You are on page 1of 75

1.

WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Natural wood has certain properties that make it an
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification attractive building material:
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration • Natural warmth - to the touch; wood insulates
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment • Workability, easily shaped with simple tools
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD • Infinite variety; no two trees, or even pieces from the
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working same tree, are alike
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
• strength-to-weight ratio for bridges, boats, homes,
3.04 Physical Properties furniture
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood • Flexibility; watch how huge trees bend before the wind
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard • Fire protection; wood chars and therefore burns slowly,
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
doesn’t melt or crumble
4.06 Fibercement Board • Color: natural, through wood’s ability to receive many
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
types of stains and finishes
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.01 CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Woods are generally classified into:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
a. Softwoods come from the conifers (evergreens)
2.04 Deterioration which have needles instead of leaves, e.g. pine
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD b. Hardwoods come from the broad-leaved or
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working deciduous trees. Most Philippine timber are of this
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood latter kind
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood The terms “hardwood” and “softwood” are often
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard misleading because they have no direct relation to the
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board actual physical hardness or softness of the wood, so
4.06 Fibercement Board that a hardwood may actually be softer than a
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK softwood.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.02 STRUCTURE OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Sapwood
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure - is the softer, younger outer portion
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration of a tree that lies between the
2.05 Preservation cambium (formative layer just under
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD the bark) and the heartwood.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
- It is more permeable, less durable
3.04 Physical Properties and usually lighter in color than the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood heartwood.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.02 STRUCTURE OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Sapwood
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure - the portion of the log near
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration the periphery which is
2.05 Preservation generally lighter in color
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD than the central portion.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
- contains living cells and
3.04 Physical Properties takes an active part in the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood life process of a tree.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard - Because it contains more
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board organic matter than the
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
central core of the log, it
5.01 Mouldings is more susceptible to
6. PLASTICS IN blueing fungi and wood-
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification boring insects, and is not
6.02 Thermoplastics durable.
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.02 STRUCTURE OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Heartwood
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure - the older, harder central
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration portion of a tree.
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD - usually contains deposits
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working of various materials that
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
frequently give it a darker
3.04 Physical Properties color than sapwood.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard - is denser, less permeable
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard and more durable than
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board the surrounding sapwood.
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings - The central core of the
6. PLASTICS IN log, it is composed of
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification inactive cells and serves
6.02 Thermoplastics only as a mechanical
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics support
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.03 PROPERTIES OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER a. Hardness. This is measured by the compression
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure which a piece of timber undergoes when a weight
2.03 Seasoning is applied to it.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD b. Flexibility. The amount of piece will bend before
3.01 For Construction breaking . Softwoods are generally brittle while
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses most hardwoods are flexible.
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES c. Strength
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard d. Durability.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.04 DEFECTS OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER a. Decay – Caused by the attack
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure of fungi.
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD b. Checks –Cracks or lengthwise
3.01 For Construction separation across the annual
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses rings of growth caused by
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties irregular shrinkage during DECAY
4. WOOD COMPOSITES drying. Checks are formed
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard when the circumference
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard shrinks more than the interior
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board section of the log.
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN c. Shakes – These are cracks SHAKES
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
between and parallel to the
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
annual rings of the growth.
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.04 DEFECTS OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER d. Knots – These are irregular
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure growths in the body of a tree
2.03 Seasoning which interrupt the smooth
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation curve of the grain. The fibers of
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD the tree are turned from their
3.01 For Construction normal course and grow around
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses the knot at that point of the tree.
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard e. Pitchpockets – These are well- KNOTS
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard defined openings between
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board annual rings containing solid or
4.05 Particle Board
liquid pitch.
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
f. Wane – This is the lack of wood
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
on the edge or corner of a
Plastics piece. PITCHPOCKETS
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.04 DEFECTS OF WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods g. Warping - Any variation with
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification the plane surface of the piece
2.02 Measure caused by unequal shrinkage
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration of the board. There are
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment several forms of warp:
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Crook –a distortion of the board
Stresses in which the edge is convex or
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties concave longitudinal.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
Bow –a distortion of the
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
board in which the face is
4.05 Gypsum Board convex or concave
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board longitudinal.
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings Cup –a distortion of the board
6. PLASTICS IN in which the face is convex or
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification concave across the board.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
Twist –a distortion of the board
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, in which one corner is raised.
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.05 METHODS OF SAWING WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods A log of wood can be cut in two different ways to make
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification lumber:
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration a. Plainsawing
2.05 Preservation refers to lumber cut tangent to the annual rings or growth
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD or, in commercial practice, cut with annual rings at an angle
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working 0 to 45.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties Plainsawn lumber is preferable when a pleasing pattern is
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood required, as in wall paneling.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 1. WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 1.05 METHODS OF SAWING WOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
b. Quartersawing
2.01 Classification refers to wood cut radially to the annual rings of growth
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning parallel to the rays or, in commercial practice, cut with the
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation annual growth rings at an angle 45 to 90.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction Quartersawn lumber is desirable because it has less
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses shrinkage than plainsawn lumber, and this is important
3.03 Weights of Wood where joints must be kept tight.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.01 CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Wood that is used in construction is called LUMBER.
