The Evolution of TDMA to 3G & 4G Wireless Systems

Nelson Sollenberger AT&T Labs-Research Wireless Systems Research Division

AT&T Wireless Services
AT&T serves over 14 million subscribers with digital TDMA technology and some remaining analog technology, and provides packet data service with CDPD technology
• TDMA – European GSM – North American TDMA – Japanese PDC CDMA – North American CDMA over 250 million ~ 50 million ~ 50 million ~ 60 million (including S. Korea)

Other TDMA operators - Rogers AT&T - Cingular (SBC & BellSouth) - throughout Mexico, Central & South America

Cellular Telephony Handsets

Nokia 5160

Nokia 8860

Ericsson PD 328

Motorola StarTAC® ST7790 Phone

Various TDMA phones available today

TDMA parameters
30 KHz channels (like analog & CDPD) 20 msec speech frames 24.3 kbaud symbol rate 3 time-slots/users 7.4 kbps ACELP speech coding 1/2-rate channel coding on important bits interleaved over 2 bursts in 40 msec • Differential pi/4-QPSK modulation • • • • • •

Calls can be set up on either frequency band and handed between them to manage traffic • Additional spectrum at 1900 MHz adds directly to capacity of cell 2001 N=5 2002 N=4 xSmart Antennas • Base station antennas systems that use digital signal processing to cancel interference xDynamic Channel Assignment • Network automatically assigns radio frequencies to cell sites for more efficient utilization of frequencies • Base stations only transmit power required to reach mobile with adequate signal quality resulting in lower interference xBase Station Power Control xDiscontinuous Transmission • Mobiles transmit only during when user is speaking.TDMA Capacity Roadmap 2000 Reuse N = 7 xDual band base • Operation at 800 or 1900 MHz. Lowers interference in the system and increases talk time .

approximately 2x capacity •Two dual polarization uplink antennas. downlink multibeam antenna with 4 . instead of 7/21.30° beams •Shared linear power amplifier unit with Butler matrices •Real-time downlink power control with beam tracking .IS-136 Smart Antenna Test Bed •Reuse of 3/9 to 4/12.

which features wireless data 3COM functions Nokia 3G vision Palm VII .Wireless Data Terminals Sierra PCMCIA CDPD Modem Nokia 9110 The new Ericsson R380 phone.

location services .web access .streaming audio & video RF & DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY MOBILE SOFTWARE .WIRELESS COMPUTING WIRELESS GROWTH INTERNET GROWTH .file transfer .e-mail .

6 k GPRS EDGE WCDMA IS-136+ IS-95+ PDC GSM IS-136 CDPD IS-95 1995 2000 2005 .Macrocellular Wireless Data Evolution & AT&T’s Roadmap 5M 1M HDR Wideband OFDM data 384 k rate 64 k 9.

EDGE Technology Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution • Evolutionary path to 3G services for GSM and TDMA operators • Builds on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) air interface and networks • Phase 1 (Release’99 & 2002 deployment) supports best effort packet data at speeds up to about 384 kbps • Phase 2 (Release’2000 & 2003 deployment) will add Voice over IP capability .

GPRS Airlink • • • • • • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Same GMSK modulation as GSM 4 channel coding modes Packet-mode supporting up to about 144 kbps Flexible time slot allocation (1-8) Radio resources shared dynamically between speech and data services • Independent uplink and downlink resource allocation .

EDGE Airlink • Extends GPRS packet data with adaptive modulation/coding • 2x spectral efficiency of GPRS for best effort data • 8-PSK/GMSK at 271 ksps in 200 KHz RF channels supports 8.8 to 59.2 kbps per time slot • Supports peak rates over 384 kbps • Requires linear amplifiers with < 3 dB peak to average power ratio using linearized GMSK pulses • Initial deployment with less than 2x 1 MHz using 1/3 reuse with EDGE Compact as a complementary data service .

25 • provides services to different mobile classes ranging from 1-slot to 8slot capable • radio resources shared dynamically between speech and data services .GPRS Networks • consists of packet wireless access network and IP-based backbone • shares mobility databases with circuit voice services and adds new packet switching nodes (SGSN & GGSN) • will support GPRS. EDGE & WCDMA airlinks • provides an access to packet data networks – Internet – X.

