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viscosity.

How can we attack this problem?

Viscosity-fluid property that influences the rate of fluid flow under stress.

shear stress and the velocity gradient

between the plates, or

dv( x)

Newton’s Law of Viscosity

dy

Units of viscosity

d v

x

dy

Pa

Pa s

m

s

m

Layers of fluid particles with top layer moving

faster than bottom layer

Position

o exp

activation_energy

RT

activation_energy 1

log

log o

R

T

activation_energy 1

log

log o

R

T

The top plate drags the fluid particles in the top fluid layer, which then drag

the particles in the adjacent lower layer, which then drag the particles in the

next lowest layer, and so on—thus giving rise to momentum transfer

Momentum transfer

Units on shear stress and pressure

Force/area=mass*length/time2 * 1/area

= momentum/(time*area)

= momentum flux

2. Determine velocity profile. If flow is fully developed, the fluid velocity only depends on y.

V(x)

d

yx v ( x)

dy

y

0

y y y

‘control volume’

Patm

x y

z

x x x

Hydrostatic pressure varies with x while

shear stress varies with y! We only have to

Papplied consider the shear stress acting normal to

the xz plane and the hydrostatic pressure

component acting normal to the yz plane.

y y y

yx yx xz P x - Px xyz 0

y y y

P x- P

x x

yx yx

y y y

0

y x

d d P

yx Function of x unless

d y dx P=constant or P linear with

x.

P

d

yx d dy P P

d y yx

dy yx y C

dy L L L

If the velocity is a local maximum at y=0 (center in between plates),

then

C=0

P d v ( x) d y P

yx

d

v( x) y y dy

dy L

dy L

P 2

v ( x) y C1

2L

P 2

C1

2L

v ( x)

P 2 y2

2L

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