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
Lumber is classified by its size or dimensions measured
2.04 Deterioration in inches, for example, a piece of lumber measuring 2
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment inches by 4 inches is called 2 x 4.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Generally, they are available in even-numbered widths:
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood 4, 6, 8, 10,12 inches.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood There are four available classifications of lumber:
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard a. Strips. Lumber less than 2” thick and less than 8”
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board wide.
4.05 Particle Board
b. Board Lumber. Pieces less than 2” thick and at
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings least 8” wide.
6. PLASTICS IN c. Dimension Lumber. Pieces more than 2” and less
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
than 5” in any dimension.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
d. Timbers. Pieces 5” or more on the smallest
Plastics dimension
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.01 CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER The two most common classifications are
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure - Dimension Lumber and
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration - Board Lumber.
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD It is important to realize that the stated size of lumber is
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working not its actual finished size.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties Nominal size is the size of lumber when it is cut from the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood log. After cutting, the lumber is dried and then planed on
4.02 Hardboard all four sides to achieve smoothness. The finished size is
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
therefore smaller.
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, STRIP LUMBER DIMENSION LUMBER
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.01 CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER NOMINAL SIZE ACTUAL SIZE
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure For Dimension Lumber:
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation 2 x 4 1½ x 3½
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD 2 x 6 1½ x 5½
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working 2 x 8 1½ x 7½
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood 2 x 10 1½ x 8½
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES 2 x 12 1½ x 11½
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard For Board Lumber:
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board 1 x 4 ¾ x 3½
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board 1 x 6 ¾ x 5½
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings 1 x 8 ¾ x 7½
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE 1 x 10 ¾ x 9½
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics 1 x 12 ¾ x 11½
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.02 MEASUREMENT OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
Lumber is sold in lengths from 6’ up to 20’ in increments
2.01 Classification of 2’. Special lengths greater than 20’ are also available
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning but cost more per board foot than the standard lengths.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment Lumber measure is the board foot which may be
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD described as the measure of a piece of wood 1” thick,
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working 12” (or 1’) wide and 12” (or 1’) long.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties Board Feet = Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (ft.)
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
12
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.02 MEASUREMENT OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
Examples:
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning Compute the number of board feet in (a) a piece of ¾” x
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation 8” x 10’; (b) 10 pcs. of 2” x 6” x 14’; (c) 5 pcs. of 1” x 4” x
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
10’
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working 1 x 1 x 8 x 10 = 6-2/3 or 7 bd. ft.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood 12
3.04 Physical Properties 10 x 2 x 6 x 14 = 140 bd. ft.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood 12
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard 5 x 1 x 4 x 10 = 16 – 2/3 or 17 bd. ft.
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board 12
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK All lumber is sized according to its rough dimensions
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
as it comes from the saw, its size, however, is reduced
ARCHITECTURE after being surfaced or dressed by a planer.
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Thus, for example, 2 x 4 surfaced on four sides
Plastics (S4S) will only be 1-3/4 x 3-3/4. Dressed lumber costs
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, slightly more than rough.
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
Moisture has a big influence on the behavior and
2.01 Classification properties of wood. While water has been in wood
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning since its formation, yet after a tree is cut, water
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation becomes detrimental to it. It makes wood liable to the
2.06 Treatment
attack of insects and fungi and unfit for use.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses Water occurs in wood as free water found in cell
3.03 Weights of Wood cavities and intercellular spaces of the wood, and as
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES absorbed or hygroscopic water held in the cell walls.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard When surface moisture of wood comes in contact
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard with the air, it evaporates. The water equilibrium in
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
the log is upset and moisture from the interior travels
4.05 Particle Board towards the surface.
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN This is the beginning of the drying of wood in the log.
ARCHITECTURE The free water passes out first before the absorbed
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics water in the cell wall vaporizes.
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER When all free water is removed but all absorbed
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure water remains, the so-called “fiber-saturation point”
2.03 Seasoning (approximately 30% moisture content (M.C.) for all
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
species) is reached.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Shrinkage of the wood occurs at moisture content
Stresses percentages below the fiber saturation point.
