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Many-Body Quantum Theory

Henrik Bruus
Chapters: 4 – 5
Mean Field Theory and Time-Evolution Pictures

Tse Research Group @ University of Alabama


Many-Body Quantum Theory
Henrik Bruus
Topics: Chapter 4 – Mean Field Theory
Mean-Field Theory
Motivation & Introduction
Formulation
Hartree-Fock Approximation
Symmetry Breaking Application
Application to Ferromagnetism
Heisenberg Model of Ionic Ferromagnets
Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets
Application to Microscopic Theory
BCS Theory
Many-Body Quantum Theory
Henrik Bruus
Topics: Chapter 5 – Time Evolution Pictures
The Schrodinger Picture
The Heisenberg Picture
The Interaction Picture
Time-Evolution in Linear Response
(Ch.6 Preview)
Summary
Mean-Field Theory: Motivation & Introduction
• Describing the motion of a Many-Body System is Complex .

• We may simplify the problem by ignoring point-point interactions in favor of an


“effective mean field”.

• This allows us to decouple N-1 particles, from a particular particle. COMPARE

• We may use the language of second quantization to describe this simplified model.
Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• Consider the interaction between two kinds of particles (distinguishable particles) with
operators `a’ and `b’, and quantum numbers `mu’ and `nu’.

• Therefore, we can expect the Hamiltonian to be:


Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)
Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• Consider the density operators (and their averages).

• Also consider a deviation from their average (small deviation):


Writing the Hamiltonian in terms
of their expectations (mean) will
allow us to turn a TWO BODY
problem into a ONE BODY
problem.

• Rewrite Hamiltonian
Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• Plugging into the following,

• The Hamiltonian may be rewritten:


Only contains 1-particle operators

• With…
Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• We now have:

• With the mean field interaction:

Hence, the form of the mean field Hamiltonian:


“Mean Field”
Mean-Field Theory: Formulation (Two Particles)

• But, how do we find the mean fields? – TAKE THE AVERAGE MANUALLY
(Self-Consistency Check)

• This mean field minimizes the free energy as well:


Mean-Field Theory: Application

When applying MFT, one must consider:


• In general, there are many quantum numbers which may be chosen.
(If there are N quantum numbers, there are N-Squared coupled non-linear equations!

N^2 Combinations

• One must choose consider the physical properties of the system and seek symmetries
when seeking to choose an ideal quantum number for MFT treatment.
Hartree-Fock Approximation
• For particles `of-a-kind’ (Indistinguishable Particles), the method used for
distinguishable particles is not enough – we need an extra term.

• We now have,

• With Hamiltonian:
Hartree-Fock Approximation

Like we did before, we consider a deviation from the average density operator,

Apply this iteratively.

Deviation Squared
is very-very small!
Hartree-Fock Approximation

Finally, we have:

Plugging this back into …

We obtain:

But, this is NOT ENOUGH!


(This is the same method employed before)
Hartree-Fock Approximation

• We only considered the mean of these terms:

• We must also consider the `exchange’ or Fock terms:

• So that, we obtain:

Sign opposite that


of Hartree Term.
Ex: Homogenous Electron Gas

Regularly spaced
Choose: electrons
represented by
wave function with
wave number k.
Ex: Homogenous Electron Gas

We have for two electrons:

Exchange Correction

Average Electron Charge


Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking
Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking

• For a Hamiltonian with symmetry , there is an operator that commutes with the Hamiltonian.

Not all states are equally


accessible to the system.
[Phase Transition]
Mean-Field Theory & Symmetry Breaking

• When there is a critical temperature at which the expectation of the order parameter
(a macroscopic observable marked by decreased symmetry) is non-zero,
we say that Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking has occurred.
The Heisenberg Model

Adjacent Spins Interact


(only)
The Heisenberg Model

• Note: In the symmetric regime, the expectation of the spin operator is zero. Therefore, we assume
such symmetry is broken (there is an external magnetic field). SUCH THAT…
The Heisenberg Model

• With `n’ nearest neighbors, we have the magnetic moment and the Hamiltonian…
The Heisenberg Model

• Seeking to compute the average, we first compute the partition function with S = 1/2…

• Then minimize the mean-field free energy…


The Heisenberg Model

• The graph of the solution, (after obtaining):


The Heisenberg Model
The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

• When we have conductive and magnetic behavior, Heisenberg’s model is not enough.
(Heisenberg can’t explain magnetism for `moving magnetic moments’).

• First considering only the coulombic interaction, we have the Hubbard model:

• We now apply the Hartree-Fock Approximation, with the following order parameters:
The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

• The interaction potential via the Hartree-Fock approximation:


The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

• So that the mean field Hamiltonian may be given by:


The Stoner Model of Metallic Ferromagnets

Proportional to strength
of interaction Parameter dependent
on how states are
occupied
Superconductivity & GGS Breaking
• The breaking of “Global Gauge Symmetry” (Disappearance of invariance with respect to global
phase shift) is associated with a superconductive (not resistive to electron flow) state. [BCS
Theory]

• We assume a slowly varying position-dependent phase of the system.


• Only on a MACROSCOPIC scale, there is a phase difference.
Superconductivity & GGS Breaking
• Introduce a (unitary) operator that makes adds a shift in phase.

• Obtain a differential equation

• The partition function does not change…

NOT the trace over the ENTIRE state space ->


reflects that all states are not equally accessible
due to phase transition.
Superconductivity & GGS Breaking
• With the following (kinetic) Hamiltonian:

Imposed Phase Gradient

• We again search for the mean field that minimizes the free energy to obtain:
Superconductivity & GGS Breaking
• The solution to the following:

• Yields that the system minimizes it’s free energy by allowing the current:
Microscopic Theory
• The full BCS Hamiltonian for superconductors is:

• Performing the mean-field assumption, where the `` Cooper pair operator” is:
Microscopic Theory

• We have:

• With:

Solve using the Bogolioubov Transformation


Microscopic Theory
Deleted Slides
Mean-Field Theory: Application (Example)

• Consider particles distributed throughout space (Ex: Lattice of particles) with wave
functions such that their density is given by:

• So that, in momentum space…

Change to Integral

• Note that `k’ is a good quantum number. Therefore, we attempt:

• But, this represents an integral (or sum) for a product of wavefunctions of a difference in
phase of q, which yields a zero unless…