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Unit 6: Adjustment

and Breakdown
Ch 15: Stress and Health
Ch 16: Psychological Disorders
Ch 17: Therapy and Change
Ch 15 – Stress and Health
• Stress • The anxious or threatening feeling resulting
from _____________ of a situation + our
perception of the ___________________.
• Some see it as an _______ that produces
tension or worry. Some see it as a person’s
physical + psychological _______ to such an
event. Some see it as a person’s ________
of the event.
• Components of stress:
• A stressor is a ____________
event or situation.
• Stress reaction refers to the
body’s _______________ to a
stressor.
• Distress is ____________ that
comes from anxiety.
• Eustress is ___________ that
comes from motivating strivings
+ challenges.
• The cognitive model of stress
refers to how people perceive +
evaluate a situation before
_______________________.
• Conflict • Occur when a person ____________ b/w 2 or more
situations options that tend to result from ______________.
• Ex. Go to a movie w/ friends or stay home +
study for a psychology test?
• __________________ – you want to
socialize + do well in school.
• 4 types:
1. _______________ conflict: the person must
choose b/w 2 ____________ alternatives.
2. __________________ conflict: the person
must confront 2 ____________ alternatives.
3. __________________ conflict: the person
_____________________, but has fears +
doubts, or is repulsed by it as well.
4. ________________________ conflict: the
person must choose b/w 2 or more
alternatives, each of which has __________
___________ aspects.
• Our primary appraisal refers to our ___________
____________ of a situation. There are 3 types:
irrelevant, positive, or negative.
• Our secondary appraisal refers to deciding how to
deal w/ a situation + what ______________ to use.
• Environmental • Noise – Americans regard noise as one of the
stresses ______________ in their lives. It’s particularly
aggravating when it is loud, irregular, +/or
______________.
• 3rd + 4th graders in the flight path of
major airports showed higher _______
___________ + stress hormones.
• Crowding – It’s a problem when you __________.
• Can lead to ___________.
• _______________ – can be positive or negative.
• Death, marriage, divorce, moving, etc…
• Hassles – relatively ______________ stressors.
• Lost keys, stuck in traffic, etc…
• Can gradually weaken your ___________.
• Uplifts – are small, _______________ that can
stress.

End Section 1
• Our reactions • Many physiological responses to stress
to stress are ____________ that probably evolved
to cope w/ ____________________.
• But what worked for our remote
ancestors isn’t always as ________
in our modern society.
• People’s reactions to stress __________.
• Reactions may be physical, ___________,
or behavioral.
• But these are all __________, + so
problems in one area may lead to
___________________.
• Ex. If you’re having
psychological issues, that may
trigger a _______________.
• Fight-or-flight • Response in reaction to an _______.
response • Regardless of the stressor, the body
reacts w/ ____________________.
• The adrenal glands begin producing:
1. Hormones that the amount
of blood sugar for _________.
2. _________ which causes rapid
heartbeat + breathing. It also
enables the body to _________
_______________.
• Those responses are designed to
prepare a person for ____________.
• Necessary in wild animals (+
sometimes humans) for ______.
• If the stress persists for a long time,
the body’s resources are used up. The
person ___________________ + in
extreme cases dies.
• General • Has 3 stages:
adaptation 1. ____ – fight-or-flight response occurs +
syndrome person becomes _____________.
2. __________ – the person often finds
means to cope w/ the stressor.
Ex. Telling yourself to _________.
• Person may suffer psychosomatic
symptoms (_________________
caused by stress or tension).
• If _______________________
continues, the individual reaches
the 3rd stage:
3. _________ – the continuous release of
hormones during the fight-or-flight
response has left the person exhausted +
unable to _______________________.
He/she may become disoriented +
delirious.
• Emotional + • Emotional reactions include:
cognitive • Anxiety (a vague, generalized
responses apprehension or ________________)
to stress • Anger (the irate reaction likely to
result from ___________)
• Fear (the usual reaction when a
stressor involves ________________
danger) – it directs the person to flee,
but in severe cases he/she may panic +
be __________________.
• Common examples of emotional stress
reactions are overreacting to _______
__________, getting no joy from daily
pleasures, + doubting one’s _____________.
• Cognitive reactions include:
• Difficulty ____________
• Recurring thoughts
• Poor ______________
• Unjustified _________________
• Prolonged • Prolonged stress can lead to __________.
stress People who are burned out are incapable of
doing their job well + are physically +
_____________________________.
• Prolonged stress, in combination w/ other
factors, adversely affects ____________.
• It doesn’t cause mental illness, but
can contribute to the ________ of it.
