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..Prepared by:-
Guidance By:- FAIYAZ AHMAD(EEN144033)
MR. SUDIPTA SARKAR (Assistance Engineer )
 Acknowledgement....
Introduction of WBSETCL.
Overview of Substation.
Overview of Transmission Network.
Switching Operations.
Equipments & Transformer.
Operating Instructions and Maintenance.
Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Testing.
 System study technique.
Electrical Safety Procedure ,Accident Prevention.
Transmission Substation & Line Maintenance.
We have completed Our Vocational Training from
WBSETCL Newtown AA-1 132/33 kV substation from 28th
December 2017 to 17th January 2018. We are very
Thankful to all the officers who gave us warm reception
and their precious time for us. In Aliah University,
although we had the opportunity of gaining knowledge
through theoretical lessons and labs, yet this training gave
us an insight into the industrial application of whatever we
have learnt so far.
This training has helped us to understand electrical
machines, power systems, switchgears and their practical
applications and layouts. Therefore, I am very thankful to
WBSETCL for allowing me to undergo this sort of
Vocational Training in their substation. We are highly
ENGINEER) ,For their guidance and constant supervision as
well as for providing necessary information regarding the
training and for giving us such attention, time and their
constant guidance and willingness to share their vast
Knowledge with us. And a sincere Thanks to our University’s
HOSSAIN for supporting us.

I will be glad if my training report gets approved.

Introduction of W.B.S.E.T.C.L
WBSETCL wholly owned by Govt. of West Bengal, is a
professionally managed, a multi-sited Power Transmission
Company in Eastern India. The Company has developed strong in-
house expertise in various facets of power transmission business. As
on the end of financial year 2015-16, the Company operates and
maintains a transmission network of 12584 CKM of Extra High
Voltage Transmission lines along with 116 sub-stations
(400 KV- 66 KV) having total transformation capacity of 25661
MVA, spread over the entire stretch of the State of West Bengal.
With focus of improving performance, the transmission system was
consistently maintained at an availability of 99.91% for the year
2015-2016, at par with international standards.
Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, adjudged the Company for Best
Transmission System Availability Award with Gold Shield for the
year 2007-08 in appreciation of the fact that availability of
transmission system remained more than 99.87%.
In the first year of operation (2007-08), the Company posted
impressive results-earned a net profit of Rs. 81.32 crore on a
turnover of around Rs. 428 crore. in the second fiscal (2008-09),
with about 3000 employees, WBSETCL made significant
achievements in all facets.
The Company, after extensive audit on its Quality Management System, was
accredited by KVQA, Norway, ISO:9001:2000 Certifications for the following
Extra High Voltage Sub-stations.
Jerrat 400 KV Sub-Station
Arambag 400 KV Sub-Station
Howrah 220 KV Sub-Station
Rishra 220 KV Sub-Station
Domjur 220 KV sub-Station
New-Haldia 220 KV Sub-Station
Durgapur 220 KV Sub-Station
Satgachia 220 KV Sub-Station
Assansol 220 KV Sub-Station
Midnapur 220 KV Sub-Station
New Jalpaiguri 220 KV Sub-Station
Kasba 220 KV Sub-Station
Laxmikantapur 220 KV Sub-Station
Tarakeswar 132 KV Sub-StationThe Company emphasize on evolving and
adopting new technologies continuously to effectively meet the challenges
of power transmission in the State of West Bengal. On operation and
maintenance front, continuous efforts envisage to provide stable and quality
power with minimum extent possible transmission loss. To cater the need of
improving transmission system and to meet the requirement of increasing
demand of both industrial and rural load in the State of West Bengal,
various transmission projects are under execution.
Human potential have been perceived as powerful resources right from
inception stage and the Company makes continuous and concreted efforts to
groom its HR to meet the present and future challenges in the field of
Technology and Management functions and also focuses on providing an
environment conductive for grooming employees to enable them contribute
on a continuous basis for the growth of the organisation as also to meet with
the rapidly changing industrial scenario.
The scope of work of WBSETC Ltd. is as follows:
Operation and Maintenance of all existing EHV Sub-Stations, equipments
and line.
Construction of Green Field EHV Sub-Stations and Transmission Lines as
per system’s requirement.
Expansion/Augmentation of Sub-Stations.
Replacement of age old worn out Conductors, equipments by new ones.
Adoption of new technology replacing old ones.
Enhancement of I.T. application.
• A substation is a part of an
electrical generation, transmission,
and distribution system. Substations
transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or
perform any of several other important functions.
Between the generating station and consumer, electric
power may flow through several substations at different
voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to
change voltage levels between high transmission
voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the
interconnection of two different transmission voltages.
• Substations may be owned and operated by an
electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial
or commercial customer. Generally substations are
unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision
and control.
• The word substation comes from the days before the
distribution system became a grid. As central generation
stations became larger, smaller generating plants were
converted to distribution stations, receiving their energy
supply from a larger plant instead of using their own
generators. The first substations were connected to only
one power station, where the generators were housed,
and were subsidiaries of that power station.
• Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications
within the power system, the method used to insulate most
connections, and by the style and materials of the structures used.
These categories are not disjointed; for example, to solve a particular
problem, a transmission substation may include significant
distribution functions.
About Newtown Substation:-
Incoming voltage from Newtown AA-III 220KV Substation.
Receiving Voltage 132KV at Newtown AA-I
Outgoing Voltages after stepdown operations are 132KV,33KV and
Newtown AA-I Sub-station was established in year 2006 and
commissioned on 2009.
Outgoing voltages are as follows:-