Compact vs Classic • Classic – 4/12 reuse – continuous downlinks on first 12 carriers – 2.4 MHz x2 minimum spectrum • Compact – 1/3 reuse in space – frame synchronized base stations – reuse of 4 in time for control channels – partial loading for traffic channels – discontinuous downlinks – 600 KHz x2 minimum spectrum .

75 bits Burst Format 348 bits Burst N+3 20 msec frame with 4 time-slots for each of 8 bearers 8 Time Slots 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 Time Slot = 576. 3 bits/symbol Symbol rate: 270.EDGE Channel Coding and Frame Structure Burst N 464 bits 1 data block Convolutional Coding Rate = 1/3 Length = 7 Puncture 1392 bits 1392 bits Interleave Burst N+1 Burst N+2 348 bits/ burst 156.25 Modulation: 8PSK.833 ksps Payload/burst: 348 bits Gross bit rate/time slot: 69.6 kbps .92 µs Tail symbols 3 Data symbols 58 Training symbols 26 Data symbols 58 Tail symbols 3 Guard symbols 8.overhead = 59.25 symbols/slot 8PSK Modulate 468.2 kbps user data .

92 0.2 8.4 17.8 1.0 0.76 0.53 A A B A B C A B C Code Rate Family .2 54.49 0. Channel Coding & Bit Rates Scheme Modulation Maximum rate [kb/s] MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 GMSK 8PSK 59.37 1.EDGE Modulation.8 11.6 22.6 14.66 0.8 29.0 0.4 44.80 0.

EDGE Link Throughput 9 .

5 kbps average load per user .EDGE Compact System Performance Probability throughput < = X per timeslot 100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 X (kb/s) 100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Probability packet delay < = X X (msec) 26 users/sector at 3.

# of users per sector .EDGE Classic Multi-slot Gain Average User Throughput (kb/s) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 9 18 27 36 45 single-slot Multi-slot Ave.

EDGE Evolution • • • • • Best effort IP packet data on EDGE Voice over IP on EDGE circuit bearers Network based intelligent resource assignment Smart antennas & adaptive antennas Downlink speeds at several Mbps based on wideband OFDM and/or multiple virtual channels .

4 kbps voice coding 55 50 45 7.2 MHz Spectrum 50 Normalized voice capacity 40 35 30 29 (Erlang/Site/MHz) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Baseline GSM IS-136 EGPRS/GMSK/F 20 11 7 10 Enhanced EGPRS/8PSK/H * 1/3 reuse * no shadow fading change due to mobility *Signal-based power control is assumed for baseline EGRPS *SINR-based power control & LI-DCA assumed for enhanced *This assumes 30 mph vehicle speed for micro fading * SINR-based power control with adaptive target .VoIP over EDGE Bearer Performance • Focused on GMSK full-rate & 8PSK half-rate EDGE channels with dedicated MAC & random frequency hopping for 7.

Smart Antennas for EDGE • Key enhancement technique to improve system capacity and user experience • Leverage Smart Antennas currently in development/deployment for IS-136 & GSM SIGNAL Uplink Adaptive Antenna INTERFERENCE SIGNAL OUTPUT BEAMFORMER WEIGHTS Downlink Switched Beam Antenna SIGNAL BEAMFORMER BEAM SELECT SIGNAL OUTPUT Aggressive frequency re-use ⇒ High spectrum efficiency ⇒ Increased co-channel interference INTERFERENCE Smart antennas provide substantial interference suppression for enhanced performance .

EDGE Smart Antenna Processing Dual Diversity Receiver Using DDFSE for Joint ISI and CCI Suppression Output Data Viterbi Decoder Deinterleaver Receiver Rx Rx Filter Symbol Timing and Recovery Feed-forward Filter Feed-forward Filter Soft Output DDFSE Equalizer Rx Rx Filter Equalizer Training Jack Winters Hanks Zeng Ashutosh Dixit • • Simulation results show a 15 to 30 dBimprovement in S/I with 2 receive antennas Real-time EDGE Test Bed supports laboratory and field tests to demonstrate improved performance .