• Post-traumatic stress disorder is when a
person who has experienced a __________
________ feels severe + long-lasting
____________. It overwhelms a person’s
normal sense of reality + ability to cope.
• Behavioral • Behavioral reactions include:
responses • __________________
to stress • Overeat or not eat enough
• Smoke or drink more
• ____________
• ____________ for no reason
• Develop a shaky voice, tremors, etc…
• Changes in _________
• Lose interest in grooming, bathing, etc…
• ____________
• ______________ may occur at times –
like the people who risk their lives
during disasters to help others.
• Severe stress can contribute to the
development of an _______________ which
can lead to alcoholism, drug addiction,
__________________, etc…
• Physical • Our thoughts + emotions can produce
responses ___________ changes in our bodies.
to stress • Physical reactions include:
• Initial fight-or-flight response leads
to faster _____________.
• _____________________ such as
headaches, stomachaches, + muscle
pains.
• Weakens the _________________.
• Contributing cause to illnesses
like ulcers, ____________,
arthritis, asthma, + _______
disease.
• Factors • People have _________________ to stress. Some
influencing factors that influence their reactions include:
reactions • _________________________.
to stress • Some people’s personalities make them
________________ to stress.
• Perceived ______________ stressors.
• Physical disorders are more likely when
we don’t have control over stressors.
_______________ is also detrimental.
People prefer __________ stress over
unpredictable stress.
• Social support (information that leads someone
to believe that he/she is cared for, ______,
respected, + part of a network of
communication + ___________________).
• Helps to the effects of stressful
situations. Offer 4 types of support –
_________, appraisal (_________),
informational (advice), + ___________
(assistance). End Section 2
• Coping w/ • Coping w/ stress is a way of trying to _____
stress _______ over a part of your life.
• People cope w/ stress in ______________.
• Sometimes we act in ways that aren’t in our
____________. When we act in ways that
hurt others, those are known as _________
ways of coping.
• Our cognitive appraisal is our ___________
of an event that helps determine its _____
_______.
• If we appraise a situation as a
_______ that we can meet, our stress
level .
• If we appraise a situation as a _____,
our stress level .
• ________ can affect our cognitive
appraisal.
• Defensive • Denial – a coping mechanism in which a
coping person decides that the event _________
strategies _________.
• Intellectualization – a coping mechanism in
which the person analyzes a situation from
an ____________________ viewpoint.
• Both denial + intellectualization can prevent
________________ to stress.
• Can lead to failing to deal w/ what
could be a ___________________.
• Stress reactions are more likely to
occur when ___________________.
• Active • By appraising a situation as a ________ + not
coping a ________, we can adopt an active coping
strategies strategy.
• Active coping strategies involve changing our
environment or ____________________ to
remove stressors or the level of stress.
• ________ – refers to traits of control,
commitment, + challenge.
• Controlling stressful situations – escape
or withdrawal – if you can’t withdrawal,
controlling its _______ can be helpful.
• ________________ – confronting the
problem head-on by coming up w/ a
rational analysis leading to an
appropriate decision. It helps to
regard situations as ______________
_________.
• Explanatory style – ________ vs.
__________.
• Relaxation – many relaxation
techniques were developed to help
___________________.
• Progressive relaxation involves
lying down comfortably then
tensing + releasing the tension
in each _________________.
• Meditation involves focusing
attention w/ the goal of
clearing one’s mind + producing
an _____________.
• Biofeedback (the process of learning
to ________________ by monitoring
the states to be controlled) – helps to
consciously control things like blood
pressure + muscle tension.
• Humor – laughing releases the ______
of pent-up feelings.
• _______ – stress by providing an
outlet for physical arousal + may burn
off ________________.
• Support groups/professional help –
specialize in helping people w/ specific
________________________ (ex.
therapists, AA, Weight Watchers,
etc…).
• _______ – helps to prepare for events
which stress. Exposure to
moderate stressors in a ___________
______________ environment helps a
person gain ___________.
• Improving ____________________ –
developing skills to deal w/ others.

End Section 3
• Stress in • Growing up involves gaining a sense of autonomy (the
your life ability to take care of oneself + make one’s __________).
• Going to college can be personally ________ but requires
adjustment.
• Many people approach going to college w/ high +
often ___________________________.
• They don’t have the experience to make realistic
choices or the ____________________ their own
motives + needs.
• College may challenge the ________ a student has
established in high school.
• Usually a greater amount of ________ at college.
• May lead to the formation of developmental
friendships (friends who force each other
to reexamine their _________________ +
perhaps adopt new ideas + beliefs).