4. DLF-I 132KV


6. AA(1A+1B) S/S 132KV


overview of Transmission Network.
Overview of Transmission Network.

In power engineering, a one-line diagram or single-line diagram (SLD) is a

simplified notation for representing a three-phase power system. The one-line
diagram has its largest application in power flow studies. Electrical elements
such as circuit breakers, transformers, capacitors, bus bars, and conductors are
shown by standardized schematic symbols. Instead of representing each of
three phases with a separate line or terminal, only one conductor is
represented. It is a form of block diagram graphically depicting the paths for
power flow between entities of the system. Elements on the diagram do not
represent the physical size or location of the electrical equipment, but it is a
common convention to organize the diagram with the same left-to-right, top-
to-bottom sequence as the switchgear or other apparatus represented. A one-
line diagram can also be used to show a high level view of conduit runs for
a PLC control system.
Transmission Line Network:- The main system of the electricity network
is the transmission line system, which is characterized by 400-220 kV, in some
places 120 kV high voltage transmission lines and a 750 kV transmission line as
well as by transformer substations.
• Electricity is sold abroad via the transmission line system. The transmission line
system supplies and transfers the electrical energy generated in the power
plants of the electricity system to the distribution network, through which it is
forwarded to the consumers.
• The distribution network supplying electricity between the transmission line
system and the consumers is specifically comprised of 0.4 kV low voltage, 10
and 20 kV medium voltage and 120 kV high voltage transmission lines and
underground cables as well as of transformer substations.
• In transformer substations, electrical energy is transformed between different
voltage levels.
• With the exception of some big towns, the substations of the transmission line
system are located outside residential areas, extending on several hectares of
greenfield lands. The majority of the distribution network substations are
located close to the consumers, within or near the limits of towns and cities.
Switching Operations
Switching Operation of substation
determines the electrical and physical
arrangement of the switching
equipment. Different switching
schemes can be selected as emphasis is
shifted between the factors of security,
economy, extendibility, maintainability,
operational flexibility, protection
arrangement, short circuit limitations,
land area, safety and simplicity dictated
by function and importance of the
substation. Some of the switching
equipments Functions are described
Differential relay is the most
important and widely used for the
protection of Transformers, Bus Bars,
Feeders and heavy Motors etc. in
electrical power system the ANSI code
of Differential relay is 87.
As the name shows Differential mean it
works on the principle of comparison
between two quantities, which checks
every time the phase difference
between incoming quantity and
outgoing quantity if difference between
these two quantities exceeds the phase
difference of relay pick up level then
the Differential relay will operate to
protect the unit and Differential relay
isolate the unit from the faulty zone.
Switching Operations