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES The drying of the wood continues until the vapor
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
pressure in the air just balances the vapor pressure
4.04 Fiberboard on the wood surface.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
This condition of dryness of the wood is called
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings “equilibrium moisture content” (E.M.C.) and in the
6. PLASTICS IN Philippines this is equivalent to from 12 to 16 percent
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification moisture content.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
The process of removing moisture from green wood
2.01 Classification (wood from freshly-cut logs) is called seasoning.
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning Seasoning may done by:
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment a. AIR-DRYING in which the lumber is exposed to the air.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
b. KILN-DRYING in which warm moist air or superheated
2.01 Classification steam is used to heat the wood and drive out moisture.
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation The ideal condition in seasoning is for the moisture
2.06 Treatment
from the interior of the wood to replace the surface
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction moisture which vaporizes. When the moisture from the
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses surface escapes faster than that which travels from the
3.03 Weights of Wood interior to the surface, then there is equal drying in the
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES board and if the difference in moisture content is big,
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard shrinkage and then stress in the wood develops,
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard causing seasoning checks.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Seasoned lumber has many advantages over green
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification lumber:
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning a. It lessens the liability of the wood to be attacked by the
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation fungi causing blueing and decay, and by some wood-
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
boring insects.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working b. Reduction of weight.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties c. Increased strength.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood d. Minimum shrinkage after the lumber is in place (thus
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard avoids opening up of joints in doors, windows, siding,
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board etc.).
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
e. Reduced checking and warping.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN f. Increased nail-holding power of the wood (nails do not
ARCHITECTURE hold well when driven into green or unseasoned lumber
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics because of its softness).
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, g. Improvement of the wood for the application of paint
FILM AND FOAM and to receive wood preservatives, fire retardants.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.03 SEASONING OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
The advantages of kiln-drying over air-drying are:
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning a. Greater reduction in weight.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
b. Control of moisture content to any desired value.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses c. Reduction in drying time.
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES d. Killing of any fungi or insects.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard e. Setting the resins in resinous wood.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board f. Less degrade (Degrade is the loss in quality during
5. MILLWORK seasoning of the lumber through unequal shrinkage
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN which causes checks and loosening of knots,
ARCHITECTURE warping).
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.04 DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Decay
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure Molds, stains and decay in
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration wood are caused by fungi.
2.05 Preservation Their growth depends on mild
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD temperatures and dampness.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
Most decay occurs in wood with
3.03 Weights of Wood a moisture content above the
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES fiber saturation point. Usually
4.01 Plywood wood maintained at 20% M.C.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
or less is safe from fungus
4.05 Gypsum Board damage.
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK Wood that is constantly under water or continuously
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
dry will not decay. Care should be taken not to use
ARCHITECTURE wood where moisture can collect and remain.
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.04 DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Insects
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure There are several types of insects that attack wood:
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation • Subterranean termites which live in the ground and
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
build earthen tubes to reach their food – cellulose
3.01 For Construction which includes wood primarily but also paper and
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses pulp products. The channels formed as they eat all
3.03 Weights of Wood the wood substance tends to follow the grain.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.04 DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Insects
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure • Subterranean termites
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration In general, a complete barrier must be made
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment between the wood and possible earthen tubes of the
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction termites by:
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood  installing a shield made of metal or special
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
termite-proof materials.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard  Termite proofing the wood used for construction
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board close to earth;
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK  Poisoning the soil adjacent to the building.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN It is good practice to make a periodic check around
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification the building and under it for evidence of termites such
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting as earthen tubes. If signs of termites are noted,
Plastics immediate destruction of the tubes and poisoning of
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
the surrounding earth is necessary.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.04 DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Insects
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure • Non-Subterranean termites
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration The only relatively permanent method of arresting
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment attack is to use lumber that has been given full-
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction length termite proofing with wood preservatives.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
Attention to structural features and sanitation are
3.03 Weights of Wood also important.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard • Carpenter Ants and Powder-Pest Beetles
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard use wood for shelter rather than for food, but if they
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board are not found and are left undisturbed they can do
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
extensive damage. They convert wood to powder,
5.01 Mouldings shredded fibers or pellets. Their channels are likely
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
to cut across the grain. The damage to wood by the
6.01 Classification various marine organisms, mollusks and
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting crustaceans in salt water or brackish water is best
Plastics arrested by heavy, thorough treatment with coal-tar
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM creosote or creosote-coal tar solutions.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Wood can be treated to prevent or at least delay
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification destruction by fungi, insects, bacteria, marine organisms,
2.02 Measure and fire.
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment Wood preservatives used to forestall attack by decay,
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD fungi, harmful insects and marine borers are divided into
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working two general groups
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard • Coal-tar creosotes.
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard Black or brownish oil made
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board from distilling coal tar.
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
Advantages are: highly toxicity
5.01 Mouldings to wood-destroying
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
organisms; insolubility in
6.01 Classification water; ease of application.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting Disadvantages are its strong,
Plastics unpleasant odor, cannot be
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM painted, easily ignited when
8. LAMINATES first applied .
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
• Creosotes derived from wood, oil, and water gas.
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration Has same advantages as coal-tar creosote but is
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment less effective .