EDGE 2-Branch Smart Antenna Performance Laboratory Tests EDGE MCS-5 with Interference Suppression in a Typical Urban Environment 20 dB SNR Block Error Rate Signal-to-Interference Ratio (dB) Laboratory results show a 15 to 30 dB improvement in S/I with 2 receive antennas .

5 kbps average load per user X (kb/s) Typical user throughput increased from 30 to 45 kbps per time-slot .Improvement with Terminal Diversity and Interference Suppression: User Experience Prob.18 users per sector .3. (throughput <=X) (%) Prototype Dual Antenna Handset External Whip Internal Patch 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 No Diversity Simple Diversity Interference Suppression 50 60 70 Multi-cell EDGE Compact Simulation .1/3 reuse .

control and signalling .4G Wireless: One View • 4G WOFDM high speed downlink wireless cable modem” • Complement to EDGE/UMTS • High peak data rates (up to 10 Mb/s) in a 5 MHz channel “a • spectrum .500 MHz to 3 GHz • 3G EDGE/WCDMA network for uplink. downlink.

Path Loss and Fading Challenge Reflected signals arrive spread out over 5 to 20 microsecond Delay Spread Path Loss path loss up to ~ 150 dB (that is a 1 followed by 15 zeroes) Rayleigh Fading rapid fading of 20 to 30 dB (power varies by 100 to 1000 times in level at rates of about 100 times per second) .

Cellular Interference Challenge 1 Cumulative Probability Each base station is equipped with three 120 degree directional antennas to reduce interference & improve capacity 0.001 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Signal to Interference ratio in dB .01 1|3 reuse 2|6 reuse 3|9 reuse 4|12 reuse 7/21 reuse 0.1 0.

AT&T Labs-Research Work on 4G • • • • • Smart antennas Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems Space-Time Coding Dynamic Packet Assignment Wideband OFDM .

MIMO Radio Channel Measurements • Multiple antennas at both the base station and terminal can significantly increase data rates with sufficient multipath • Ability to separate signals from closely spaced antennas has been demonstrated indoors and in AT&T-Lucent IS-136 field trial • Lucent has demonstrated 26 bps/Hz in 30 kHz channel with 8 Tx and 12 Rx antennas indoors • AT&T has performed measurements on 4 Tx by 4 Rx antenna configurations in full mobile & outdoor to indoor environments .

30° beams • 4 coherent 1900 MHz receivers with real-time baseband processing using 4 TI TMS320C40 DSPs .MIMO Channel Measurement System Transmitter • 4 antennas mounted on a laptop • 4 coherent 1 Watt 1900 MHz transmitters with synchronous waveform generator Receive System • Dual-polarized slant 45° PCS antennas separated by 10 feet and fixed multibeam antenna with 4 .

MIMO Measured Channel Capacity Potential Capacity Relative to a Single Antenna System • • Capacity increase close to 4 times that of a single antenna is possible with 4 transmit and 4 receive antennas Capacity for pedestrians is similar to mobile users .

Performance Measure • Complex channel measurement: H = [ H ij] for the ith transmit and jth receive antenna • Capacity (instantaneous and averaged over 1 second) for 4 TX by 4 RX: C = log2(det[I + (ρ /4)H†H]) = ∑ log2(1 + (ρ /4)λ i) where ρ is the total signal-to-noise ratio per antenna and λ i is the ith eigenvalue of H†H • To eliminate the effect of shadow fading. the capacity is normalized to the average capacity with a single antenna: Cn = ∑ log2(1 + (ρ /4)λ i) / (1/16) ∑ log2(1 + ρ Hij) .

80’s & 90’s – angle-of-arrival based – multi-path based (supports co-location & multi-channels per user) MIMO . TX frequency offset diversity & simulcasting for paging .80’s – frequency offset (channel decoding combining) – delay (equalizer combining) Optimum combining for cellular (multipath channels) .successive interference cancellation combined with coding – Space-Time coding • • • .HF.Multiple Input Multiple Output Wireless • • • • RX diversity .80’s Space-division multiple access .80’s & 90’s – Multiple spatial channels using adaptive antenna arrays – BLAST . terrestrial microwave. cellular….70’s Adaptive array processing in military systems TX diversity .