Sulfur hexafluoride circuit

breakers:-It protect electrical power
stations and distribution systems by
interrupting electric currents, when
tripped by a protective relay. Instead
of oil, air, or a vacuum, a sulfur
hexafluoride circuit breaker
uses sulfur hexafluoride(SF6) gas to
cool and quench the arc on opening
a circuit. Advantages over other
media include lower operating noise
and no emission of hot gases, and
relatively low maintenance.
Developed in the 1950's and
onward, SF6 circuit breakers are
widely used in electrical grids at
transmission voltages up to 800 kV,
as generator circuit breakers, and in
distribution systems at voltages up
to 35 kV.
Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers
may be used as self-contained
apparatus in outdoor air-insulated
substations or may be incorporated
into gas-insulated switchgear which
allows compact installations at high
Switching Operations


Buchholz relay
In the field of electric power
distribution and transmission, a Buchholz
relay is a safety device mounted on some
oil-filled power transformers and reactors,
equipped with an external overhead oil
reservoir called a "conservator". The
Buchholz relay is used as a protective
device sensitive to the effects
of dielectric failure inside the equipment. A
generic designation for this type of device
is "gas detector relay".
Depending on the model, the relay has
multiple methods to detect a failing
transformer. On a slow accumulation of
gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas
produced by decomposition of insulating
oil accumulates in the top of the relay and
forces the oil level down. A float switch in
the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal.
Depending on design, a second float may
also serve to detect slow oil leaks.
If an electrical arc forms, gas accumulation
is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the
conservator. This flow of oil operates a
switch attached to a vane located in the
path of the moving oil. This switch
normally will operate a circuit breaker to
isolate the apparatus before the fault
causes additional damage. Buchholz relays
have a test port to allow the accumulated
gas to be withdrawn for testing. Flammable
gas found in the relay indicates some
internal fault such as overheating or arcing,
whereas air found in the relay may only
indicate low oil level or a leak.

A control & relay panel is

designed to provide to control
the associated line or
transformer through outdoor
switchgear at various 11KV
and 33KV zonal substations.
The control & Relay panels are
complete in themselves with
all main and auxiliary relays,
annunciation relay, fuses,
links, switches, wiring, labels,
terminal blocks, earthing
terminals, base frame,
foundation bolts, illumination,
cable glands etc. These panels
are used for the control &
monitoring of electrical
equipments such as
transformers, generators and
circuit breakers. Indoor
Control panel for Outdoor VCB
includes IDMT Numerical
relay, Master Trip Relay, Trip
circuit Supervision Relay,
Indications & meters etc.
These control & Relays panels
are available in various
combinations as single circuit
or multi-circuit depending
upon the customer
Equipments & Transformer.

A transformer is an electrical device that

transfers electrical energy between two or
more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
A varying current in one coil of the transformer
produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn
induces a varying electromotive force (emf ) or
"voltage" in a second coil. Power can be transferred
between the two coils through the magnetic field,
without a metallic connection between the two
circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in
1831 described this effect. Transformers are used to
increase or decrease the alternating voltages in
electric power applications.
Since the invention of the first constant-potential
transformer in 1885, transformers have become
essential for the transmission, distribution, and
utilization of alternating current electrical
energy. A wide range of transformer designs is
encountered in electronic and electric power
applications. Transformers range in size
from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter
in volume to units interconnecting the power
grid weighing hundreds of tons.
In Newtown Substation there are
mainly 50MVA and 10MVA
Transformer were used-----
50 MVA rating Transformer 10 MVA rating Transformer

• Transformer Cooling
• The oil flows in the transformer tank by the principle of natural
convection hence this type of cooling is called Oil Natural Cooling.
Heat is transferred from core and transformer windings to the oil
and the heated oil is cooled by the natural air.

• Air Natural Transformer Cooling:
• This type of Transformer Cooling method applies to dry type
transformer of small rating. The surrounding air in the vicinity of
the transformer is used for cooling. Small transformers below
25kVA can be readily cooled by air natural cooling. However air
natural cooling is also used for large dry type transformers.
Cooling takes place by convection air currents.

