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SOCIAL

STRATIFICATIO
N
Social Stratification
It is the structured inequality of the
entire categories of people, who have
different access to social rewards as
a result of their status in the social
hierarchy
Origin of the Word
Stratification
Derived from the geological concept
of “strata’- rock layers created by
natural forces
Stratification
The term most commonly relates to
the socio- economic concept of class
involving the “classification” of
persons into groups based on shared
socio- economic conditions… a
relational set of inequalities with
economic, social, political and
ideological dimensions”
Stratification
Social Stratification
It is a trait of society
 Does not reflect individual’s differences
but society’s structure
It persists over generation
 social mobility happens slowly
Social Stratification
It is universal but variable
 While universal it varies in type
It involves inequality in belief
system
 ideologies justify existence of
stratification
Characteristics of
stratification systems

Systems of inequality are organized


around groups with a shared
characteristic.
The social location of a group is
significant in terms of the life
chances of members.
Rankings of groups change only very
slowly.
Types of Stratification
System
1.Open stratification system:
 Stratification system in which
merit rather than inheritance
(ascribed characteristics)
determines social rank
 Allows for social change
Types of Stratification
System
1.Open stratification system:
 Is reflected in a meritocracy: (
social stratification based on
personal merit)
 Positions are achieved, not ascribed
 Characterized by equal opportunity
and high social mobility (movement
up or down a social hierarchy)*
Types of Stratification
System
2. Closed stratification system
 Stratification system in which
inheritance rather than merit
determines social rank
 Little social change possible
Types of Stratification
System
2. Closed stratification system
 Reflected in a caste system:
 Positions are ascribed, not
achieved
 Characterized by little social
mobility
Social Stratification
Based on three major premises:
a. Power: the ability to impose one’s
will on others
b. Prestige: the respect given by
others
c. Property: forms of wealth
Three Basic Model of
Social Stratification
1. SLAVES
 These people are considered less
human and are owned as property
Their legal rights are limited, certain
relationships are prohibited, and as you
might imagine, and social power is
essentially nonexistent.
THREE BASIC MODELS OF
SOCIAL
STRATIFICATIONS
1. SLAVES
 Initially, slavery was based on debt,
punishment for violation of the law, or
defeat in battle. Given this last practice,
many of the first slaves were women,
captured after the defeat of their
village
SLAVERY
Three Basic Model of Social
Stratification
2. CASTE SYSTEM
societal groupings are based on deeply
held cultural ideals and boundaries
A pure caste system is closed because
birth alone determines one’s destiny,
with little or no opportunity for social
mobility based on effort.
Characteristics of Caste
System
First, traditional caste groups have
specific occupations, so generations
of a family perform the same type of
work.
Second, maintaining a rigid social
hierarchy depends on people marrying
within their own categories; “mixed”
marriages would blur the ranking of
children
Characteristics of Caste
System
Endogamy- marriage between people
of the same social category.
Characteristics of Caste
System

Third, caste norms guide people to


stay in the company of “their own
kind.”

Fourth, caste systems rest on


powerful cultural beliefs.
TRADITIONAL CASTES OF
INDIA
Shudras: laborers and unskilled artisans.
Harijans: Sometimes called "untouchables,
" they are ranked so low that, technically,
they are outside the caste system itself.
The lowest caste is considered to be
"untouchable," and ablutions (washing
rituals) are required to restore purity for
those who are contaminated by contact
with individuals from this group.
Three Basic Model of Social
Stratification
Class System- social stratification based
on both birth and individual achievement.
The class system categorizes people
according to their color, sex, or social
background comes to be seen as wrong in
industrial and post-industrial societies, and
all people gain political rights and roughly
equal standing before the law.
Three Basic Model of Social
Stratification
Meritocracy- social stratification
based on personal merit.
People in industrial societies develop
a broad range of capabilities,
stratification is based on “merit,”
which is the job one does and how
well one does it.
CLASS SYSTEM
Characteristics of Class
Systems