Space-Time Coding How do you enhance TX delay diversity ( a repetition code)? .

increasing system capacity .Multiple Antennas increase System Capacity • MIMO (BLAST & space-time coding) techniques increase bit rate and/or quality on a link by creating multiple channels and/or enhancing diversity • Switched/steered beam antennas for base stations and interference suppression/adaptive antennas for terminals reduce interference.

European HDTV . 5 MHz channels ~ 6 KHz tones ~ 13/26 MHz sample rate 2048 FFT size (160 usec OFDM blocks) 256/512 sample OFDM block guard time QPSK & 16-QAM modulation adaptive modulation/coding 1 to 2 msec time-slots in 20 to 40 msec frames .11 Wireless LAN Mobile OFDM parameters: ex.OFDM for 4G Wireless ~ 6 kHz ~ 800 tones ~ 5 MHz • OFDM is being increasingly used in high -speed information transmission systems: .Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) .Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) .IEEE 802.

OFDM Characteristics • • • • • • • • • • • • High peak-to-average power levels Preservation of orthogonality in severe multi-path Efficient FFT based receiver structures Enables efficient TX and RX diversity Adaptive antenna arrays without joint equalization Support for adaptive modulation by subcarrier Frequency diversity Robust against narrow-band interference Efficient for simulcasting Variable/dynamic bandwidth Used for highest speed applications Supports dynamic packet access .

. . . . . . . data synch word Estimator 1 . . . .OFDM Robust Channel Estimation FFT received signals FFT remove data IFFT . 2-branch maximal-ratio combining FFT . . . . Estimator 2 . . .

01 CC.WOFDM 2-Branch Diversity Performance 1 Word Error Rate 0.1 0.001 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SNR (dB) . k=3 RS 0. k=9 CC.

5 15 Dynamic Channel Allocation with Power Control Dynamic Channel Allocation Synch CDMA Efficiency SNR (dB) Source: G. IS-95 0. October 1995 Efficiency: IS-136 0.1 0 5 7. IEEE Personal Communications.9 0.3 0.04 .Spectrum Efficiency 1 0. pp.2 0. Pottie.5 10 12. GSM 0.4 0.07.5 0.8 0.04. J.6 0.7 0. 50-67.

Mobile sends measurements of path losses for nearby bases to serving base 4. Bases assign channels to all packets/mobiles 5. Serving base forwards measurements to nearby bases ~ 50 % improvement in performance .Dynamic Packet Assignment 2. Mobile locks to the STRONGEST base 3. Bases forward channel assignment info to nearby bases 1.

. 4 ms 20 OFDM Blocks 5 Blocks group A 2B data 5 Blocks group B 1B Sync & data 5 Blocks group C 2B data 5 Blocks group D .......Wideband OFDM Staggered Frame 1 Frame 20 ms Control Slots 16 resources in 1 msec time-slots Control Slots .. Superframe 80 ms 2 3 4 1 Superframe 80 ms 2 3 4 .

Four beams per sector IS. No beam-forming MR. Four beams per sector 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Throughput per site (kb/s) . No beam-forming IS.WOFDM Performance with Dynamic Packet Assignment & 5 MHz of Spectrum 120 Ave. User Packet Delay (msec) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 MR.

166 MHz sample rate with 512 FFT) .differential detection .GSM-derived clocks (2.3.>384 kb/s end user data rate .Reed-Solomon channel coding .232 kHz tone spacing .OFDM Experimental Program • Baseband signal processing based on commercial off-the-shelf DSP hardware with some custom designed components • Sony-provided 1900 MHz transceivers • Real-time performance measured through RF channel fading simulator • Phase 1 parameters: .189 OFDM tones with 4.800 kHz downlink bandwidth .467 kbaud .

“Typical Urban” channel 800 kHz RF A/D FFT Demodulator Erasure detection Decoder Data Intf RF A/D FFT OFDM receiver .

1 to 5 MHz Adaptive modulation/coding Smart/adaptive antennas supported MIMO/BLAST/space-time coding modes Frame synchronized base stations using GPS Network assisted dynamic packet assignment .Summary: Key Features of 4G W-OFDM • • • • • • • • • • • IP packet data centric Support for streaming. simulcasting & generic data Peak downlink rates of 5 to 10 Mbps Full macro-cellular/metropolitan coverage Asymmetric with 3G uplinks (EDGE) Variable bandwidth .

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