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction • Creosotes solutions
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood a mixture of coal-tar or petroleum oils and 50 to 80%
3.04 Physical Properties by volume of coal-tar creosotes.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard Has same advantages as coal-tar creosotes but is
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard less effective
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
• Pentachlorophenol
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration a mixture of petroleum oils and 5%
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment pentachlorophenol.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Has high protection against decay fungi and
Stresses termites; can be painted; has no unpleasant odor;
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties is less easily ignited than coal-tar creosotes.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood Provide less protection against marine borers.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard Pentachlorophenol is also dissolved in oil, leaving a
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board clean brown-colored surface. It was used
4.05 Particle Board extensively for lumber and posts when introduced
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings in the 1930s, but now is specified almost
6. PLASTICS IN exclusively for the treatment of utility poles and
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
cross arms.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
• Chromated Zinc Chloride (CZC)
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration Gives protection against decay, insects and fire;
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment can be painted on; has no objectionable odor.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Disadvantages are: wood cannot be used in
Stresses contact with the ground or water
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure • Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
• Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate (ACA)
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction CCA and ACA are dissolved in water for pressure
3.02 Allowable Working treating, producing a product that is clean and
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood odorless.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES Both preservatives bond with the wood after
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
pressure treating in a chemical process known as
4.04 Fiberboard fixation, producing treated wood that is highly
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board leach-resistant and safe to use in applications with
4.05 Particle Board
regular human contact.
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
Provides good protection against decay and
ARCHITECTURE insects; can painted on; has no objectionable odor.
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics Wood can be used in contact with the ground but
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics generally recommended for contact with water.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
Preservative Applications
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation Creosote Railway ties, mine timbers, poles,
2.06 Treatment foundation piles, marine piles and
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction bulkheads
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses Pentachlorophenol Utility poles, cross arms, bridge timbers
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties and ties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood ACA Piles, utility poles, marine timbers,
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard construction lumber
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board CCA Guide rail posts, utility poles, bridge
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board timbers, piles, structural glued-laminated
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings timbers, landscape timbers, posts,
6. PLASTICS IN boardwalks, permanent wood
ARCHITECTURE foundations and residential construction,
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics decking and fencing
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.05 PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods The methods of applying preservatives are:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
a. Pressure treatment. Consists in placing the
2.03 Seasoning wood in cylinders into which the preservative is
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation pumped under pressure
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction b. Hot and Cold Bath Method. This consists first in
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses placing the wood in a bath of hot preservative for
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties an hour or more. It is then withdrawn and quickly
4. WOOD COMPOSITES placed in a bath of cold preservative. This is
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard generally used for creosote preservative
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board c. Dipping or immersing the wood in a hot
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
preservative for a short time
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE d. Brushing
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.06 TREATMENT OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods There are two methods of treating wood to increase its
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification fire-resistance:
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning a. Covering the wood with a compound or material.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation Such superficial coatings or layers protective materials
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD retard the normal increases in temperature under fire
3.01 For Construction conditions and thereby decrease the rate of flame
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses spread. This in turn lessens the rate of flame penetration
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties and therefore the destruction of wood in contact with fire.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
Coatings or layers of protective material over the surface
4.03 Chipboard are good only for interior purposes because they are not
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board durable when exposed to the weather. These are water-
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board soluble, fire retardant chemicals generally are trade-
5. MILLWORK marked formulation of ammonium phosphate, borax or
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
sodium silicate combined with other materials to provide
ARCHITECTURE adherence to the wood, brush-ability, appearance and
6.01 Classification color.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics There are also chemicals with low water soluble such as
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, zinc borate, chlorinated paraffin and chlorinated rubber
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES which are used for fire retardant coatings.
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 2. LUMBER
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 2.06 TREATMENT OF LUMBER
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER b. Impregnating the wood with a chemical which the
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure wood itself not support combustion. The chemicals
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
commonly used for impregnation are:
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment - monobasic ammonium phosphate
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction - dibasic ammonium phosphate
3.02 Allowable Working - ammonium sulfate
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood - borax, boric acid and
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES - zinc chloride
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard PRESSURE TREATED LUMBER AND PLYWOOD:
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board
WOLMANIZED Lumber and Plywood
5. MILLWORK Preservative : Wolman salts.
5.01 Mouldings TANALIZED Lumber and Plywood
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
Preservative - Tanalith G Wood Preservative salts.
6.01 Classification PERMANIZED Lumber and Plywood
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting Preservative – B-S-25.
Plastics BOLIDEN Lumber and Plywood.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure Wood Composites are those products made from a
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
mixture of wood and other materials. Most wood
2. LUMBER composites are produced in large sheets, usually
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure 1220mm (4’) x 2440mm (8’).
