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MBT 105:online social

media marketing

Course Lecturer :Frank Agyemang Duah

TTU School of Business ©OCTOBER,

E-business Infrastructure

E-business in a broad sense refers to,

‘’ the transformation of key business processes through the
use of internet technologies’’. (IBM)

Aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of an organization by

deploying innovative information and communications
technology throughout an organization and beyond, through
links to partners and customers.

Involves the use of technology to automate existing processes

and also to achieve process transformation/change.
• Technology Infrastructure determines how
easily corporations can respond to the
increasingly urgent demands of customers,
employee and partners as well as respond to
competitive threats.
• The technical infrastructural elements of e-
business consist of Internet and server
technologies, hardware and software, security
solutions and a myriad of applications.
• Effectively applying these
elements lead to the
transformation of business and
business processes
Why should non-technical managers
appreciate e-business infrastructure
• Gain a basic understanding of technology
supporting their business processes

• Keep a clear picture of overall infrastructure

capability and how each incremental investment
adds value Make regular, systematic modular and
targeted investments

• Have the ability to judge which elements to be

located within the organization and which to
manage externally(outsource)
• E-business infrastructure refers to the
combination of hardware such as servers and
client PCs in an organization, the network used
to link this hardware and the software
applications used to deliver services to
workers, customers and partners within the
Computer Networks

• A computer network is any

communications system connecting
two or more computers
• A network of computers that are
located close together – for example,
in the same building is called a local
area network (LAN).
Computer Networks

• Networks of computers that are

connected over greater distance
are called wide area networks
Typical Computer Network
Computer Network Devices

• Hubs are very simple devices that connect

network components.
• A switch also connects network devices but has
more intelligence than a hub and can filter and
forward data to a specified destination.
• To communicate with another network, the
network would use a device called a router.
• A router is a special communications device used
to route packets of data through different
networks, ensuring that the message sent gets to
the correct address.
Computer Network Devices
• A network Interface Card is a hardware component that
enables computers to connect to networks (wired or

• Circuit: The pathway through which the messages travel. It

can be a physical medium (like copper wires, coaxial cable,
fiber optic etc.) or wireless.

• Server (or Host computer): This is a central computer in

the network, storing data or software that can be accessed
by the clients pcs. It basically provides services to the client
PC‘s examples are File server, Print server, Database server,
Network controller, Web server etc.
Computer Network Devices
• Client: This is normally an ordinary computer
on a network that request for services from a
server. It provides user‘s with access to the
• The network operating system (NOS) is a
system software that routes and manages
communications on the network and
coordinates network resources

Intranet – a private network within a single company that

uses internet standards to enable employees to access
and share information.

Benefits of an intranet:
• Improved information sharing within an organization
• Enhanced communication
• Improves efficiency through reduced manual
• Cost savings through reduced cost of printing and
internal transaction

• Extranet - An extranet is an intranet that has

been extended to include specific entities outside
the boundaries of the organisation, such as
business partners, customers, or suppliers.

• Each participant in the extranet has access to the

databases, files, or other information stored on
computers connected to the extranet

• Extranets are private and are protected from

public visits by firewalls—security systems
with specialized software to prevent outsiders
from entering private networks.
Benefits of an extranet:
• Improved information sharing and enhanced
communication with selected partners
• Improves efficiency and cost savings through
reduced manual processing
The internet:

It refers to the physical network that

links computers across the globe. It is
the world‘s largest computer network.
In actual fact the internet is a
collection of interconnected networks
all freely exchanging information.
Growth of the Internet

• The internet started as a military project to

link defense departments(ARPANET – 1969) .
Other uses were discovered when it became
an academic project in the early 1970s.
The relationship between intranets,
extranets and the Internet
Public & Private Networks