• Coping strategies include ___________________,
avoid doubts by wasting your time, + resynthesis
(combining old ideas w/ new ones + reorganizing
feelings in order to ______________________).
• Getting a _______
• Work experience is different for everyone +
people _____________ to their jobs based
on their ____________.
• ______________ refers to the attitude a
worker has towards his/her job. 5 major
sources of job satisfaction are:
1. __________ – having enough help +
supplies to do the job well.
2. Financial reward – salary + _______.
3. _______ – job is interesting + allows
worker to use his/her _________.
4. Relations w/ __________.
5. _________ – working conditions are
attractive + comfortable.
• Comparable worth is the concept that ____
______ should receive _______ for jobs of
comparable skill + responsibility.
End Section 4
Ch 16 – Psychological Disorders
• Defining + • Just b/c a person is different from the norm
identifying doesn’t mean he/she has a _____________.
psychological • So how do we __________ if someone does
disorders have a mental illness? There are 3 ways:
1. ____________________ – Acting in
a way that is not considered normal.
• What is “_______” may vary in
different societies.
• Not always __________.
2. ___________ – Able to get along in
the world, physically, _____, + socially.
• ________, destructive, +/or
isolated.
3. _____________________ –
• Some psychologists say that a
normal/healthy person is one
who is _______________ or
who is striving toward ideal
functioning.
• Others believe that to be
normal/healthy involves full
acceptance + expression of
one’s own ______________
_________________.
• It’s irresponsible to label someone
mentally ill b/c their _______________.
• Minor psychological disorders _________.
• The problem of • The causes + symptoms of psychological disorders
classification + their cures are rarely ___________________.
• Since 1952, the APA (_____________________
_________) agreed upon a system of classifying
abnormal symptoms + published it in the DSM.
The DSM-5 is the 6th version of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
• See p. 452 for major categories of
psychological disorders.
• W/in each category, the following
descriptions are included:
1. ___________________ – defining
characteristics
2. _________________ – additional
features that are usually present
3. Differential diagnosis – how to
distinguish it from ____________
4. Diagnostic criteria – a list of
symptoms that _______________
for a positive diagnosis
• A patient often has more than ________________.
• To help w/ diagnoses, the DSM-5 uses 5 major dimensions
or axes to describe a person’s ____________________:
• Axis I: Clarifies _____________________.
• Axis II: Describes developmental disorders + long-
standing ______________________.
• Axis III: Describes physical disorders or medical
conditions that are potentially relevant to
__________________________ for each person.
• Axis IV: Measurement of the ________________
the person is functioning at.
• Axis V: Describes the _____________ of adaptive
functioning present w/in the past year.
• Adaptive functioning refers to 3 major
areas: social relations (family + friends),
____________________ (work), + leisure
time (activities or hobbies).
• The 5 axes help researchers see connections b/w different
disorders + other factors like stress.
• Many people develop a ______ at some point, but they are
often ____________.
End Section 1
• Anxiety • Anxiety is a general state of ____________
disorders ________ that a person feels in response to
a real or imagined danger.
• People w/ anxiety disorders suffer from
anxiety that is _________________ to the
situation provoking it. The intense anxiety
may interfere w/ __________________ in
everyday life.
• People w/ these disorders share
characteristics like feelings of _____
(duh!), feelings of _______________,
+ avoidance of dealing w/ problems.
• Their emotional problems may be
expressed w/ _______________ like
headaches, sweating, fatigue, etc…
• Anxiety disorders include generalized
anxiety disorder, ______________, panic
disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, +
_____________________ disorder.
• Generalized • While fear is a reaction to real +
anxiety disorder identifiable threats, anxiety is a
reaction to ___________________
__________.
• People w/ generalized anxiety
disorder experience a continuous,
generalized anxiety. They fear
__________________ + are unable
to make decisions or ___________.
• They may become so
preoccupied w/ their internal
problems that they neglect
their __________________.
• May develop physical symptoms such
as muscular tension, an __________
_____, a furrowed brow, + a strained
face. Other symptoms include poor
appetite, indigestion, diarrhea, +
difficulty __________.
• May be partly ___________ +/or
influenced by a ____________ as a
child.
• Phobic disorder • A phobia is a ___________ focused on
a particular object, animal, activity, or
situation that seems _____________
to the ______________ involved.
• 3 types:
• ________ phobias – can focus on
anything or situation.
• Social phobias – involve fearing
that you will _______________
in a public place.
• Agoraphobia – extreme fear of
being in a _____________.
• Phobias range in intensity from mild to
extremely ________.