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation 4.01 PLYWOOD
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction Plywood is the most common
3.02 Allowable Working wood composite. It gets its
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood name from its construction: it is
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES made of several thin plies, or
4.01 Plywood veneers, of wood that have
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard been glued together. Each ply
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board or veneer is glued so that its
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board grain is at right angles to the
5. MILLWORK grain of the previous ply.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE The outside plies are called the face and the back, and
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
the center plies are called the core. The cross-layering
6.03 Thermosetting make plywood very stable and strong.
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.01 PLYWOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
Coatings or layers of
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
protective material over
2.04 Deterioration the surface are good
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment only for interior purposes
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD because they are not
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working durable when exposed to
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood the weather.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard These are water-soluble, fire retardant chemicals
4.03 Chipboard generally are trade-marked formulation of ammonium
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
phosphate, borax or sodium silicate combined with
4.05 Particle Board other materials to provide adherence to the wood,
5. MILLWORK brush-ability, appearance and color.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE There are also chemicals with low water soluble such
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics as zinc borate, chlorinated paraffin and chlorinated
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
rubber which are used for fire retardant coatings.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.01 PLYWOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods a. Standard Sizes of Plywood:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning Plywood is commonly available in:
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation 3’ x 6’ (900mm x 1800mm) and
2.06 Treatment 4’ x 8’ (1220mm x 2440mm)
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Standard thicknesses are:
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood 3/16” (4.5mm) for double wall partitions and ceilings
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES ¼” (6.0mm) for double wall partitions
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
3/8” (10.0mm) for drawers and shelves
4.03 Chipboard ½” (12.0mm) for drawers and shelves
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board ¾” (19.0mm) for drawers, shelves, cabinet and
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board closet doors
5. MILLWORK 1” (25.0mm) for cabinet and closet doors, and sub-
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
floors
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.01 PLYWOOD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods b. Advantages of Plywood:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning • the approximate equalization of strength properties
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation along its length and width;
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction • greater resistance to checking and splitting; and
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
• less change in dimension due to moisture content
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard c. Types of Plywood:
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board • Ordinary Plywood
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board • Form Plywood
5. MILLWORK • Marine Plywood – waterproofed
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
• Fancy Plywood:
ARCHITECTURE  Narra bookmatch  Dao bookmatch
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics  Kalantas Rotary cut  Rosewood
6.03 Thermosetting  Tanguile Ribbon-grain Tanguile
Plastics
 Lauan Rotary cut
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.02 HARDBOARD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods This is a paneling material
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification made by reducing and
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning refining wood chips into
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation small, threadlike fibers, and
2.06 Treatment then pressing them under
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction heat in hydraulic pressure
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses into dense, smooth, and
3.03 Weights of Wood very rigid panels.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood In the production process the pulp is exploded under
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard pressure. Heat and steam is applied to leave fine, fluffy
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board brown fibers. These fibers are transformed into mats,
4.06 Fibercement Board which are held together with lignum and other glues. The
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK mats are than pressed between steam-heated metal
5.01 Mouldings plates to give grainless sheets with one smooth, glossy
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE surface and one textured surface. To prevent warping,
6.01 Classification moisture is added in a humidification chamber.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.02 HARDBOARD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Hardboards are a cheaper option than plywood
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification where strength is not required.
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation Hardboard has a smooth surface on one side and a
2.06 Treatment screened surface on the other. It is sometimes
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction known as Masonite, after the man who invented it.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood There are three types of hard board:
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood a. Standard hardboard
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard is light brown in color and has a fairly hard, smooth
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
surface on one side and a screened impression on
4.05 Particle Board the other. It is flexible and easy to bend. It is suitable
5. MILLWORK for interior use only and where it is not subject to
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN moisture.
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification b. Panel hardboard
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
is somewhat denser than the Standard but not as
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, dense as Tempered.
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.02 HARDBOARD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods c. Tempered hard board
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification is the densest type, made by impregnating standard
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning board with tempering compound of oils and resins and
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation baking it to polymerize the tempering materials. It is
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD dark brown in color, brittle and stiff, with improved
3.01 For Construction machining qualities and greater resistance to moisture
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses and water penetration, making it ideal for exterior use
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood Hardboard is usually in panel size of 4’x8’ (1220mm x
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard 2440mm) with thicknesses of 1/8” (3mm), 3/16” (4.5mm)
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board or ¼” (6mm), and is obtainable either with a plain,
4.06 Fibercement Board textured, or perforated surface.
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings Brand names of Hardboard:
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE LAWANIT standard and tempered boards
6.01 Classification LAWANEX panel boards
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting MASONITE standard, panel and tempered hard board
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.03 CHIPBOARD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods Chipboard is made by bonding together wood particles
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification with an adhesive under heat and pressure to form a
2.02 Measure rigid board with a relatively smooth surface, often
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration faced with veneer. It is made by binding phenolic resin
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment or urea formaldehyde glue.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Board
4.05 Particle Board Chipboard is available in a number of densities;
5. MILLWORK normal, medium and high-density.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN - Normal density is fairly soft and 'flaky‘
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics - High-density is very solid and hard (often used for
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics worktops and fire doors)
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM - Medium density is somewhere in between
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.04 FIBERBOARDS and MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER Fiberboards are finishing materials made from
2.01 Classification vegetable fibers such as corn or sugarcane stalks
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning pressed into sheets. It is not very strong, but has
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation good insulating properties therefore it is usually used
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD for ceiling only.