• A public network is any computer network or

telecommunications network that is available to
the public.
• Although a company can operate its extranet
using a public network, very few do because of
the high level of security risks.
• A private network is a private, leased-line
connection between two companies that
physically connects their intranets to one another
• A leased line is a permanent telephone
connection between two points that is always
• The advantage of a leased line is security.
Virtual Private Networks

• A virtual private network (VPN) is an

extranet that uses public networks
and their protocols to send sensitive
data to partners, customers,
suppliers, and employees using a
higher security protocols known as IP
tunneling or encapsulation
• Extranets are sometimes confused with VPNs.
Although a VPN is an extranet, not every
extranet is a VPN

• A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology

that creates an encrypted connection over a
less secure network. ... A remote-
access VPN uses a public telecommunication
infrastructure like the internet to provide
remote users secure access to their
organization's network
Client/Server Systems vs Peer-to-Peer

• The client/server architecture consists of client

computers, such as PCs, sharing resources such as
a database stored on a more powerful server
• Peer-to-peer networks are networks that are
implemented in situations where few(less than
10) computers are involved and where strict
security is not necessary. All computers have the
same status, hence the term 'peer', and they
communicate with each other on an equal
Internet infrastructure components
Internet service provider (ISP):

• A company that provides home or business

users with a connection to access the Internet.
They can also host web-based applications.

• ISPs offer several ways to connect to the

Internet. The most common options are
telephone lines(using a modem), broadband
connections, leased lines, and wireless.
• This is the amount of data that can travel
through a communication line per unit of
• The higher the bandwidth, the faster
data files travel and the faster web pages
appear on your screen.
Hosting provider:
• A service provider that manages the server
used to host an organization web site and its
connection to the Internet backbones.
• Backbone Network:
• High-speed communications links used to
enable Internet communications across a
country and internationally

• A specialized software application mounted

on a server at the point where the company is
connected to the Internet. Its purpose is to
prevent unauthorized access into the
company from outsiders.

• The use of firewalls within the infrastructure

of a company is shown in the next slide.
• Multiple firewalls are sometimes used to
protect information on the company.

• The information made available to third

parties over the Internet and extranet is
partitioned by another firewall using what is
referred to as the ‗demilitarized zone‘ (DMZ).
The World Wide Web

• The World Wide Web is the most popular service

provided by the Internet, providing user‘s access
to over 500 billion Web pages containing text,
graphics, audio, video, and other objects (Brandt,

• It is a system with universally accepted standards

for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying
information using a client/server architecture.
The World Wide Web
• The Web was invented in the period from 1989 to 1991
by Dr. Tim Berners-Lee and his associates at the
European Particle Physics Laboratory, better known as

• In 1994, Andreessen and Jim Clark founded Netscape,

which created the first commercial browser, Netscape

• In August 1995, Microsoft Corporation released its own

browser, called Internet Explorer (IE), which became
the dominant Web browser.
Web Technology
World Wide Web (www):
• It is a technique for publishing information on
the internet. It is accessed through web
browsers which display web pages of
embedded graphics and HTML/ XML encoded
Web Browser:

• Application programs that enable users to view

and move between HTML documents on the
internet. Examples are mozilla, google chrome,
internet explorer, opera

Web servers
• Computers that store and present the web pages
requested/accessed by web browsers
Web Technology
Uniform resource locators (URLs)
• A web address used to locate a web
• Web addresses refer to particular pages on a
web server which is hosted by a company or

• The technical name for web address is

uniform (or universal) resource locator (URL).
• Web addresses always start with ‗http://‘,
• Normally it is not necessary to type this in as
part of the web page address since it is added
automatically by the web browser.

• Example: http://www.domain-
Web Technology
• HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - HTTP is a
standard which defines the way information is
transmitted across the Internet between web
browsers and web servers
• When you click on a link while viewing a web
site, your web browser will request
information from the server computer hosting
the web site using HTTP
• This is why the letters http:// are used to
prefix all web addresses.
• HTTP messages are divided into HTTP ‘get’
messages for requesting and HTTP ‘send’
message as requested.
Web Technology
• Voice over Internet Protocol(VoIP)
• Technology that is used for transmitting voice
over a LAN or over the internet. Skype is a
peer-to-peer application that utilizes VoIP.