• Air Forced Transformer Cooling:
• This type of cooling is provided for dry type transformers. The air
is forced on to the tank surface to increase the rate of heat
dissipation. The fans are switched on when the temperature of
the winding increases above permissible level.
• Oil Natural Air Natural Transformer Cooling:
• This type of Transformer cooling is widely used for oil filled
transformers up to about 30MVA. In Natural cooling, the oil in the
tans gets heated due to the heat generated in the core and
windings. The hot Oil flows upward and the cold Oil comes down
according to the principle of convection. The oil flows in the
transformer tank by the principle of natural convection hence this
type of cooling is called Oil Natural Cooling. Heat is transferred
from core and transformer windings to the oil and the heated oil
is cooled by the natural air. Cooling area is increased by providing
the cooling tubes.
Oil natural Air Forced Transformer Cooling:
• In this method, air fans are mounted near the Transformer
and the forced air is directed on to the cooling tubes to
increase the rate of cooling. The fans are provided with
automatic starting. When the temperature of the oil and
windings increases above a permissible value the thermostats
switch on cooling fans. This happens during heavy load
condition and during higher ambient temperatures.

Oil Forced Air Forced Transformer Cooling:

• Transformers above 60 MVA employ a combination of Forced
Oil and Forced Air Cooling. Oil Natural Air Forced type of
cooling is not adequate to remove the heat caused by the
losses which is approximately equal to 1% of the transformer
rating (0.6MW). In case of Forced Oil and Forced air cooling
system a separate cooler is mounted away from the
transformer tank. This cooler is connected to the transformer
with pipes at the bottom and the top. The oil is circulated
from the transformer to the cooler through the pump. The
cooler is provided with the fans which blast air on the cooling
tubes. This type of cooling is provided for the higher rating
transformers available at the Substations and Power Stations.
Oil Forced Water Forced Transformer Cooling:
• This type of cooling system needs a heat exchanger in which
the heat of the transformer oil is given to the cooling water.
The cooling water is taken away and cooled in separate
 Conservator
The oil should not be allowed to come in contact with
atmospheric air as it may take up moisture which may spoil its
insulating properties. Also air may cause acidity and sludging of
oil. To prevent this, many transformers are provided with
conservators. The function of a conservator is to take up
contraction and expansion of oil without allowing it to come in
contact with outside air.
The conservator consists of an air tight
metal-drum fixed above the level of the top of the tank and
connected with it by a pipe. The main tank is completely filled
with oil when cold. The conservator is partially filled with oil. So
the oil surface in con tact with air is greatly reduced. The sludge
thus formed remains in the conservator itself and does not go to
the main tank.
•Breather - When the temperature change, the oil expands or
contracts and there is displacement of air. When the transformer
cools, the oil level goes down, and air is drawn in. This is known
as breathing. The air, coming in, is passed through an apparatus
called breather for the purpose of extracting moisture. The
breather consists of a small vessel which contains a drying
agent like silica get crystal impregnated with cobalt crystal.
2. Marshalling box
Marshalling box is a kind of panel which is
situated next to transformer; it contains OTI or oil temperature
indicator, WTI or winding temperature indicator, heater switch,
pump control switch, fan control switch, M.C.B and contractors.
3. Insulating Material
Insulation is one of the most important
constituent of a transformer, the durability and stability of the
transformer depends upon the proper utilization of insulating
materials in it. In Transformer mainly three basically insulating
materials are used.
• Transformer oil
• Insulating paper
• Press board
Of the three, the major insulating material used in transformer