People who can be considered peers in


society because of their similar life
chances, similar life circumstances,
and similar opportunities, constitute a
social class.
Characteristics of Class
Systems
A class system is a form of social
stratification that is based primarily
on the possession of money or
material possessions
Characteristics of Class
Systems
A class system allows for social
mobility-movement up or down the
social class ladder-based on achieved
status
Philippine Current Social
Stratification
The influence of government officials
is more noticeable in the public today.
Sometimes, in a simple traffic
violation, they usually involved the
name of their known politician to
escape the punishment that they
should face
Philippine Current Social
Stratification
In terms of wealth, they usually use
money to do them a favor and to
prioritize them.
In education, most of the time people
don’t look on the knowledge that the
person has, they usually look at the
school or university where the person
came from.
Philippine Current Social
Stratification
In physical appearance, people having
luminous skin, tall, and attractive are
given more chances and advancement.
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
Pre- Colonial Period 3 Classes of
Society
 Maharlika or Noble class
 Timawa or Freemen
 Alipin or slave
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
Spanish Period until 19th Century
 Peninsulares-( Spaniards born in Spain)
 Insulares- ( Spaniards born in the
Philippines), the Spanish and Chinese
mestizos
 Principalia- composed of
gobernadorcillo, cabezas de barangay,
wealthy native families
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
American Period
 Upper Class
 Lower Class
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
Present Time- divided in terms of
family income
High -Income sectors- are families or
people earning an average of Php
200,000 a month or Php 2.4 million a
year. Thus they may be described as
the “rich” sector. They are very few,
numbering only 0.1% of total families in
the Philippines
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
Present Time- divided in terms of
family income
 Middle- Income sector- earn an
average of
Php 36,934 per month.
 Low –Income sector- earn an average
of
Php 9,061 per month ( National
Statistical Coordination Board ( NSCB)
Historical Basis of Philippine
Social Stratification System
2011 Report published by pooling firm Social
Weather Station(SWS) entitled” Family Income
Distribution in the Philippines from 1985-2009
CLASS % SHARE IN % SHARE IN AVERAGE
NUMBER OF TOTAL INCOME ANNUAL
FAMILIES INCOME (Php)
A, B 1 9 1,857,000
C 9 26 603,000
D 60 56 191,000
E 30 9 62,000
Total 100 100 206,000
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Income-
 wages or salaries from work and also
includes earning from investment.
 Following the minimum wage law, a
person should at least earn Php 456 for
a days’ wok
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Wealth-
It is the total value of money and other
asset, minus outstanding debt.
This includes, bonds real states and
other privately and owned property.
Top 11 Richest People in the
Philippines, 2015
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Power
Defined as the capacity to increase
influence in a decision – making process
to make other obey one’s order to
directly or indirectly control the ideas
and actions of other people
 Wealth is considered important source
of power.
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Prestige
 The main determinant of a person’s social
prestige is the occupation
 The level of income, amount of control over
other people, and professional accomplishments
that come with one’s job, by some means
determine occupational prestige.
 We are commonly evaluated according to the
work we do, respecting some while looking
down on others.
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Top 10 high paying jobs
1. Art Director- Php 69,286
2. Geologist – Php 64,889
3. Aircraft Pilot, Navigator and Flight Engineer-
Php 57,789
4. Mining Engineer and Metallurgical Engineer-
Php55638
5. Computer Programmer- Php 43,537
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Top 10 high paying jobs
6. System Analyst & System Designer - Php
42,112
7. Production Supervisor and General Foreman-
Php 36,133
8. Actuarial- Php 35,480
9. Call center representative/ Customer service
associate
Php 35, 424
10. Statistician- Php 35,000
( Baldoz, DOLE, February 9,2013)
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Family Influence
 The prestige of wealthy families is
enormous and marriage is usually
arranged by family constitution, thus
preventing them from crossing lines.
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Population Pressure
The Philippines has one of the highest
rates of Urban growth in the developing
world, averaging at 5.1 percent from
1960 to 1995
 Migration and natural growth rates are
primarily contributors to a number of urban
problems.
Dimension of Social
Inequality in the Philippines
Education
In the Philippine society, the school is
the gatekeeper for an economic
opportunity
 The most prestigious jobs tend to be not only
those that yield the highest incomes but also
the ones that requires the longest education.
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Governmental
Institution
 Upper Class
More often that not they appreciates the
