercourse.
 After the initial Pap Smear, it should be done
every year for 3 years, if the result from
consecutive test is negative, if not, it should be
done yearly.
 Women without sexual experience should have
Pap Smear after reaching the age of 35.
Prevention of Cervical Cancer

 Delay on the first sexual intercourse

 One partner relationship between
 Use of barrier contraceptives like
condoms during sexual intercourse
 A thickening or lump in the breast
or any other part of the body
 A new mole or a change in an existing mole
 A sore that does not heal
 Hoarseness or a cough that does not go away
 Change in bowel or bladder habits
 Discomfort after eating
 A hard time swallowing
 Weight gain or loss with no known reason
 Unusual bleeding or discharge
 Feeling weak or very tired
 Lab Tests

Tests of the blood, urine or other fluids can help

doctors make a diagnosis.

 Imaging Procedures

CT Scan
Radionuclide Scan
PET Scan
The doctor removes a sample of tissue and
sends it to a lab.

A pathologist looks at the tissue under a

microscope. The sample may be removed in
several ways:

 With a needle
 With an endoscope
1. Team Involved
 Surgical Oncologist
 Medical Oncologist
 Radiation Oncologist
 Hematologic Oncologist

2. Methods
Primary Goal: is to cure the cancer
Other cases: to control the disease or to remove symptoms as
long as possible
 Surgery – neoadjuvant, adjuvant, palliative
 Chemotherapy – neoadjuvant, adjuvant, palliative
 Radiation – external beam or internal like implant
 Hormonal therapy
 Stem cell transplantation
Recommendations for Individual Choices:

 Maintain a healthy weight throughout life.

 Balance caloric intake with
physical activity.
 Avoid excessive weight gain
throughout life.
 Achieve and maintain
a healthy weight if currently
overweight or obese.
 Adopt a physically active lifestyle.

Adults: Engage in at least 30mins. of moderate to

vigorous physical activity, above usual activities,
on 5 or more days of the week; 45 to 60 mins. of
intentional physical activity are preferable.

Children and Adolescents: Engage in at least 60

mins. per day of moderate to vigorous physical
activity at least 5 days per week.
 Eat a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant
Choose food or beverages in amounts that help achieve and
maintain a healthy weight.

Eat 5 or more servings of a variety of vegetables and fruits


Choose whole grains in preference to processed (refined) grains.

Limit consumption of processed and red meats

If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumption.

Drink no more than 1 drink per day for women, and 2 per day for
1. Alcohol – limit to 1 drink per day for
women and 2 drinks per day for men.
A drink is defined as
12 ounces of beer or
5 ounces of wine or
1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits
Increase risk of the mouth, pharynx, larynx,
esophagus, liver and breast. More risk if combine
drinking and tobacco.
2. Aspartame – does not show increased risk

3. Bioengineered Foods – are made by adding genes from

other plants or organicms to increase a plant’s
resistance to pest or other spoilages, are not found to
increase nor decrease cancer risk.

4. Little evidence that the total amount of fat consumed

affects cancer risk. But diets high in fat tend to be high
in calories and may contribute to obesity, which in turn
is linked with an increased risk of several types of

5. Flourides – not found to increase cancer risk

6. Food Additives – No evidence to increase cancer risk.

7. Irradiated food – do not increase cancer risk

8. Processed meat or Meat preserved by methods involving smoke or

salt increase colorectal and stomach cancer.

9. Frying, broiling, grilling meat may increase cancer risk.

10. Obesity – increase risk in breast, colon, endometrial, esophagus

and kidney cancer.

11. Pesticides & Herbicides – no increased risk for cancer if used in

small amounts enough to protect vegetables from pests.

12. Saccharin – not carcinogenic

13. Soy Supplement – no evidence to reduce
cancer risk, high doses of soy increase risk of
breast and endometrial cancer

14. Supplement – high dose may actually increase

cancer risk
Decreased Risk
1. Antioxidants which include Vitamins C and E,
carotenoids and other phytochemicals (from food
sources) and not from food supplements.

2. Beta-carotene, an anti-oxidant chemically realted to

Vitamin A found in vegetables and fruits may be
helpful, but in high doses of this supplement given to
smokers may actually cause increase risk of lung

3. Calcium may reduce risk for colorectal cancer but

there is evidence that the high calcium intake
through supplements may increase risk of prostate
4. No evidence that low fasting blood cholesterol may
decrease cancer risk.