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
It is generally 4’x8’ (1220mm x 2440mm) panel size, in
3.04 Physical Properties thicknesses of 3/16” (4.5mm) or ¼” (6mm), ½” (12mm)
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood and ¾ “ (19 mm).
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard Acoustic fiber board is manufactured from wood, straw,
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd bagasse pulp pressed into boards with or without holes or
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
slots. Thicknesses of acoustic fiber board vary from ½ “
5.01 Mouldings to 2” (12 to 50mm) in ½” (12mm) increments.
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification Brand names of Fiberboard:
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting CELOTEX, CANEX, HOMASOTE, PHILTEX, BONOTEX
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.04 FIBERBOARDS and MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods MDF is a type of fiberboard
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification which is made from wood
2.02 Measure fibers glued under heat and
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration pressure. MDF has many
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment qualities that make it an ideal
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD alternative to plywood or
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working chipboard.
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
It is dense, flat, stiff, has no
4.01 Plywood knots and is easily machined.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard Its fine particles provide a
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board material without a recognizable
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board "grain".
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN Unlike plywood, MDF contains no internal voids, and will
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification produce better edges providing that it is correctly
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting machined.
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.05 GYPSUM BOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods This is a non-combustible
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification building board with a gypsum
2.02 Measure core enclosed in tough,
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration smooth paper. It is designed to
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment be used without addition of
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD plaster for walls, ceilings or
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working partitions. It is extensively used
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood in “dry-wall” construction,
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
where plaster is eliminated
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard Brand Names:
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard BORAL
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd ELEPHANT
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE Square Edge (S.E.) Tapered Edge (T.E.)
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics for coverstrip jointing; for smooth seamless
6.03 Thermosetting visible butt - jointed
Plastics jointing; jointless wall
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, panelling with clamp fixing and ceiling panelling
FILM AND FOAM and free suspension.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.05 GYPSUM BOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods The types of Gypsum Board are:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure a. Wall Board
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration This type is used for surface layer on interior walls and
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment ceilings. The regular wallboard comes with grey liner
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction paper backing and special paper finish on the facing
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
and edges suitable for decoration. The foil-backed
3.03 Weights of Wood gypsum board has aluminum foil bonded to the liner
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES paper to serve as vapor barrier and thermal insulation.
4.01 Plywood Predecorated gypsum board comes with a decorative
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
vinyl or paper sheet on its face.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board b. Backing Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings This is used as base layer in multi-ply construction,
6. PLASTICS IN where several layers of gypsum boards are desired for
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification high fire resistance, sound control and strength in walls.
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.05 GYPSUM BOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods c. Core Board
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification To save space, this type is used as a base in a multi-ply
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning construction of self-supporting (studless) gypsum walls.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation It comes in 1” (25mm) thickness or 2- factory-laminated,
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD ½ “ thick layers of backing board .
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
d. Type X Gypsum Board
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES For use in fire-rated assemblies, this may be wallboard,
4.01 Plywood backing board, or coreboard made more fire-resistant
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
by addition of glass-fiber or other reinforcing materials
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board e. Water-Resistant Backing Gypsum Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings This type comes with water-resistant gypsum core and
6. PLASTICS IN water-repellant face paper. It maybe used as base for
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification walls of bathrooms, showers, and other areas exposed
6.02 Thermoplastics to wetting.
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.05 GYPSUM BOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER f. Gypsum Sheathing
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure This type is used as fire protection and bracing of
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
exterior frame walls. It must be protected from the
2.06 Treatment weather by an exterior facing.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working g. Gypsum Formboard
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties This type is used as a permanent form in the casting of
4. WOOD COMPOSITES gypsum concrete roof decks.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.06 FIBERCEMENT BOARDS
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER Fiber-reinforced cement board is comprised of 72%
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure Portland Cement, 20% mineralized cellulose fibers
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
derived from recycled materials, and 8% calcium
2.05 Preservation carbonate.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 4. WOOD COMPOSITES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure 4.07 PARTICLE BOARD
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER Particleboard is made of small wood chips and base
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure materials including cotton stalk, rice straw, bagasse,
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
conventional wood chips and sawdust that have been
2.05 Preservation pressed and glued together.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 5. MILLWORK
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure Millwork consists of finished lumber which is further cut
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
and processed at a lumber mill. Millwork includes doors,
2. LUMBER windows, mouldings, trim and other ornamental forms of
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure wood.