• Phobic individuals develop _________
__________ the situations they fear.
• Panic disorder • An extreme anxiety that manifests
itself in the form of ______________.
• Panic is a feeling of sudden, _________
_______.
• During a panic attack, a person
experiences ____________________
attacks of intense anxiety, leading the
person to feel a sense of doom +/or the
feeling that he/she is about to _____.
• Symptoms include a sense of
__________, choking, or difficulty
_______ as well as faintness, dizziness,
nausea, + ____________.
• Attacks occur w/o ______ + usually last
a couple of minutes, but may last over an
hour.
• Panic disorder may be _______ in part.
The 1st attack usually occurs after a
_________________.
• OCD (obsessive- • The obsessiveness is characterized
compulsive disorder) by an ____________________ of
thoughts. This may lead to
compulsions which are _________
__________ coping behaviors.
• These things don’t always
__________________.
• Everyone has obsessions +
compulsions. It’s only considered a
problem when such thoughts +
activities ___________ w/ what a
person wants + needs to do.
• Most people w/ OCD realize that
their thoughts + actions are
irrational, but feel ____________
them.
• Runs in ________.
• Examples of compulsions typical of
OCD include _______________
excessively, counting, excessive
attention to _________, etc…
• Post-traumatic • A condition in which a person who has
stress disorder experienced a traumatic event feels
severe + long-lasting ________________.
• Common among ____________________
_______ as well as survivors of terrorism,
natural disasters, ___________, + human
aggression.
• The event that triggers the disorder
overwhelms a person’s ______________ +
ability to cope. The disorder may begin
immediately after the event or develop
______________.
• Symptoms are __________, recurring
nightmares, insomnia, +/or feelings of
________.
• __________ who experiences a traumatic
event develops this disorder.
End Section 2
• Somatoform • Are physical symptoms for which there is no
disorders apparent ________________.
• There are 2 major types:
1. Conversion disorders occur when a person
changes emotional difficulties into a loss
of a specific _____________________.
• There is no actual ____________,
but the person suffers from a real
+ prolonged _________.
• Might result in temporary ______,
loss of speech, etc…
2. Hypochondriasis occurs when a person in
good health becomes preoccupied w/
____________________.
• Constantly looking for signs of
illness + misinterprets signs of
_______________ + injuries as
something ________________.
• Dissociative • When a person experiences a _______________ in
disorders memory, identity, or consciousness.
• They are ___________.
• Dissociative amnesia is memory loss w/ no biological
explanation. It’s often caused by a ____________.
• Dissociative fugue is when a person suddenly +
unexpectedly ___________ from home or work + is
unable to _______________.
• It’s amnesia w/ active flight into a ________
______________.
• They will establish a new _______________.
• May last for days or __________.
• When a person comes out of it, they can’t
_____________________ when they were in
the fugue state.
• Dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as
___________________ disorder) is when a person
exhibits 2 or more personality states, each w/ its
own patterns of _____________________.
• These people usually suffered __________ as
children.
End Section 3
• Schizophrenia • A group of disorders characterized by _______ +
disconnected thoughts, emotions, + __________.
• It’s the most complex + severe _________
_________.
• A person w/ schizophrenia __________ w/ reality
to a large extent.
• It’s not a single problem; it doesn’t have a ______
______________ – it’s a collection of symptoms.
• Many people w/ schizophrenia have delusions
(false beliefs maintained in the face of contrary
evidence) + hallucinations (perceptions that have
no direct ____________) such as hearing voices.
• Other symptoms include incoherence (a marked
in _________ processes), disturbances of affect
(emotions not _________ for the circumstances),
deterioration in normal movement, in previous
levels of functioning, + diverted attention – their
______________________.
• Affects 1 in ___ worldwide, but if it’s already in a
person’s family, their odds to 1 in _____.
• Types of • Classified into several subtypes:
schizophrenia • _________: involves hallucinations + delusions.
• “_______” – believes he/she is a savior.
• “____________” – believes he/she is
always being watched.
• _______: remains motionless for long periods.
• _____________: incoherent language,
inappropriate emotions, generally disorganized
motor behavior, hallucinations, + _________.
• ______________: has basic symptoms such as
deterioration of daily functioning, delusions,
hallucinations, _______________________, +
thought disorders.
• _________: symptoms are completely gone or
still exist but are ___________ not to justify
earning a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
• Treatment is long-term + usually requires
____________. Schizophrenia may go into remission,
but symptoms often __________.
• Recovery is possible, but _____________________.