I. Lightening Arrester:- Lightening arrestors

are the instrument that are used in the
incoming feeders so that to prevent the high
voltage entering the main station. This high
voltage is very dangerous to the instruments
used in the substation. Even the instruments
are very costly, so to prevent any damage
lightening arrestors are used. The lightening
arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on
the station. If some lightening occurs the
arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to
the earth. In any substation the main
important is of protection which is firstly
done by these lightening arrestors. The
lightening arrestors are grounded to the
earth so that it can pull the lightening to the
ground. The lightening arrestor works with
an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone.
• A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT)
is a transformer used in power systems
to step-down extra high voltage signals
and provide low voltage signals either
for measurement or to operate a
protective relay. In its most basic form
the device consists of three parts: two
capacitors across which the voltage
signal is split, an inductive element
used to tune the device to the supply
frequency and a transformer used to
isolate and further step-down the
voltage for the instrumentation or
protective relay. The device has at least
four terminals, a high-voltage terminal
for connection to the high voltage
signal, a ground terminal and at least
one set of secondary terminals for
connection to the instrumentation or
protective relay. CVTs are typically
single-phase devices used for
measuring voltages in excess of one
hundred kilovolts where the use of
voltage transformers would be
uneconomical. In practice the first
capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a
stack of capacitors connected in series.
This results in a large voltage drop
across the stack of capacitors that
replaced the first capacitor and a
comparatively small voltage drop
across the second capacitor, C2, and
hence the secondary terminals.

• Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The

function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. Its
function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum. It is
connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the
waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the

• A current transformer (CT) is a type of transformer that is used to

measure alternating current (AC). It produces a current in its secondary which is
proportional to the current in its primary.
• Current transformers, along with voltage or potential transformers, are instrument
transformers. Instrument transformers scale the large values of voltage or current to
small, standardized values that are easy to handle for instruments and protective
relays. The instrument transformers isolate measurement or protection circuits from
the high voltage of the primary system. A current transformer provides a secondary
current that is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary. The
current transformer presents a negligible load to the primary circuit.
• Current transformers are the current-sensing units of the power system. Current
transformers are used at generating stations, electrical substations, and in industrial
and commercial electric power distribution.

There are two potential transformers used in the bus connected both
side of the bus.
The potential transformer uses a bus isolator to protect itself.
The main use of this transformer is to measure the voltage through
the bus.
This is done so as to get the detail information of the voltage passing
through the bus to the instrument.
There are two main parts in it
a. Measurement
b. Protection
The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which the
secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage
and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately equal to
zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.
The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get
into the instruments for further step up or step down. The first bus is
used for putting the incoming feeders in la single line. There may be
double line in the bus so that if any fault occurs in the one the other can
still have the current and the supply will not stop. The two lines in the
bus are separated by a little distance by a conductor having a connector
between them. This is so that one can work at a time and the other
works only if the first is having any fault.
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of
copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a switchboard,
distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus. The size of
the bus bar is important in determining the maximum amount of current
that can be safely carried. Bus bars are typically either flat strips or
hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due
to their high surface area to cross sectional area ratio. The skin effect
makes 50-60 Hz AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick
inefficient, so hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current
applications. A hollow section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of
equivalent current carrying capacity, which allows a greater span
between bus bar supports in outdoor switchyards. A bus bar may either
be supported on insulators or else insulation may completely surround it.
Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal
enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach.
Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are typically
bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus bars may
be enclosed in a metal housing, in the form of bus duct or bus way,
segregated-phase bus, or isolated-phase bus.