government
They recognized the leading officials and
themselves involves in politics
Majority will regard government rule as
fundamental to their own security and will
resist any type of drastic change
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Governmental
Institution
 Middle Class
Usually seen as providing an important
constituency for democratic politics
 Because of their education and the fact
that their access to social and economic
resources does not depend heavily on
patronage or personalistic ties they are
believed to perform greater independence in
forming political views.
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Governmental
Institution
 Lower Class
View government as dispenser of petty
favors such as minor jobs and possible
payments for votes.
Others may be whipped up to fanatical
fervor by skillful propagandist who appeals
to nationalistic, religious or racial prejudice.
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Religious
Institution
Upper Class
 A great part of this class is interested in
the position in lay movements and become “
patrons” of the church.
They appear to be critically examining the
doctrine, but they are more interested in
aesthetic aspects of Religion
 They have little interest in religion but
attendance to special religious occasion is
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Religious
Institution
Middle Class
Since they generally earn their social status
through education and professional
employment, they have greater stake in the
improvement of general societal which
determine their access to these means of
upward mobility
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Religious
Institution
Lower Class
They regularly attending religious
ceremonies hoping for a better life.
 Most of them accept the doctrine without
any questions but fail sometimes to apply
the church teachings due to poverty
 They are the one who would enthusiastically
accepts reports of miracles of healing power,
herbolarios and hilot
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Economic
Institution
Upper Class
 Their priorities are more on position in
certain organization rather than the level of
comfort
 Majority of those belong to this group
believes that the existing economic system
is the best possible arrangement.
 For some of them self- esteem can be
enhanced by means of luxurious living
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Economic
Institution
Middle Class
This class has the characteristic
virtues of being thrifty, ambitious.
 Many are torn between the desire to
improve status by saving money and
the need to improve their perceived
social importance
Effect of Class Status on
Behavior
Attitude Towards Economic
Institution
Lower Class
Belonging to this class aspire to
acquire a middle- class position and
improve their status by means of
being thrifty, hardworking and to
pursue their educational attainment.
THEORIES OF SOCIAL
STRATIFICATION
KARL MAX
Marx and Class Conflict
Karl Marx was very interested in class
relations in capitalist societies.
Class was determined solely by one’s
relation to the means of production.
o Proletariat and bourgeoisie
o Group membership utterly determined
life chances.
.
Marx and class conflict
As capital becomes more concentrated, the
two classes will become increasingly more
hostile to one another.
Class consciousness-awareness of a common
identity based on position in the means of
production-will develop; it is the essential
basis of the unity of workers
Marx and class conflict
The workers would revolt against the
capitalists, take control of the means of
production, and usher in a classless society.
However, according to Marx, the workers'
unity and revolution are held back by false
consciousness-the mistaken identification
of workers with the interests of capitalists
MAX WEBER
MAX WEBER: Class and
Status
For Max Weber, position in a
stratification system was not based
on economics alone: social status was
also significant.
Weber’s multidimensional approach is
attractive to those who believe that
social prestige and power can be
independent of economics.
MAX WEBER: Three fold
Approach
Wealth (property)—economic
factors; group with similar life
chances; those in the same class are
likely to have similar biographies.
Prestige—amount of social prestige,
which can be based on family, region,
occupation, race, religion, gender, and
similar factors
MAX WEBER: Three fold
Approach
Power—the third part of Weber’s
model of stratification incorporates
the ability to carry out one’s
intentions on society; this measure is
less often correlated with the first
two, but still constitutes an important
measure of social inequality.
SOCIAL MOBILITY
Social Mobility

It is the movement from one social


status to another
Types of Social Mobility
Horizontal Mobility
 involves a change in an individual’s
lifetime from one status to another
 Ex. A farmer can be a carpenter later in
his life
Types of Social Mobility
Vertical Mobility
Maybe either upward or downward
 It involve a change within the lifetime
of an individual to a higher or lower
status than the person had to begin with
Ex. A carpenter can change to become
corporate president or vice versa
Types of Social Mobility
Intergenerational Mobility
 It is a change of a family member from
one generation to the next
 Ex. When a farmer- child become a
corporation president or vice versa.