• Causes of • Usually starts b/w ________________ into the 30’s.
schizophrenia • What causes schizophrenia is debated, but it’s most
likely an interaction of _________, biochemical, +
_______________ factors.
• Although it tends to ___________, if a twin develops
it, his/her identical twin has a _____% chance of
developing it – so it can’t just be caused by _______.
• Some researchers believe that the basic problem of
schizophrenia is too much or too little of certain
__________ interfering w/ how the brain processes
information.
• The ___________ of people w/ schizophrenia
show signs of deterioration.
• The role of the ___________ is unclear, but present.
• Studies have shown a correlation to children
developing schizophrenia w/ their mother being
_____ prior to pregnancy, infection during the
2nd trimester, + lack of ________ to the fetus.
• People who develop schizophrenia often come
from families of the verge of ____________.
• Mood disorders • Occur when emotions hamper a person’s
ability to ____________________.
• In extreme cases, a mood may cause
individuals to lose touch w/ ________ or
seriously threaten his/her ___________.
• Mood disorders include major depressive
disorder, ________________, + seasonal
affective disorder.
• People w/ these disorders often have more
_____________ + if depressed, feel that
their depression will go on forever + there
is ______________________ about it.
• Psychological factors contributing to mood
disorders including ____________ (ex.
self-esteem), amount of social support, +
the ability to deal w/ _______________.
Biological factors include hormones,
neurotransmitters, + __________.
• Major • A severe form of ____________ in which a
depressive person experiences feelings of __________
disorder + diminished pleasure or interest in many
activities.
• People w/ this disorder spend at least ____
______ feeling depressed, anxious, fatigued,
agitated, + experience a _____________ to
function + interact w/ others.
• To be diagnosed as depression, these feelings
can’t be attributed to ______________.
• This disorder is characterized by at least 4
of the following symptoms: problems w/
eating, _______, thinking, concentrating, or
decision making; _________; thinking about
________; + feeling worthless or guilty.
• Bipolar disorder • Occurs when a person alternates b/w
feelings of ____ (euphoria) + depression.
• They are either excessively +
inappropriately _____________.
• During the manic phase, he/she
experiences extreme elation, ________,
distractibility, + racing thoughts. The
person often has an exaggerated sense
of ________ + engages in __________
behavior. He/she often needs less sleep
+ engages in activity.
• This state isn’t as easy to detect
b/c the person seems to be in
touch w/ reality + ____________.
• During the depressive phase, he/she is
overcome by feelings of ________,
sinfulness, worthlessness, + despair. The
person is _________ + unresponsive like
someone w/ major ________________.
• Seasonal • People w/ this disorder struggle w/ annual
affective depressions during ___________________
disorder (usually _______, but can be at other times).
• They tend to sleep + eat __________ during
their ________________.
• May be caused by _________ – exposure to
less light during winter causes less of the
hormone melatonin to be released.
• Many sufferers can be treated by sitting
under bright ________________ during the
evening or early morning hours.
• Suicide + • Not all people who commit suicide are _______ +
depression not all people who are depressed try to _______
__________.
• But many people who are depressed have
_________________.
• People may commit suicide to escape from
physical or emotional pain, ______________ for
wrongs they think they committed, or to ______
_________.
• Every year over ________ Americans commit
suicide.
• More women ________ suicide, but more men
___________.
• Suicide is most common among the ______, but is
the 2nd most common cause of death among
_________________.
• People who threaten suicide or make unsuccessful
attempts __________________! 70% of people
who commit suicide threatened to do so w/in 3
months before doing so + an unsuccessful attempt
is often a ___________. End Section 4
• Personality • Are maladaptive or inflexible ways of
disorders dealing w/ _____ + one’s _____________.
• People w/ these disorders seem unable to
establish __________________ w/ other
people, to assume social responsibilities, or
to adapt to their social environment. They
adopt ____________ personality patterns
(ex. Excessively shy or aggressive).
• People w/ a personality disorder don’t
usually suffer from excessive anxiety nor
behave in a ________________.
• Antisocial • Is characterized by irresponsibility, shallow
personality emotions, + a _______________________.
• Formerly called _________________________.
• A person w/ an antisocial personality exhibits a
persistent disregard for + violation of __________.
They also:
• Treat people as __________.
• Live in the moment – constantly seeking thrills.
• Don’t seem to feel any ______.
• Are ____________ when caught.
• Many people w/ antisocial personalities get away w/
their behavior b/c they’re intelligent, entertaining, +
able to ___________ they don’t feel. They win the
affection + confidence from people they later _____
___________ of.
• How do they become like this?
• Some think they imitate their _________
_________.
• Could be a lack of or __________________.