• VoIP is becoming popular for reducing the cost

of making phone calls both within an office
and for calls between offices, particularly
Internet Standards

• A protocol is a collection of rules for

communication between computer devices.
For example, protocols determine how the
receiving device indicates that it has received
(or not received) the message

• The internet uses two main protocols:

Two main Internet Protocols
• Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) and the
Internet Protocol (IP)

• TCP: The Transmission Control Protocol is a

transport layer protocol that moves data
between applications.

• It controls the disassembly of a message or a file

into packets before it is transmitted over the
internet and it controls the reassembly
Internet Standards…cont
• IP: The Internet Protocol is a network layer
protocol that moves data between host
• The IP specifies the addressing details for each
packet, labeling each with the packet‘s
origination and destination addresses.
• IP address: The unique numerical address of a
computer. Example
Data Transmission

• Packets: Each Internet message such as an e-mail

or is broken down into smaller parts for ease of
• Packet Switching: Packet switching is a
transmission technique in which digital messages
are sliced into parcels called packets and sent
along different communication paths as they
become available. These packets are then
reassembled once they arrive at their
Data Transmission:
Packet Switching Communications
Packet Switching
• Packet switching makes much more efficient use of the
communications capacity of a network

• Data are gathered from many users, divided into small

packets, and transmitted over available
communications channels using routers.

• Each packet travels independently through these

networks. Packets of data originating at one source can
be routed through many different paths and networks
before being reassembled into the original message
when they reach their destinations.
Domain Names

• The domain name refers to the name of the

web server hosting information.

• Domain names are set of words that are

assigned to a specific IP addresses. An address
such as is a domain name.

• The extension of a domain name indicates its

type, example.
Domain Names
• The extension is also known as the
generic top-level
domain(gTLD).Examples are; com,.org,
.net etc.

• There are also specific country-code top-

level domains(ccTLDs). Examples are;,.au, .ca, .de, .es, .gh etc.
Top-level Domain Names
The Domain Name System
Most Common Domain Extensions
.com Commercial organizations/businesses

.edu Educational institutions

.gov U.S. government agencies

.mil U.S. military

.net Network computers

.org Non-profit organizations and Foundations

.biz Business firms

.info Information providers

Domain Name Registration
• The process of reserving a unique web
address that can be used to refer to the
company web site.
• Domain name disputes can arise when an
individual or company has registered a
domain name which another company claims
they have the right to. This is sometimes
referred to as ‗cybersquatting‘.
• To avoid this companies have to register all related domain
names with different extensions. Example;



Internet Governance

• No one ―owns‖ the Internet, and it

has no formal management
organization per se. However,
worldwide Internet policies are
established by a number of different
organizations and government
bodies including the following:
Internet Governance

• The Internet Architecture Board (IAB), which

helps define the overall structure of the
• The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
and Numbers (ICANN), which assigns IP
• The Internet Network Information Center
(InterNIC), which was created
by the U.S. Department of Commerce, and
assigns domain names.

• The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),

which sets Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML) and other programming standards for
the Web
Mobile Commerce

Electronic transactions and

communications conducted
using mobile devices such as
laptops, PDAs and mobile
phones, and typically with a
wireless connection
Cloud computing

• It is the use of giant cluster of computers that

serves as a host, to run applications that require
high- performance computing.
• On-demand (utility) computing services obtained
over the network(internet)
• Cloud can be public or private
• Allows companies to minimize IT investments
• An examples of a cloud service provider is
Current Trends

• Social networking sites, like MySpace or

• Blogs and micro-blogs, like LiveJournal or
• Sites that allow users to contribute content,
like wikis
• Sites that let users share content, like YouTube
End of session
Thank you