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Henrik Bruus

Chapters: 4 – 5

Mean Field Theory and Time-Evolution Pictures

Many-Body Quantum Theory

Henrik Bruus

Topics: Chapter 4 – Mean Field Theory

Mean-Field Theory

Motivation & Introduction

Formulation

Hartree-Fock Approximation

Symmetry Breaking Application

Application to Ferromagnetism

Heisenberg Model of Ionic Ferromagnets

Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

Application to Microscopic Theory

BCS Theory

Many-Body Quantum Theory

Henrik Bruus

Topics: Chapter 5 – Time Evolution Pictures

The Schrodinger Picture

The Heisenberg Picture

The Interaction Picture

Time-Evolution in Linear Response

(Ch.6 Preview)

Summary

Mean-Field Theory: Motivation & Introduction

• Describing the motion of a Many-Body System is Complex .

“effective mean field”.

• We may use the language of second quantization to describe this simplified model.

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• Consider the interaction between two kinds of particles (distinguishable particles) with

operators `a’ and `b’, and quantum numbers `mu’ and `nu’.

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

Writing the Hamiltonian in terms

of their expectations (mean) will

allow us to turn a TWO BODY

problem into a ONE BODY

problem.

• Rewrite Hamiltonian

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

Only contains 1-particle operators

• With…

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• We now have:

“Mean Field”

Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• But, how do we find the mean fields? – TAKE THE AVERAGE MANUALLY

(Self-Consistency Check)

Mean-Field Theory: Application

• In general, there are many quantum numbers which may be chosen.

(If there are N quantum numbers, there are N-Squared coupled non-linear equations!

N^2 Combinations

• One must choose consider the physical properties of the system and seek symmetries

when seeking to choose an ideal quantum number for MFT treatment.

Hartree-Fock Approximation

• For particles `of-a-kind’ (Indistinguishable Particles), the method used for

distinguishable particles is not enough – we need an extra term.

• We now have,

• With Hamiltonian:

Hartree-Fock Approximation

Like we did before, we consider a deviation from the average density operator,

Deviation Squared

is very-very small!

Hartree-Fock Approximation

Finally, we have:

We obtain:

(This is the same method employed before)

Hartree-Fock Approximation

• So that, we obtain:

of Hartree Term.

Ex: Homogenous Electron Gas

Regularly spaced

Choose: electrons

represented by

wave function with

wave number k.

Ex: Homogenous Electron Gas

Exchange Correction

Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking

Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking

• For a Hamiltonian with symmetry , there is an operator that commutes with the Hamiltonian.

accessible to the system.

[Phase Transition]

Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking

• When there is a critical temperature at which the expectation of the order parameter

(a macroscopic observable marked by decreased symmetry) is non-zero,

we say that Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking has occurred.

The Heisenberg Model

(only)

The Heisenberg Model

• Note: In the symmetric regime, the expectation of the spin operator is zero. Therefore, we assume

such symmetry is broken (there is an external magnetic field). SUCH THAT…

The Heisenberg Model

• With `n’ nearest neighbors, we have the magnetic moment and the Hamiltonian…

The Heisenberg Model

• Seeking to compute the average, we first compute the partition function with S = 1/2…

The Heisenberg Model

The Heisenberg Model

The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

• When we have conductive and magnetic behavior, Heisenberg’s model is not enough.

(Heisenberg can’t explain magnetism for `moving magnetic moments’).

• First considering only the coulombic interaction, we have the Hubbard model:

• We now apply the Hartree-Fock Approximation, with the following order parameters:

The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

Proportional to strength

of interaction Parameter dependent

on how states are

occupied

Superconductivity & GGS Breaking

• The breaking of “Global Gauge Symmetry” (Disappearance of invariance with respect to global

phase shift) is associated with a superconductive (not resistive to electron flow) state. [BCS

Theory]

• Only on a MACROSCOPIC scale, there is a phase difference.

Superconductivity & GGS Breaking

• Introduce a (unitary) operator that makes adds a shift in phase.

reflects that all states are not equally accessible

due to phase transition.

Superconductivity & GGS Breaking

• With the following (kinetic) Hamiltonian:

• We again search for the mean field that minimizes the free energy to obtain:

Superconductivity & GGS Breaking

• The solution to the following:

• Yields that the system minimizes it’s free energy by allowing the current:

Microscopic Theory

• The full BCS Hamiltonian for superconductors is:

• Performing the mean-field assumption, where the `` Cooper pair operator” is:

Microscopic Theory

• We have:

• With:

Microscopic Theory

Deleted Slides

Mean-Field Theory: Application (Example)

• Consider particles distributed throughout space (Ex: Lattice of particles) with wave

functions such that their density is given by:

Change to Integral

• But, this represents an integral (or sum) for a product of wavefunctions of a difference in

phase of q, which yields a zero unless…

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