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- Resistant Measures for

load bearing construction

Ar. Sayli Pawar

Ar. Smita Gayawal
1. Introduction
2. Earthquake
3. Technical Terms
4. Types of Earthquake
5. Impact of Earthquake on Structures
6. Behavior of Brick Masonry Structure
7. Earthquake Resistant Techniques
8. Behavior of Stone Masonry Structure
9. Earthquake Resistant Techniques
1. Geography of Earth
Earth & its Interiors Circulation of Earth’s Mass

– Liquid

– Solid

Plate Tectonics Types of Inter-plate Interactions

2. Earthquake
The sudden slip at the fault causes the Earthquake…
“a violent shaking of the Earth during which large elastic strain
energy released spreads out in the form of seismic waves that
travel through the body and along the surface of the Earth.”


 Causes
• Tectonic Causes – structural disturbances resulting in part of
• Volcanic Causes – caused by the sudden displacement of lava inside.
• Surface Causes – landslides, avalanche, great explosion, etc.
Earthquakes are also called

It is important to
the earth’s makeup to help
understand earthquakes

In this diagram, you will

notice that the inner and outer
core of the earth (middle part)
are liquid in nature, containing
iron and nickel of extreme
temperatures (5,500°C).

The Mantle is semi-molten

rock, also called magma. The
outer is the crust, which is the
hard part of the earth that
forms the surface. This outer
crust includes the land on
which we live, the oceans and
ocean deeps and anything
within 40km (approx) down
the earth's surface.
Earthquakes are developed in
Focus- The focus or hypocentre of an earthquake is where the earthquake
originated from, usually underground on the fault zone
Epicentre- The epicentre of an earthquake is the point on the surface of Earth
directly above the epicentre.
Fault A weak plane in the Earth's crust and upper mantle along which two blocks
of rock mass rupture or slip past each other. Faults are caused by earthquakes
and earthquakes are likely to reoccur on pre-existing faults, where stresses are
Magnitude- Magnitude is used to describe the size of the Earthquake. There are a
number of different ways to calculate the magnitude of an earthquake, including
the Richter Scale. Scientists also use the moment magnitude scale, which
calculates the magnitude of an earthquake based on physical properties such as
the area of movement (slip) along the fault plane.
Seismology -is the study of earthquakes. People who study earthquakes are
called Seismologists
Hypocentre or Focus:
It is the point within the earth,
from where seismic waves
originate. Focal depth is the
vertical distance between the
Hypocentre (Focus) and
An earthquake that follows a large magnitude earthquake called, ‘main shock’ and
originates in or around the rupture zone of the main shock. Generally, major
earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks, which show a decreasing
trend in magnitude and frequency with time.
Foreshock- Foreshocks are smaller earthquakes occur in the same area as a larger
earthquake that follows.
Seismograph and The Richter Scale (RS):
The seismograph is a device that scientists use to measure the magnitude of an
earthquake. The Richter scale on the other hand is a scale or measure that is used
to compare earthquakes. It is calculated in levels of ten. Example, an earthquake
measuring 4 on the RS is ten times more than a measurement of 3, and an
earthquake measuring 8 on the RS is 10 times more than one that measured 7 on
the RS. As a guide, an earthquake measuring 3-5 is considered minor, 5-7 is
moderate, 7-8 is major, and 8 or more is considered great and usually very
Waves- Earthquake waves travel through and on top of the surface of Earth causing
the shaking and vibrations on ground . Earthquake waves can travel hundreds of
km causing earthquakes to be felt way long away from the origin

Tectonic Plates- The outer layer (crust) of Earth is divided into sections called
tectonic plates.
3. Types of Earthquake Lateral directions

• Inter-plate – occur along the boundaries

of the tectonic plates.
• Intra-plate – occur within the plate itself
but away from the plate boundaries
Vertical &
Horizontal directions

 Seismic Waves
• Body Waves –
o Primary (P) Waves
o Secondary (S) Waves
• Surface Waves –
o Love Waves
o Rayleigh Waves


Types of earthquakes
Earthquakes can come in three main forms, depending on the plate movements
that occur beneath the earth's surface. They could occur on a Convergent
Boundary, Divergent Boundary or a Transform Fault.

one plate is forced plates are forced apart Unlike divergent

over another plate each other, usually and convergent,
during movement forming a Rift Zone. This the plates here slip
creating a thrust fault. kind is common in ocean by each other. This
floors where new floors is also
are created. An example called Strike-Slip.
is the Mid Atlantic Ridge
4. Impact of Earthquake on Structures
 Effect of Intensity on Structures  Seismic Effect on Structures
Inertia Force on Flow of Inertia force to Foundation
5. Behavior of Brick Masonry Structure
6. Earthquake Resistant Techniques BRICK MASONRY
 Employing Box Action a. Improving Masonry Walls

• Ensure proper Bond in Masonry courses.

• Ensure proper Wall construction.

• Control on Overall dimensions & heights.

• Choice and Quality of Building Materials.

b. Interlocking in Masonry Walls d. Staircase Detail

c. Small Opening Size

e. Horizontal Bands
 Design of Lintel Bands
 Response of Masonry Walls without vertical reinforcement
f. Vertical Reinforcement g. Protection of Openings in Walls
7. Behavior of Stone Masonry Structure

 Patterns of earthquake Damage  Deficiency of Structure

• Bulging/separation of walls in the horizontal • Excessive Wall Thickness
direction into two distinct wythes.
• Absence of Connection - between
• Separation of walls at corners and T- the two wythes of the wall.
• Use Of Round Stones - instead of
• Separation of poorly constructed roof shaped ones.
from walls, and eventual collapse of roof.
• Use of Mud Mortar
8. Earthquake Resistant Techniques STONE MASONRY

• Ensure proper Wall construction.

• Ensure proper Bond in Masonry courses.

• Control on Overall dimensions & heights.

• Provide Horizontal Reinforcing elements