• The use of this isolator is to protect the transformer and the other instrument
in the line. The isolator isolates the extra voltage to the ground and thus any
extra voltage cannot enter the line. Thus an isolator is used after the bus also
for protection and Maintenance.
Operating Instructions and Maintenance.
• 1.0 General Requirements
• 1.1 Each facility owner shall have an established and documented program for the maintenance of
• all equipment critical to the reliable operation of the bulk power system.
• 1.2 Preventive maintenance shall be performed at a level that assures that the unscheduled outage
• performance of Customer owned equipment, if applicable, is at least as good as that of the
• TO’s system to which it is connected.
• 1.3 Maintenance programs can vary in range from strict adherence to manufacturers
• recommendations to RCM (reliability centered maintenance), as appropriate, but should
• reflect Good Utility Practice.
• 1.4 Maintenance of equipment shall be performed such that the facility owner is able to support
• any local interconnection agreements. Additionally, the maintenance of system spare
• equipment must not be overlooked.
• 1.5 Substation equipment shall be maintained by qualified personnel in accordance with
• applicable industry standards and Good Utility Practice to provide maximum operating
• performance and reliability.
• 1.6 Incorrect operation of equipment or equipment failure should be thoroughly investigated and
• documented to determine the root cause of the problem in collaboration with the affected
• Transmission Owners.
• 2.0 Equipment and Facilities
• 2.1 Equipment diagnostic tools and tests can be utilized in the evaluation of the need for required
• maintenance. Examples include dielectric testing and analysis, breaker timing, thermography
• scans, and acoustic monitoring. The facility owner’s plan should be clear as to the
• application, as appropriate, of these diagnostic tools. Pass/fail ranges and testing intervals
• should be well documented. Manufacturers should be contacted concerning specific maintenance
Operating Instructions and Maintenance
• 2.2 Thermography scanning should be incorporated in
inspections. Thermography in electrical
• inspection is a non-contacting operation, which is applied to in-
service equipment while
• energized and carrying load. Problems are detected either as a
function of excessive
• temperature rise (such as a poor connection) or a subnormal
temperature (such as a cool
• transformer radiator fin signifying a blocked passage). It is
considered by many to be an easy
• and very productive method of finding potential problems before
they become failures. Most
• utilities conduct such inspections at least annually.
Operating Instructions and
• 2.3 Frequency of operation should also be factored into the
determination of maintenance
• periodicity. Trending of equipment performance versus
maintenance should be used to reevaluate
• maintenance intervals.
• 2.4 For equipment under warranty all required
maintenance to maintain warranty should be
• performed. It is suggested that equipment performance be
reviewed prior to warranty
• expiration.
• 2.5Maintenance of equipment should include diagnostics
and overhauls as required to maintain
• system integrity. Attention should be given to both the
mechanical and the electrical aspects
• of the equipment being maintained. Use of incorrect
lubricants can adversely affect
• equipment performance.
• 2.6 Adequate spare parts should be kept on hand to support
maintenance and anticipated failures.
• 2.7 Manufacturer’s service bulletins must be acted upon in
a timely manner.
•2.A Overhead Transmission Lines
• 2.A.1 Preventive Maintenance
• 2.A.1.1 Intervals
• Maintenance intervals shall be determined and appropriate maintenance action
• shall be performed at specified intervals.
• 2.A.1.2 Required Inspections
• Inspection of transmission lines for defects can be accomplished via ground
• or aerial patrols. The purpose of these patrols is to identify transmission line
• defects which can include: loose / missing / worn hardware, broken/cracked
• insulators, broken conductor and static wire strands, guy wires, foundations,
• loose/missing structure bolts, and other defects.
• 2.A.2 Corrective Repair & Maintenance
• The defects identified during the transmission line inspection shall be repaired
• based upon the priority and significance of the defect. Routine maintenance
• activities such as structure painting, grounding system testing, right-of-way
• maintenance, etc. shall be performed on a routine basis.
• 2.B Underground Transmission Cables
• 2.B.1 Pipe type cable systems require regular maintenance, inspection, monitoring on
• pumping plants to confirm that the plants are operating reliably. Alarms are usually
• included in these plants to indicate that low pressure or frequent pump cycling has
• detected. Ability to monitor the plant remotely is highly suggested.
• 2.B.2 Cathodic protection systems need to be routinely inspected and maintained to
• long term pipe reliability.
2.B.3 Dissolved gas analysis of oil removed from the pipe system,
usually taken from splice
and termination locations should be performed routinely. Tracking
levels of dissolved
combustible gases in the dielectric fluid over time can be used as a
sensitive method of
identifying incipient failures in pipe type cable systems.