5. Drinking coffee does not increase risk of breast cancer

but may heighten symptoms of fibrocystic breast

6. Eating high amounts of fiber may help reduce cancer


7. Little evidence that omega 3 fatty acid, olive, canola oil

reduce cancer risk.

8. Fish not found to decrease cancer risk.

9. Folate, which is Vitamin B found in vegetables, fruits
and enriched grain products decrease cancers of the
colon, rectum and breast.

10. Garlic – no evidence that it can reduce cancer risk.

11. Lycopene – not sure if it is the substance that reduce

cancer risk.

12. Organic food – no evidence that it reduces cancer risk.

13. Physical activity – lowers the risk to develop cancer of

the colon and breast
14. Selenium – decreases risk of cancer of the lung, colon
and prostate.

15. Tea – not proven to decrease cancer risk.

16. Cruciferous vegetables – cabbage family including

brocolli, cauliflower, brussels sprout and kale reduce
the risk for colorectal cancer.

17. Vitamin D – reduce risk for cancers of the colon,

prostate and breast.

18. Vitamin E – lowers risk for prostate cancer.

 Tumour grading is usually of importance in assessing
prognosis. It refers to the degree of malignancy or
differentiation of tumour tissue based on histological
evaluation, and is often expressed in 4 categories:

 Grade 1(G1) --- Well differentiated (about a quarter of

cells undifferentiated)
 Grade 2(G2)--- Moderately undifferentiated (about half
of cells undifferentiated)
 Grade 3(G3)--- Markedly undifferentiated (about three
quarters of cells undifferentiated)
 Grade 4(G4)--- Undifferentiated (almost all cells
 Tumour staging is determined by a
comprehensive evaluation using diagnostic
tools for categorising the growth and spread of
tumours. It involves classifying the extent of the
malignant tumour.
 One classification is known as the TNM
system. T stands for primary tumour, N is
regional nodes whereas M represents

 Tis---Pre-invasive carcinoma (carcinoma in situ

 T0---No evidence of a primary tumour
 T1---Small tumour, restricted to organ of origin
 T2---Large but restricted to organ of origin
 T3---Some invasion of adjacent tissue
 T4---Massive invasion of adjacent tissue and/or
 TX---Unable to assess primary tumour
 N0---No regional lymph node involvement
 N1, N2, N3---Increasing involvement of
regional lymph nodes
 N4---Involvement of juxta-regional lymph
 NX---Unable to assess regional and/or juxta-
regional lymph nodes
 M0---No distant metastases
 M1---Distant metastases present
 MX---Unable to assess distant metastases
 Sometimes, the tumour staging has an additional letter
“p” before TNM. This indicates post-surgical
histopathological staging.


 The letter C placed before TNM provides information on

which type of diagnostic instrument was used to
diagnose the tumour and the extent of its growth.

 C1Using an X-Ray examinationC2Using special

equipment, for e.g. endoscopyC3Using exploratory
surgery C4 using histopathological results C5 using
autopsy results

 Stage I---Tumour is localised

 Stage II---There is presence of adjacent
tissue invasion
 Stage III---Some regional lymph nodes
 Stage IV---Distant metastases present
Some specific tumour stagings
consist of:

 (a)Hodgkin’s and/or Non-Hodgkin’s diseaseAnn Arbor

 (b) Malignant melanomasClark and Breslow systems
 (c)Cervical cancerCIN
 (d)Colorectal cancersDukes
 (e) Gynaecological tumours FIGO (Federation
Internationale de Gynecologie et d’Obstetrique)
 (f)Prostate carcinomaFlocks/VACURG
 (g)Urinary bladderMarshall
 (h)Chronic lymphatic leukaemia RAI
 Tumour markers are substances found in the blood, urine or body
tissues created by the tumour itself or as a result of the body’s
reaction to the tumour. However, it should be remembered that
tumour markers are not to be used alone as a diagnostic tool because
they can also be elevated in people without tumours. Not all affected
cancer patients have raised tumour markers. In the early stages, the
levels could be normal.

 They are more useful in monitoring the progress of cancer once


 Among the tumour markers:

(a) Alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) for ovarian, liver, testis cancer
(b)Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for breast, colon, lung cancer
(c)Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) for uterine choriocarcinoma,
ovarian cancer, testicular cancer(d)Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
for prostate cancer
 There are four main types of thyroid cancer:
1. Papillary carcinoma
2. Follicular carcinoma
3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma
4. Anaplastic carcinoma

 Carcinoid tumors :
 Gastro-intestinal
 Lung
End of Presentation

Q & A:

Thank You Very Much!!!