• Some think it’s due to a ________________
________.
• Drug addiction • It’s covered in the DSM-V b/c many people hurt
themselves physically, socially, + _____________
b/c they depend so heavily on drugs.
• Abuse of drugs involves psychological dependence
(the use of a drug to such an extent that a person
feels _____________ w/o it). When deprived of
the drug, they become restless, ______, + uneasy.
• Addiction is a pattern of drug abuse characterized
by an overwhelming + _______________ to obtain
the drug.
• The drugged state becomes the body’s
____________. W/o it, the person is in
extreme _________________.
• Tolerance is the physical adaptation to a drug so
that a person needs ___________ to produce the
original effect.
• Withdrawal refers to the symptoms that occur
after a person _________________ of a drug to
which he/she has become addicted. The symptoms
vary by _________________ used.
• Alcoholism • America’s most ________________________.
• Factor in about ____% of deaths in car accidents.
• In about ___% of murders, the killer +/or victim had been
drinking.
• Many think alcohol is a ________ b/c it slows down our
inhibitions + in small amounts can make people feel
relaxed + talkative. It’s really a ____________.
• After more drinks, a person’s ______________ +
physiological functions begin to shut down. Perceptions +
sensations become distorted + __________________.
• _____________ of alcohol can lead to unconsciousness,
_______, or even death.
• Effects of alcohol depend on a person’s ____________,
body chemistry, how much alcohol is __________ + how
quickly, + his/her past experience w/ drinking.
• Can produce psychological ____________, tolerance, +
withdrawal.
• There are 3 stages of _____________:
1st – The individual discovers that alcohol
tensions + makes him/her ________.
2nd – The individual begins to drink so heavily
that the person feels he/she __________
how much alcohol he/she consumes. May
begin to suffer from __________.
3rd – The individual drinks compulsively +
___________ when deprived of alcohol –
he/she is now an _________.
• May develop from ________ + environmental
factors. A person’s risk of becoming an alcoholic
is _____________ if a member of his/her family
is an alcoholic.
• The 1st step of treating alcoholism is to get help
for the violent ____________________.
• Treatment varies from psychotherapy to ______.
Antabuse can help - it makes the person _______
when he/she drinks alcoholic beverages.
• There is no certain ________.

End Section 5
Ch 17 – Therapy and Change
• Psychotherapy • Is _____________ used by therapists to
help troubled individuals overcome their
__________. It involves:
1. _____________ b/w a therapist
+ clients.
2. The development of a supportive +
trusting _____________.
3. An ________ by the therapist of
the client’s problems – including
_____________ for overcoming
those problems.
• Beliefs about • Centuries ago, people often thought that
mental illness psychological disturbances represented a
moral or ______________. People w/ these
problems were believed to be possessed by
demons + treatment was an ___________.
• W/in the last couple of centuries, views have
changed + societies began viewing these
people as having a ____________. This was
good b/c they were then seen as needing care
+ ___________.
• However, the term “___________” can
create the problem of having the
person view their problem as being
outside his/her _______. He/she may
refuse to ________________ for the
situation + working towards change.
• The nature of • The purpose of psychotherapy is to help people
psychotherapy realize that they ______________ for their own
problems + that they are the only ones who can
really _________________.
• The therapist is there to ______.
• There are many different types of therapy based
on different theories + w/ different approaches.
We’ll discuss the following: _______________,
humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, + __________.
• While some psychologists/psychiatrists stick w/
__________, others use an eclectic approach
(choosing methods from _____________ kinds of
therapy + using the one that works best).
• The primary goal of therapy is to strengthen the
patient’s ________________ his/her life.
• It’s important that the patient believes
that he/she ________. The influence of a
patient’s hopes + expectations on his/her
___________ is called the placebo effect.
• Therapists • There are different types of therapists
(p.489), some are:
• ________ may/may not have training in
psych, but troubled people turn to them
more than any other types of therapists.
• Various groups of ______________.
• _____________ are licensed medical
doctors who specialize in abnormal
behavior. They can ______________ +
perform surgery.
• There are 3 characteristics of effective
therapists. He/she must:
• Be ______________________.
• Have plenty of empathy (a capacity for
warmth + _____________).
• Be experienced in dealing w/ people +
understanding their _____________.
• Group therapy • Therapy in which patients work together w/ the aid
of a leader to resolve _____________________.
• Advantages of group therapy:
• The chance to see how other people are
struggling w/ _______________.
• Get hope from seeing people ___________
__________ a similar problem.
• See how other people view them so they can
overcome the ___________ they have of
themselves.
• One therapist can help a large # of people
which the _______ of therapy.
• In _____________, the family all attends therapy
together + the therapist focuses on how they
________ w/ each other. The therapist can then
suggest ways of improving ___________________
w/in the family.
• In ______________, people who share a particular
problem voluntarily get together, often w/o the
active involvement of a _____________________.
End Section 1
• Psychoanalysis • Therapy aimed at making patients aware of their
_______________ so that they can gain control
over their behavior.
• It leads to the apparent sudden realization
of a ________ to their problem (known as
insight).
• Based on the theories of ________________.
• It’s a ______ procedure.
• Often begins w/ the therapist telling the patient
to talk about ______________________ (free
association). The therapist often says nothing
for long periods of time – only occasionally making
remarks or asking ?s to _______________. The
therapist may suggest unconscious motives to
explain what the patient is talking about, but
most of the work is ______________________.
• Often the patient experiences resistance (the
reluctance of a patient either to reveal painful
feelings or to examine ____________________
patterns).
• The therapist must help him/her work
around this by pointing out what is
happening or trying _________________.
• Another technique is dream analysis (__________
the content of patients’ dreams).
• Again, they are looking for ____________
thoughts + feelings causing them.
• The manifest content of the dream refers to
what a person __________ about the dream.
• The latent content of the dream refers to
the ___________________ represented
symbolically in the dream.
• Sometimes the patient experiences transference (a
process in which the patient begins to have ______
________________ similar to the feelings he/she
has toward some other _____________ in his/her
life – usually a _________).
• The therapist must remain ___________.
• Psychoanalysis requires an average of __________
+ years of therapy.
• Not beneficial for people who lose touch w/ reality
– like people w/ ______________.
• Humanistic • Focuses on the value, dignity, + worth of each
therapy person, + holds that healthy living is the result of
realizing _______________________.
• Uses client-centered therapy which is the belief
that the client + therapist are __________ in
therapy.
• Uses the words “____” instead of “_____”
to reflect the equal relationship of the
person + the therapist.
• Based on the theories of ______________.
• Client-centered therapists assume that people
are ___________ + capable of handling their own
lives. Problems occur when the true self is lost +
they begin to view themselves according to the
_____________________.
• An important goal is to help the person
recognize his/her own ________ +
confidence, so as to start living by his/her
_________________.
• It often begins w/ the client being encouraged
to ____________ about any troubling matters.
This free flow of images + ideas, w/ no
particular direction is known as nondirective
therapy.
• The therapist doesn’t direct the
___________ + tries to avoid giving any
__________.
• The therapist will restate + clarify the ______
the client has expressed (known as active
listening).
• There must be an atmosphere of unconditional
positive regard (the therapist’s consistent
expression of ______________________, no
matter what the client says + does).
• They try to set ____________ + consider the
__________________ to reach them.

End Section 2
• Cognitive • Focus on using ________ to control emotions +
therapies behaviors.
• Both cognitive + behavior therapies use
behavior modification (the systematic method
of changing the way a __________________).
• Cognitive therapies assume that ___________
– irrational or uninformed beliefs, expectations,
+ ways of thinking – ________ our behaviors,
attitudes, + emotions.
• So the patients have to change the way
they _______.
• Common techniques in cognitive therapies
include disconfirmation (confronting patients
w/ evidence that _________________ their
existing beliefs), reconceptualization (having
the patient work toward an ______________
______ to explain their experiences or current
observations), + ________ (working toward
understanding + deriving new or revised
beliefs).
• Cognitive therapies: • A form of psychological help aimed at changing
Rational-emotive unrealistic assumptions about ________ + other
therapy (RET) people.
• Developed by Albert Ellis. He believed that
people behave in deliberate + rational ways, given
their ___________ about life.
• Emotional problems occur when a person’s
assumptions are _______________
• The goal of RET is to correct the false + ______
__________________ of the patients.
• Techniques include role-playing, ______, humor,
+ _______________
• Ellis believed behaviors are a result of the ABCs.
• A___________________
• B___________________
• C___________________
• Taught that B (______!) causes C.
• Therapist + patient work together
to ___________.
• Patient must learn ___________.
• Cognitive therapies: • Aaron T. Beck came up w/ a therapy
Beck’s cognitive similar to RET. The difference is
therapy that his therapy stresses the focus
on the _______________________.
• Therapists use persuasion + logic to
change the patient’s ____________.
• Very successful w/ people suffering
____________.
• Again, the goal is to change the way
________________.
• Behavior • Focus on changing ___________________
therapies through conditioning techniques.
• Doesn’t try to spend a large amount of time
going over the patient’s ______________.
Instead the therapist concentrates on
determining what is _________________
the patient + taking steps to modify the
behavior.
• The idea is that the patient has learned to
behave in an undesirable way + that the
behavior _________________.
• The ____________ for the behavior aren’t
important.
• Once the behaviors change, the ________
____________ will change as well.
• Behavior therapies: • Involves pairing the stimulus that triggers an
Counterconditioning unwanted behavior w/ a new, more _________
_________.
• 3 step process:
1. The person builds an _______________
w/ the least feared situations on the
bottom + most feared on the top.
2. The person learns ________________
_____________.
3. The person imagines or experiences
each step in the hierarchy, working from
________________.
• Systematic desensitization is a technique which
is used to overcome irrational fears + anxieties.
The patient is encouraged to imagine the
feared situation while using ______________
____________.
• Aversive conditioning links an unpleasant state
w/ an unwanted behavior in an attempt to
_______________________.
• Other techniques used are modeling + flooding
(when the therapist exposes the patient to the
________________________________).
• Behavior therapies: • Based on the assumption that behavior
Operant conditioning that is reinforced _________________.
• In contingency management, the therapist
+ patient decide what old, undesirable
behavior ________________ + what new,
desirable behavior needs to appear.
• Used in _______, mental hospitals,
______, army bases, + w/ individual
patients.
• They set up token economies
(a system in which desirable
behavior is reinforced w/
______________ or points,
which can be accumulated +
exchanged for various
________).
• Useful in inducing patients
to begin leading _________.
• Cognitive- • Is based on a combination of _______________
behavior thoughts for negative thoughts/beliefs + changing
therapy disruptive behaviors in favor of _____________.
• Helps patients differentiate b/w serious, real
problems + ____________________ problems.
• Many ______________ use this approach.
• Proven ________ for treating a wide range of
problems.

End Section 3
• Biological • Assumes that there is an underlying
therapy _______________ for a person’s disturbed
behavior, faulty thinking, + inappropriate
__________.
• Uses methods like ________, electric shock,
+ surgery to help people w/ ____________
__________.
• B/c these treatments are medical in
nature, physicians or _____________
usually administer them.
• __________ may help decide if + when
a biological approach is necessary for a
particular patient.
• Some experts believe that biological
therapies should be reserved for people who
fail to respond to _____________. Others
believe that a combination of psychotherapy
+ biological therapy _____ for many patients.
• Biological • A biological therapy that uses _____________.
therapy: • It’s the most _____________ biological therapy.
drug therapy • Involves 4 main types of psychoactive medications:
antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs, lithium,
+ antianxiety drugs.
• Can only be obtained w/ a _____________.
• When patients stop taking the drugs, their
symptoms ____________________.
• These drugs often only _______________;
they don’t remove the ____ of the disorder.
• Antipsychotic drugs are medications used to
agitation, delusions, + hallucinations by blocking the
activity of _________ in the brain. They’re
tranquilizers.
• Used on people w/ _______________.
• Antidepressant drugs are medications that treat
major depression by the amount of one or both
of the ______________ noradrenaline + serotonin.
• Lithium carbonate is a chemical used to
counteract the mood swings of ________
__________.
• Antianxiety drugs are medications that
relieve anxiety + ______________ by
depressing the activity of the ________
__________________.
• Also known as sedatives or mild
___________ which excitability +
cause drowsiness.
• Can be helpful for helping normal people
cope w/ _____________ in their lives.
• Can also be helpful for _________
withdrawal.
• Biological • Biological therapy that involves
therapy: administering _______________ to the
electroconvulsive brain to try to the symptoms of
therapy (ECT) mental disturbance. “______________”.
• Has proven extremely __________ for
treating severe _________, acute mania,
+ some types of schizophrenia.
• Involves administering ______________
of about 70-150 volts for 0.1-1.0 sec over
the course of several weeks.
• It induces a _________________
similar to an epileptic seizure that
may last up to a minute.
• It’s considered very _____________.
• Used too much in the past w/
_____________. Today it involves
very little pain as patients are given
medication prior.
• Many may suffer minor _____________.
• Biological • A medical operation that _______________
therapy: _______ to make the patient calmer + freer
psychosurgery of symptoms.
• The most common operation is a prefrontal
lobotomy, which involves destruction of the
____________ of the brain, just behind the
forehead.
• This part of the brain contains the
most nerve connections that control
_________.
• This surgery used to be ______, but
when new drugs were developed.
Additionally, lobotomized patients
showed an _______________ + often
became apathetic + ______________.
• Effects of a lobotomy are _________
b/c destroyed brain tissue never
regenerates.
End Section 4