2.C Transformers
2.C.1 Long replacement lead times, high first cost and the need for high
reliability dictate that
power transformers be maintained in accordance with Good Utility
Practice. This
includes attention to industry standards and to manufacturer’s
Maintenance includes inspections, testing and corrective tasks. While
there are
manufacturer recommended and typical utility maintenance
frequencies for these tasks,
the frequency for activities, such as oil testing and visual inspections,
may need to be
revised in response to specific situations, such as an indication of a
condition that cannot be immediately addressed.
2.C.2 The following are typical maintenance activities. Note that some
activities, such as
temperature and oil level monitoring, require very frequent or even
attention. This is generally accomplished through SCADA system alarm
2.G Shunt Capacitors
2.G.1 Capacitor equipment.
When Bank unbalance is detected by the protection, capacitance should be
to locate the “offending” capacitor cans. Routine maintenance may include:
Capacitance balance, infrared scans to find hot spots, loose connections;
inspections, removal of birds nests, snakes etc.
2.G.2 Capacitor Switching Device.
Due to frequent switching, the capacitor switching device may require more
frequent maintenance than other devices such as line circuit breakers.
2.H Instrument Transformers
2.H.1 Instrument transformers should be maintained in accordance with
recommendations. This may include visual inspections (paint, porcelain, oil
insulation power factor, and ratio tests.
2.I AC Station Service
2.I.1 AC station service system components, including engine generators,
must be
periodically maintained by qualified personnel in accordance with
applicable industry
standards and practices to assure proper operating capability and reliable
2.I.2 To assure reliable operating performance diesel engine-generator
maintenance must
include routine exercise of the unit to its operating temperature, which
requires placing
adequate load on the unit.
2.J Battery and Charger Systems
2.J.1 Batteries shall be maintained at a periodicity and in such a way as to ensure a duty
of at least 8 hrs.
2.J.2 Battery monitoring systems are an alternative to conducting manual inspections.
These systems can provide automatic notification of required maintenance.
2.K DC Station Service
2.K.1 DC station service system components should be periodically maintained by
personnel in accordance with applicable industry standards and practices.
2.L Substation/Switchyard Maintenance
2.L.1 Maintenance of the substation site shall include upkeep of any barriers, walls,
buildings, fences, animal proofing and minimization of extraneous vegetation.
2.L.2 Special attention must be paid to maintenance of relay and control buildings.
Roof leaks, breaches in security etc., can have immediate effects on system reliability.
2.M Carrier Current Line Traps
2.M.1 Line traps should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. This may include infrared scans, inspection of the mechanical
integrity of the main coil, and checks of carrier blocking performance.
2.N Surge Arresters
2.N.1 Routine maintenance primarily consists of condition assessment checks.
sealing systems are a common weak point. Periodic Power factor testing is
recommended to detect this issue. On-line leakage current measurement may be able
to detect impending arrester block failure.
2.N.2 In polluted environments, cleaning of the insulating housing may be required to
maintain TOV performance.
Operating Instructions and Maintenance.


 A tap changer is a mechanism

in transformers which allows for variable
turn ratios to be selected in discrete steps.
Transformers with this mechanism obtain
this variable turn ratio by connecting to a
number of access points known as taps
along either the primary or secondary
winding. These systems usually possess 33
taps (one at center "Rated" tap and sixteen
to increase and decrease the turn ratio) and
allow for ±10% variation (each step
providing 0.625% variation) from the
nominal transformer rating which, in turn,
allows for stepped voltage regulation of the
• Tap changers exist in two primary types, no
load tap changers (NLTC) which must be de-
energized before the turn ratio is adjusted
and on load tap changers (OLTC) which may
adjust their turn ratio during operation. The
tap selection on any tap changer may be
made via an automatic system, as is often
the case for OLTC, or a manual tap changer,
which is more common for NLTC.
Additionally, tap changers are often placed
on the high voltage (low current)
transformer winding for easy access and to
minimize the current load during operation.
On Load Tap Changers:-

Also called On Circuit Tap Changer

For many power transformer applications, a supply interruption during a
tap change is unacceptable, and the transformer is often fitted with a more
expensive and complex on load tap changing (OLTC, sometimes Load Tap
Changer, LTC) mechanism. On load tap changers may be generally
classified as either mechanical, electronically assisted, or fully electronic.
A On load tap changer(OLTC), also known as under- load tap changer
(ULTC)'. Tap changers typically use numerous tap selector switches which
may not be switched under load, broken into even and odd banks, and
switch between the banks with a heavy-duty diverter switch which can
switch between them under load. The result operates like a dual-clutch
transmission, with the tap selector switches taking the place of the
gearbox and the diverter switch taking the place of the clutch.