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation 5.01 TYPES OF WOOD MOULDINGS
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction Types of wood mouldings are:
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses a. crown
3.03 Weights of Wood b. bed
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES c. cove
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard d. quarter-round
4.03 Chipboard e. half-round
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
f. nose and cove
4.05 Particle Board g. stop
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
h. astragal
6. PLASTICS IN i. Screen moulding
ARCHITECTURE j. panel strip
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics k. picture moulding
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 5. MILLWORK
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 5.01 TYPES OF WOOD MOULDINGS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties The term PLASTICS is essentially a commercial
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods classification to which no strict scientific definition can be
2. LUMBER applied. It is used to describe a product of synthetic origin
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
which is capable of being shaped at some stage of its
2.04 Deterioration manufacture, but is not rubber, wood, leather or metal.
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
It is made from a number of common substances such as
3.02 Allowable Working coal, salt, natural gas, cotton, wood and water, from
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood which relatively simple chemicals known as monomers
3.04 Physical Properties are built up into chainlike molecules of high molecular
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood weight called polymers.
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board These polymers have low extensibility, can be molded,
4.06 Fibercement Brd extruded, cut or worked into a variety of shapes and
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK objects, rigid or non-rigid, relatively light, which are
5.01 Mouldings formed by condensation polymerization and by vinyl
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE polymerization.
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting Plastics can be hard, soft, clear, opaque, light, heavy,
Plastics heat resistant or easily softened by hot water.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.01 CLASSIFICATION OF PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods In a broad sense, there are three (3) types of Plastics:
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
- Cellulose plastics
2.03 Seasoning - Synthetic resin plastics
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation - Plastics derived from proteins and natural
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
resins
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Synthetic resin plastics are subdivided into two (2) classes:
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood a. Thermoplastics
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES soften when heated and harden when cooled
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard regardless of the number of times the process is
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard repeated. They have a molecular structure which is
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd essentially linear or threadlike in form.
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK b. Thermosetting plastics
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN Thermosetting plastics, sometimes called thermocuring
ARCHITECTURE plastics, set into shape permanently when heat and
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics pressure are applied during the forming stage. They
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics have a molecular structure in a 3-dimensional
7. PLASTIC SHEETS, arrangement
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER a. ACRYLIC
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning Popular brands are “LUCITE” and “PLEXIGLASS”, this
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation material combines the transparency of glass (but not
2.06 Treatment scratch-proof quality) with plastics’ shatterproof quality.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction Used principally for skylights, skydomes, safety glass,
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
paints, adhesives, finish hardware, & lighting fixtures
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM PLEXIGLASS
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER b. CELLULOSICS
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
primarily cellulose acetate or butyrate, used principally
2.05 Preservation for paints and lacquers, and transparent sheeting.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses c. POLYETHYLINE (PE)
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES - Ziegler PE is a hard, strong,
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard tough and rigid thermoplastic for
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard household and industrial
4.05 Gypsum Board applications.
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings - ICI PE developed by Imperial Chemical Industries
6. PLASTICS IN of Britain is a high-pressure, low-density PE that is
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification flexible, tough and slightly resilient thermoplastic used
6.02 Thermoplastics in construction as pond or lagoon lining, and water-
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics vapor barriers and dampproofing.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER d. POLYSTYRENE
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning In spite of its sensitivity to solvent action, its is one of
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation most important thermoplastics because of its excellent
2.06 Treatment transparency and rigidity and its easy moldability. It is
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction non-water absorbent, it is found in colorful, but brittle
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
wall tiles. It is one of several plastics used in lighting
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
fixture diffusers. In foam form, it has become an
4. WOOD COMPOSITES important thermal insulator. Also found in paint for
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard concrete.
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER e. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning is a largely amorphous, rigid, tough, solvent-resistant,
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation flame-resistant thermoplastic. Used for resilient floor
2.06 Treatment tile, films, pipes, and for paint lacquers, adhesives and
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction safety glass.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER f. POLYCARBONATES
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning a family of linear polyesters, is a white, substantially
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation amorphous, very tough and strong material with good
2.06 Treatment heat resistance up to 150 deg C and excellent
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction dimensional stability. It is injection-molded to produce
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
plates, rods, gears, and other shaped parts that
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
advantageously replace die-cast metal parts. Used for
4. WOOD COMPOSITES skylights.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER g. POLYPROPYLENE
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning tough plastic with good resistance to heat and chemical
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation action.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER h. NYLONS
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning The term nylon refers to a family of polymers called
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation linear polyamides. It is desired for the following
2.06 Treatment properties: exceptionally strong, elastic, abrasion
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction resistant, easy to wash, resistant to damage from oil
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
and many chemicals, can be precolored or dyed in
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
wide range of colors, and resilient .
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER i. FLUOROPLASTICS
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning are a class of paraffinic polymers that have some or all
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation of the hydrogen replaced by fluorine. The fluoroplastic
2.06 Treatment group is characterized by excellent chemical
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction resistance, excellent heat resistance, good electrical
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
properties, and excellent wear resistance. However,
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
despite these attributes, perhaps the most desired
4. WOOD COMPOSITES characteristic of this group of plastics is their ability to
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard resist abrasion .