 Mechanical tap changer:-

A mechanical tap changer physically makes the new connection before

releasing the old using multiple tap selector switches but avoids creating
high circulating currents by using a diverter switch to temporarily place a
large diverter impedance in series with the short-circuited turns. This
technique overcomes the problems with open or short circuit taps. In a
resistance type tap changer, the changeover must be made rapidly to
avoid overheating of the diverter. A reactance type tap changer uses a
dedicated preventive autotransformer winding to function as the diverter
impedance, and a reactance type tap changer is usually designed to
sustain off-tap loading indefinitely.
In a typical diverter switch, powerful springs are tensioned by a low power
motor (motor drive unit, MDU), and then rapidly released to effect the tap
changing operation. To reduce arcing at the contacts, the tap changer
operates in a chamber filled with insulating transformer oil, or inside a
vessel filled with pressurized SF6 gas. Reactance-type tap changers, when
operating in oil, must allow for the additional inductive transients generated
by the autotransformer and commonly include a vacuum bottle contact in
parallel with the diverter switch. During a tap change operation, the
potential rapidly increases between the two electrodes in the bottle, and
some of the energy is dissipated in an arc discharge through the bottle
instead of flashing across the diverter switch contacts.
Some arcing is unavoidable, and both the tap changer oil and the switch
contacts will slowly deteriorate with use. To prevent contamination of the
tank oil and facilitate maintenance operations, the diverter switch usually
operates in a separate compartment from the main transformer tank, and
often the tap selector switches will be located in the compartment as well.
All of the winding taps will then be routed into the tap changer
compartment through a terminal array.

• In Sub Stations there are many equipments

• And all this equipments we agree controling according to
our need
• So For this We use control circuits for every equipments
which are in Sub station
• And this control circuit is runs On DC
• That have own advantage suppose a blockout occur and
Sub station cant give power From Power plant then DC
source take wide and very important role
• So we design a Control Circuits Basis On DC power supply
Because if blackout occur we start the sub stations
for restoring
• So In Sub stations a special Batttery Room Is provided and
Specially maintenance also done
Introducing the SVERKER900 Relay
and Substation Test System from
Megger - an engineer’s ultimate toolbox
that addresses the increasing need for
3-Phase testing capability in electrical
distribution substations, renewable
power generation stations and industrial

•Conducts all kinds of protection relay

tests including manual tests. No need
for computers and complicated
softwares. It is easily operated via the
built-in, intuitive 5.7” LCD touch screen
on the panel.
•Conducts tests on all kinds of relays -
electromechanical relays (reed relays),
static relays (relays using Analogue
techniques) and microprocessor relays
(relays using digital techniques).
•Performs all CT testing's including CT
Knee-Point Voltage Test, Ratio, Polarity,
Burden, Winding resistance etc.
•Flexibility of the toolbox concept,
extremely portable and light-weight -
only 15 kgs.
Electrical Safety Procedure ,Accident
• If there is a sparking occurred in any line or in any isolators
while operating and maintenance and fire takes place then
we have some arrangement in the substation yard to deal
with that some of them we can see from the figure
below…. extinguisher
• A fire extinguisher is an active fire
protection device used to extinguish or control
small fires, often in emergency situations. It is
not intended for use on an out-of-control fire,
such as one which has reached the ceiling,
endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke,
explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the
expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire
extinguisher consists of a hand-held
cylindrical pressure vessel containing
an agent which can be discharged to extinguish
a fire. Fire extinguishers manufactured with non-
cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less
• Unlike stored pressure types, these extinguishers
use compressed carbon dioxide instead of
nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used
on low temperature (-60 rated) models. Cartridge
operated extinguishers are available in dry
chemical and dry powder types in the U.S. and in
water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes
ABC and B.C.), and dry powder (class D) types in
the rest of the world.

WATER PIPE line is used when there is a huge fire and

which cannot be control by the fire extinguisher but
there is a problem using water in operating condition
of substation so, it is suggested that do not use water
pipe line while electricity is there in the line because
water is a good conductor of electricity.