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.02 EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER j. ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (ABS)
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning is a styrenic resin with improved toughness and heat
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation resistance. ABS exhibits high gloss, low shrinkage, and
2.06 Treatment good dimensional stability, is widely used in injection
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction molding of appliances, furniture, and automotive parts.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
ABS also has high melt strength suitable for the
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
production of extruded sheet, some of considerable
4. WOOD COMPOSITES size and thickness. Applications include panels for
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard large appliances and thermoformed items such as hot
4.03 Chipboard tubs and recreational vehicle parts .
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.03 EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER a. MELAMINE and UREA
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning hard, durable and dimensionally stable, these similar
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation plastics are resistant to chemicals, electric potential,
2.06 Treatment and heat. Melamine is well known for its use in molded
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction dishes, while urea is useful for incandescent light
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
diffusion and for baked enamels .
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.03 EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER b. EPOXY
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning used in buildings for its remarkable adhesive qualities.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation It may also be used for special paints that are
2.06 Treatment chemically resistant and for special caulking
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction compounds.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.03 EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER c. ALKYDS
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning appear chiefly as molded electrical parts, and as the
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation vehicle in paints, lacquers, and enamels .
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
d. PHENOLICS
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN used for paints, baked enamels, adhesives,
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification impregnating resins for paper and wood, and finish
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting hardware.
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.03 EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER e. POLYESTER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
the plastic most commonly
2.05 Preservation used in large glass-fiber
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD reinforced translucent
3.01 For Construction panels that are strong,
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses rigid, and impact-resistant.
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties Also used for impregnating
4. WOOD COMPOSITES paper and wood, as
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard laminating material, and for
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard contact adhesive.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 6. PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties 6.03 EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
f. URETHANES
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning used in paint coatings, and as foams, are self-adhesive.
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK g. SILICONES
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN used for clear, water-
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
repellant paints for
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
concrete and masonry
Plastics surfaces above grade .
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 7. PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties a. SHEETS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
Usually made of acrylate, polyester, or polystyrene
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
plastics, either plain or reinforced with glass-fiber, are
2.04 Deterioration available in flat or corrugated sheets and various
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment deformed shapes.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working Thicknesses vary from 1.5mm to 2.38mm (1/16 to 3/32
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood inches).
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood Plastic sheets can be used to replace glass in any type
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard of windows or doors, skylights, shower enclosures, or in
4.04 Fiberboard any area where a translucent, transparent or opaque
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
material in a wide variety of colors are needed in the
5. MILLWORK interior.
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
As corrugated sheet, plastics make good roofing
6.01 Classification material and other similar uses as sheet plastic .
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 7. PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties b. FILM SHEETS
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification As water barrier or dampproofing material, it is
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning generally made of polyethylene and polyvinyl and
2.04 Deterioration come in thicknesses ranging from 1 to 10 mils
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment (0.001 to 0.01 inch) and in rolls of 50’ length and 3’
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction to 40’ width.
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood For building construction, 2, 4 and 6 mils are most
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES commonly used.
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
Over tamped earth or sand fill, use 4 mil.
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board Over gravel and stone, use 6 mil.
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
Use the widest width possible and lap 6” (150mm)
ARCHITECTURE where necessary .
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 7. PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties c. FOAM
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification Used as flotation material, thermal insulators, and
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning shock-resistant mountings. Offers possibilities for
2.04 Deterioration lightweight materials of high strength .
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE 8. LAMINATES
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties Lamination is the process applied to paper or fabric
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods impregnated with thermosetting resins.
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure Cotton cloth and paper are used as filler materials,
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration usually in sheet forms, that are bonded together by
2.05 Preservation heat and pressure to form an integral body.
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction The thickness of the laminate is determined by the
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
number of sheets placed between the two steel pans
3.03 Weights of Wood or platens of the press used in the process.
3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood Decorative laminates of various wood-grain, marble,
4.02 Hardboard and colored patterns are extensively used for
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard tabletops and wall facings .
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
ARCHITECTURE
1.01 Classification
1.02 Structure
1.03 Properties
1.04 Defects
1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
2.01 Classification
2.02 Measure
2.03 Seasoning
2.04 Deterioration
2.05 Preservation
2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
3.01 For Construction
3.02 Allowable Working
Stresses
3.03 Weights of Wood
End of
3.04 Physical Properties Div 06 WOODS AND PLASTICS
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
4.01 Plywood
4.02 Hardboard
4.03 Chipboard
4.04 Fiberboard
4.05 Gypsum Board
4.06 Fibercement Brd
4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
ARCHITECTURE
6.01 Classification
6.02 Thermoplastics
6.03 Thermosetting
Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES