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* Example: Age, Height & weight of Joe is 37 yrs, 72 inch &

175 pounds respectively.

37 10

Joe 72 Mary 30

125 61

25 66

Carol 65 Johny 67

121 155

* Notation of vector- Bold, lowercase letters-

* Graphical representation of vector-

When a vector has no more than

3 components, it can be represented

graphically by a point or arrow in

3-D space.

*

* Multiplication by scalars-

* If a is a scalar & v a vector, where

𝐯 = [𝑥1 𝑥2 ] then

𝐚𝐯 = 𝑎 𝑥1 𝑥2 = [𝑎𝑥1 𝑎𝑥2 ]

* Geometrically, scalar multiplication is lengthening or

shortening of v ,pointing it in same or opposite direction.

* 2 vectors that are scalar multiples of one another are

collinear-lies along same line.

*

* Addition of vectors-

𝑥1 𝑦1 𝑥1 𝑦1

* If 𝐱 = 𝑥2 & 𝐲 = 𝑦2 then 𝐱 + 𝐲 = 𝑥2 + 𝑦2

𝑥3 𝑦3 𝑥3 𝑦3

* Add components together

* Vectors must have same no: of components

* Vector addition is associative & commutative

* Example:

2 3 2+3 5

If 𝐱 = 7 & 𝐲 = 2 then 𝐱 + 𝐲 = 7 + 2 = 9

−5 12 −5 + 12 7

*

* Graphical representation of vector addition-

* Sum of a & b is the diagonal of parallelogram with sides a & b.

* Sum of 2 vectors is a vector that lies in the same plane as the

vectors being added.

* Example: Calculating averages- Find average age, height

& weight of 4 individuals in Fig.

resulting sum by scalar ¼.

* Let u denote average vector. Then,

1 37 10 25 66 34.5

𝐮= 72 + 30 + 65 + 67 = 58.5

4

175 61 121 155 128

1

𝐮 = (𝐯𝟏 + 𝐯𝟐 + 𝐯𝟑 + 𝐯𝟒 )

4

*

*𝒖 is a linear combination of 𝒗1 & 𝒗2 if 𝒖 can be written as

scalar multiples of 𝒗1 & 𝒗2

𝒖 = 𝒄𝟏 𝒗𝟏 +𝒄𝟐 𝒗𝟐 ----------eqtn 1

* Linear Combinations of vectors(Contd)-

1 3 9

* Example: Consider 𝒗1 = 2

, 𝒗2 =

2

&𝐮=

10

Eqtn 1 is satisfied for 𝒄𝟏 =3 and 𝒄𝟐 =2.Thus, 𝒖 is a linear combination

of 𝒗1 & 𝒗2

* 𝒗𝟏 & 𝒗𝟐 spans the plane since any vector in plane can be

formed as linear combination of 𝒗𝟏 & 𝒗𝟐

* In general, 𝒗 is a linear combination of 𝒗1 , 𝒗2 … . 𝒗𝑛 if 𝒄1 , 𝒄2 … . 𝒄𝑛

can be found such that:

𝒗 = 𝒄𝟏 𝒗𝟏 +𝒄𝟐 𝒗𝟐 + ⋯ 𝒄𝒏 𝒗𝒏

1 0 0

* Example: 0 , 1 & 0 span all 3-D space since any vector 𝒗 =

𝑎 0 0 1

𝑏 can be written as

𝑐

1 0 0

𝒗=𝑎 0 +𝑏 1 +𝑐 0

0 0 1

These 3 vectors are referred as standard basis for 3-D space.

* Linear Independence-

* 2 vectors used to span 2-D space- 10 &

0

1

1 0 0

* 3 vectors used to span 3-D space- 0 , 1 & 0

0 0 1

* n vectors used to span n-D space

* If at least 1 set of n vectors can be written as linear

combination of other, then vectors span something less than a

full n-D space & the set of vectors are linearly dependent.

* Examples:

1 2 −1

* 1 1

, &

3

is linearly dependent & spans only 2-D space since

−1 1 2

=7 −4

3 1 1

1 2

* 1

&

2

is linearly dependent & spans only 1-D space since

2 1

=2

2 1

* Linear Independence(Contd)

* If none of the vectors can be written as a linear combination

of others, then set of vectors is linearly independent.

* Examples:

1 2

* 1

&

1

are linearly independent & spans 2-D space.

1 0 −2

* 2 , 1 & 0 are linearly independent & spans all 3-D space.

3 2 1

* There can be no more than n linearly independent vectors in

n-D space.

* Linear Independence(Contd)

* A set of vectors {v1, v2, …, vk} is linearly independent if the

only set of scalars c1, c2, …, ck that satisfies eqtn 2 is the set

c1 = c2 = … = ck = 0

c1v1 + c2v2 + … + ckvk = 0 --------Equation 2

linearly dependent or linearly independent

S = { v1 = (1, 2, 3), v2 = (0, 1, 2), v3 = (2, 0, 1)}

Solution: c1v1 + c2v2 + c3v3 = 0

c1(1, 2, 3) + c2(0, 1, 2) + c3(2, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 0)

(c12c3, 2c1+c2, 3c1+2c2 +c3) = (0, 0, 0)

c1 = c2 = c3 = 0

Therefore, S is linearly independent.

*

* Vector space is set 𝑽 of vectors 𝒗1 , 𝒗2 … . 𝒗𝑛 with following

properties:

* To every vector pair 𝒖, 𝒗 ∈ 𝑽, 𝒖 + 𝒗 ∈ 𝑽(Sum) such that

vector addition is commutative & associative.

* For any scalar c & any vector 𝒗 in 𝑽, c 𝒗 ∈ 𝑽(product) such

that scalar multiplication is associative & distributive.

*

* Used to define length of a vector or similarity between vectors.

* Inner product of 2 vectors is sum of product of vector components.

* Defined only if vectors have same number of components.

* Inner product of vectors 𝒗 and 𝒘 is 𝒗. 𝒘

𝒗1 𝒘1

If 𝒗 = 𝒗2 & 𝒘 = 𝒘2 , 𝒗. 𝒘=𝒗1 𝒘1 + 𝒗2 𝒘2 +𝒗3 𝒘3

𝒗3 𝒘3

3 1

* Example: If 𝒗 = −1 & 𝒘 = 2 , 𝒗. 𝒘 = 3.1 + −1.2 + (2.1)=3

2 1

* Inner Products(Contd)- Inner product of a pair of vectors

measures following characteristics:

1. Length- Square root of inner product of vector with itself:

𝒗 = 𝒗. 𝒗

* Multiplying vector by scalar produces new vector whose length

is absolute value of scalar times the length of old vector.

𝑐𝒗 = 𝑐 𝒗

* Property of triangle inequality- length of sum of two vectors is

less than or equal to sum of lengths of 2 vectors:

𝒗1 + 𝒗2 ≤ 𝒗1 + 𝒗2

Geometrically, it corresponds to

statement that one side of a triangle is

no longer than sum of lengths of other 2 sides.

2. Angle-Angle between vectors 𝒗 and 𝒖 is:

𝒗.𝒖

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝒗 𝒖

*Example: If 𝒗 = 0

1

&𝒖=

1

1

,

𝒗.𝒖

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝒗 𝒖

0.1 +(1.1) 1

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = =

[ 0.0 + 1.1 ]1/2 +[ 1.1 + 1.1 ]1/2 2

0

𝜃 = 45

* Equation for angle in terms of components of vectors gives:

σ𝒏

𝒊=𝟏 𝒗𝒊 𝒖𝒊

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝟏/𝟐 𝟏/𝟐

(σ𝒏

𝒊=𝟏 𝒗𝒊

𝟐) (σ𝒏

𝒊=𝟏 𝒖 𝒊

𝟐)

*Geometrical interpretation- Imagine moving 2 vectors around

in space like hands on a clock. If we hold length of vectors

constant, then equation for angle says that inner product is

proportional to the cosine of angle. Also Inner product 𝒗. 𝒖 =

𝒗 𝒖 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃,

* When 𝜃=00 , 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 1 is maximum, 𝒗. 𝒖 is also maximum.

* When 𝜃=900 , 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 0 , 𝒗. 𝒖 = 𝟎, vectors are said to be

orthogonal.

* When 𝜃=1800 , 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = −1 is minimum, 𝒗. 𝒖 is also minimum and

vectors point in opposite directions.

*Closer the 2 vectors are, larger the inner product.

*More the vectors point in opposite directions, the more

negative the inner product.

*Orthogonal vectors are vectors which lie at right angles to one

another.

*Set of orthogonal vectors- Every vector in set is orthogonal to

every other vector in the set. i.e., every vector lies at right

angle to every other vector. Eg: standard basis in 3-D space.

*Every orthogonal set is linearly independent.

*When we choose a basis for a space, we typically choose an

orthogonal basis.

3. Projections-

* Projection of one vector onto another.

* 𝒙 is the projection of 𝒗 on 𝒘:

𝑥 = 𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

direction of 𝒘.

* Relation between inner product & projection-

𝒗.𝒘 𝒗.𝒘

𝑥 = 𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝒗 =

𝒗 𝒘 𝒘

* If the lengths of 𝒗 and 𝒘 are held constant, then inner

product as well as projection gets larger as 𝒗 moves towards

𝒘.

4. Inner products in 2 dimensions-

* 𝒗 and 𝒘 -vectors on plane.

* 𝒗𝑥 and 𝒗𝑦 -x and y coordinates of 𝒗.

* 𝒘𝑥 and 𝒘𝑦 -x and y coordinates of 𝒘.

* l-projection of 𝒗 on 𝒘,𝒍 = 𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃.

* 𝒍𝑥 and 𝒍𝑦 -x and y coordinates of 𝑙.

* Triangles OAD & COB (Fig.1) are similar triangles, ratio of

corresponding sides is constant:

𝑂𝐷 𝐶𝐵 𝑙𝑦 𝒘𝑦 𝒗𝑦 . 𝒘𝑦

= ⇒ = ⇒ 𝑙𝑦 =

𝑂𝐴 𝐶𝑂 𝑣𝑦 𝒘 𝒘

* Triangles CAB & EOD (Fig.2) are similar triangles, ratio of

corresponding sides is constant:

𝐴𝐵 𝑂𝐷 𝑙𝑥 𝒘𝑥 𝒗𝑥 . 𝒘𝑥

= ⇒ = ⇒ 𝑙𝑥 =

𝐴𝐶 𝑂𝐸 𝑣𝑥 𝒘 𝒘

Fig.1 Fig.2

* Inner products in 2 dimensions(Contd)-

𝒗𝑥 . 𝒘𝑥 𝒗𝑦 . 𝒘𝑦

𝑙 = 𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝑙𝑥 + 𝑙𝑦 = +

𝒘 𝒘

𝒗𝑥 . 𝒘𝑥 + 𝒗𝑦 . 𝒘𝑦

𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝒘

𝒗. 𝒘

𝒗 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝒘

𝒗. 𝒘

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝒗 𝒘

5. Algebraic properties of inner product-

* 𝒄 & 𝒄𝑖 - any scalar.

* 𝒗 and 𝒘 – n-D vector.

𝒗. 𝒘= 𝒘. 𝒗-------------Eqtn 1

𝒄 𝒗. 𝒘 = 𝒄𝒗 . 𝒘 = 𝒗. (𝒄𝒘) -------------Eqtn 2

𝒘. 𝒗1 + 𝒗2 = 𝒘. 𝒗1 + 𝒘. 𝒗2 ------------Eqtn 3

Combining Eqtn 2 & 3,

𝒘. 𝒄1 𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝒗2 = 𝒄1 (𝒘. 𝒗1 ) + 𝒄2 (𝒘. 𝒗2 )

In general,

𝒘. 𝒄1 𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝒗2 + ⋯ 𝒄𝑛 𝒗𝑛 = 𝒄1 𝒘. 𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝒘. 𝒗2 + ⋯ 𝒄𝑛 𝒘. 𝒗𝑛

*

Fig.1 Fig.2

* Scalar u – activation of o/p unit.

* Vector 𝒗– activations of i/p units.

* Vector 𝒘– Set of n weights between i/p units & o/p unit.

* ith component of 𝒗 is activation of ith input unit. Since there

are n input units, 𝒗 is an n-D vector.

* Associated with each link between input units & output unit,

there is a scalar weight value & set of n weights is n-D vector

𝒘.

* Operation of model:

* Assume activation of each input unit is multiplied by weight on

its link & these products are added up to give activation of

output unit.

* Activation of o/p unit is inner product of its weight vector

with vector of i/p activations.

u = 𝒘. 𝒗

* O/p activation u gives an indication of how close i/p

vector 𝒗 is to the stored weight vector 𝒘.

* Inputs lying:

* close to weight vector will give a large positive response.

* near 900 will give zero response.

* pointing in opposite direction will give a large negative

response.

* Functioning of processing unit- It splits i/p space into 2

parts:

* Part where response is +ve, o/p is 1.

* Part where response is –ve, o/p is 0.

* This unit is called Linear threshold unit.

*

* Matrices-

* Matrix- array of real no:s.

* If array has m rows & n columns, it is an m*n matrix.

* Example: 3 4 5

3 0 0

10 −1

𝑀= ,𝑁 = 0 7 0 ,P =

1 0 1 −1 27

0 0 1

* Special matrices-

* Square matrix

* Diagonal matrix

* Symmetric matrix

* Identity matrix

* Multiplication by scalars-

3 4 5 9 12 15

* Example: 3𝑀 = 3 1 0 1

=

3 0 3

* Addition of matrices-

3 4 5 −1 0 2 2 4 7

* Example: 𝑀 + 𝑁 = 1 0 1

+

4 1 −1

=

5 1 0

* Multiplication of vector by a matrix-

𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥 ∗ 𝑉𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 𝑎 𝑛𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

1

* Example:W = 31 4 5

0 1

,𝒗= 0

2

1

3 4 5 13

u = W𝒗 = 0 =

1 0 1 3

2

* 2 row vectors in matrix W & forming inner product of these 2

row vectors with 𝒗, we get a 2-D vector u.

* In general, if W is an 𝑚 ∗ 𝑛 matrix &

𝒗, an n-D vector,

Then product u = W𝒗 is an m-D vector, whose elements are

inner products of 𝒗 with row vectors of W.

* Another method- Breaking matrix W into column vectors &

multiplying each column vector with each elements of vector 𝒗

to produce 𝒖 that is linear combination of column vectors of W.

Coefficients of linear combination are components of 𝒗.

1

* Example:W = 31 4 5

0 1

,𝒗= 0

2

* Let 𝒘𝟏 , 𝒘𝟐 & 𝒘𝟑 be column vectors of W & 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 & 𝑣3 be

components of 𝒗. Then,

𝒖 = 𝑣1 𝒘𝟏 + 𝑣2 𝒘𝟐 + 𝑣3 𝒘𝟑

3 4 5 13

= 1 +0 +2 =

1 0 1 3

* In general, for a matrix with n columns,

This operation is mapping or function from one set of vectors

to another set of vectors.

* Consider an n-D vector space 𝑽 (domain) & an m-D vector

space 𝑼(range), then operation of multiplication by a fixed

matrix W is a function from 𝑽 to 𝑼. It is a function whose

domain & range are both vector spaces.

*

𝑾(𝒂𝒗)= 𝐚 𝑾𝒗-------------Eqtn 1

𝑾 𝒖 + 𝒗 = 𝑾𝒖 + 𝑾𝒗------------Eqtn 2

Combining Eqtn 1 & 2,

𝑾 𝒄1 𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝒗2 + ⋯ + 𝒄𝑛 𝒗𝑛 = 𝒄1 𝑊𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝑊𝒗2 + ⋯ 𝒄𝑛 (𝑊𝒗𝑛 )

𝑀𝒗 + 𝑁𝒗 = 𝑀 + 𝑁 𝒗

M & N must have same number or rows & columns.

*

the n input units.

* Let 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 … 𝑢𝑚 be activation of m output units.

* Each output unit has its own weight vector 𝒘𝒊 , separate

from other output units.

* Activation of an output unit is given by inner product of

its weight vector with input vector.

𝑢𝑖 = 𝒘𝒊 . 𝒗

* Form a matrix W whose row vectors are 𝒘𝒊 . Let 𝒖 be

vector whose components are 𝑢𝑖 .Then

𝒖 = 𝑊𝒗

* For each input vector 𝒗, network producesan output

vector 𝒖 whose components are activations of output

units.

* Another way to draw the network- At each junction, a

weight connects an i/p to o/p unit.

A matrix appears in equation linking

o/p vector to i/p vector.

*

* A function f represents a system with i/p x and an o/p y:

𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥)

* f is linear if for any i/ps x1 & x2, and any real number c,

following equations holds:

𝑓 𝑐𝑥 = 𝑐𝑓 𝑥

𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑥2 = 𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑓(𝑥2 )

* In a linear system,

* In a nonlinear system, response to sum is much larger or

smaller than would be based on i/ps taken separately.

* For scalar functions of a scalar variable, the only linear

function are those in which o/p is proportional to input:

𝑦 = 𝑐𝑥

* Many systems are scalar or vector functions of a vector i/p.

For a fixed vector w, the function

𝑢 = 𝐰. 𝐯

is a scalar function of a vector i/p v and is linear because

𝐰. 𝑐𝐯 = 𝑐 𝐰. 𝐯

𝐰. 𝐯1 + 𝐯2 = 𝐰. 𝐯1 + 𝐰. 𝐯2

* A system in which o/p is obtained from input by matrix

multiplication is a linear system since

𝑾(𝒂𝒗)= 𝐚 𝑾𝒗

𝑾 𝒖 + 𝒗 = 𝑾𝒖 + 𝑾𝒗

Thus, the one layer of PDP system is an example of linear

system.

* If we know o/p to all of the vectors in i/p set {𝑣𝑖 }, then we can

calculate o/p to any linear combination of 𝑣𝑖 . i.e., if

𝑾𝒗 = 𝑾 𝒄1 𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝒗2 + ⋯ + 𝒄𝑛 𝒗𝑛 = 𝒄1 𝑊𝒗1 + 𝒄2 𝑊𝒗2 + ⋯ 𝒄𝑛 (𝑊𝒗𝑛 )

* 𝑊𝒗1 , 𝑊𝒗2 , … (𝑊𝒗𝑛 ) are known vectors which are o/p to vectors

𝑣𝑖 . Multiply these vectors by 𝑐𝑖 to calculate o/p when v is presented.

* Application-

* Study of physical system(electronic or physiological) by measuring its

responses to various inputs. If it is a linear system, first measure

responses to a set of basis that constitute a basis for input space. Then

responses to any other input vector can be calculated based on

measurements already made.

*

* Consider two-layer or cascaded system.

* Output of 1st system becomes input to

2nd system & described by two matrix-vector

multiplications.

* I/p vector v multiplied by matrix N to get vector z on the

intermediate set of units: 𝐳 = 𝐍𝐯-------------eqtn 1

and z is multiplied by M to produce vector u on uppermost set of

units: 𝐮 = 𝐌𝐳 -------------eqtn 2

* Substituting eqtn 1 in 2 gives response for the composite system:

𝐮 = 𝐌(𝐍𝐯) -------------eqtn 3

* Equation 3 relates i/p vectors v to the o/p vectors u.

* Matrix multiplication allows to replace the 2 matrices in

Equation 3 by a single matrix P=MN.

* (i,j)th element of P is the inner product of ith row of M

with jth column of N.

* Thus, a 2-layer system is equivalent to a one-layer system

with weight matrix P.

* Cascaded matrix of any n-layer system can be replaced by

a single matrix which is the product of n matrices.

* MN≠NM

* Product of 2 matrices is defined only if:

* no: of columns of 1st matrix=no: of rows of 2nd matrix.

* (r*s matrix)*(s*t matrix)=(r*t matrix)

* Example:

3 4 5 1 2 (3 + 8 − 5) (6 + 0 + 5) 6 11

1 0 1 2 0 = (1 + 0 − 1) (2 + 0 + 1) = 0 3

0 1 2 −1 1 (0 + 2 − 2) (0 + 0 + 2) 0 2

* Another way of matrix multiplication-

* Each column vector of P is product of matrix M with

corresponding column vector in N.

* For eg: 1st column of P=1st column of N * Matrix M

M,N & consider what the element in 1st row & 1st column

of P should be. This element gives strength of connection

between 1st component of i/p vector v & 1st component of

o/p vector u.

* In the cascaded system, there are s paths through which

connection between 1st component of i/p vector v & 1st

component of o/p vector u occurs. To get strength of

equivalent one-layer system,

𝑝11 = 𝑚11 𝑛11 + 𝑚12 𝑛21 … … … 𝑚1𝑠 𝑛𝑠1

* In general, the strength of connection between jth element

of v & ith element of u :

𝑝𝑖𝑗 = 𝑚𝑖1 𝑛1𝑗 + 𝑚𝑖2 𝑛2𝑗 … … … 𝑚𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑠𝑗

This calculates inner product between ith row of M & jth

column of N.

* Algebraic properties of matrix multiplication-

𝐌 c𝐍 = c𝐌𝐍

𝐌 𝐍 + 𝐏 = 𝐌𝐍 + 𝐌𝐏

𝐍 + 𝐏 𝐌 = 𝐍𝐌 + 𝐏𝐌

*

* 𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯 describes a function or mapping from one vector

space (domain) to another vector space(range). It

associates a vector u in the range with each vector v in

domain.

* But knowing that it is a linear function constrains the form

the mapping between domain & range can have:

* If 𝐯𝟏 and 𝐯𝟐 are close together in domain, then vectors

𝒖𝟏 = 𝐖𝐯𝟏 and 𝒖𝟐 = 𝐖𝐯𝟐 must be close together in range.

(Continuity property of linear functions)

* If 𝐯𝟑 is a linear combination of 𝐯𝟏 and 𝐯𝟐, and the vectors

𝒖𝟏 = 𝐖𝐯𝟏 and 𝒖𝟐 = 𝐖𝐯𝟐 are known, then 𝒖𝟑 = 𝐖𝐯𝟑 is

completely determined as linear combination of 𝒖𝟏 and 𝒖𝟐 .

* If we have a set of basis vectors for domain, and it is known

which vector in range each basis vector maps to, then

mappings of all other vectors in domain are determined.

* Consider square matrix W multiplied by vectors 𝐯𝟏 and 𝐯𝟐 .

* Vectors will change direction as well as length when

multiplied by a matrix.

v2 Wv2

Wv1

v1

these vectors, matrix multiplication is no different than

multiplication by a scalar. Such vectors are known as

Eigenvectors.

* Each eigenvector v of a matrix obeys the equation:

𝐖𝐯 = 𝛌𝐯

where 𝛌 is a scalar called an eigenvalue & indicates how

much v is lengthened or shortened after multiplication by

W.

* Example:

4 −1 1 1 4 −1 1 1

* 2 1 2

=2

2

OR

2 1 1

=3

1

3 0 1 1 3 0 0 0

* 0 4 0

=3

0

OR

0 4 1

=4

1

* Each vector that is collinear with an eigenvector is itself

an eigenvector.

* An n*n matrix can have up to, but no more than n distinct

eigenvalues that corresponds to different directions. Also,

the n associated eigenvectors are linearly independent.

* Consider an n*n matrix W with n distinct eigenvalues &

associated eigenvectors .

* If we have a set of basis vectors for the domain of a

matrix, and if we know vectors in range associated with

each basis vector, then mapping of all other vectors in

domain are found.

* Eigenvectors of W form such a basis since there are n

linearly independent eigenvectors. Also the vectors in

range are associated with each eigenvector 𝐯𝒊 as scalar

multiples given by : 𝐖𝐯 = 𝛌𝐯

* Consider an arbitrary vector 𝐯 in the domain of W. it can

be written as linear combination of eigenvectors, since

they form a basis:

𝐯 = 𝐜𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + 𝐜𝟐 𝐯𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 𝐯𝐧 Eqtn 1

𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯 Eqtn 2

Substitute eqtn 1 in 2

𝐮 = 𝐖(𝐜𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + 𝐜𝟐 𝐯𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 𝐯𝐧 )

𝐮 = 𝐜𝟏 (𝐖𝐯𝟏 ) + 𝐜𝟐 (𝐖𝐯𝟐 ) + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 (𝐖𝐯𝐧 ) Eqtn 3

Also 𝐖𝐯𝐢 = 𝛌𝐯𝐢 , substituting in eqtn 3

𝐮 = 𝐜𝟏 𝛌𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + 𝐜𝟐 𝛌𝟐 𝐯𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 𝛌𝒏 𝐯𝐧 Eqtn 4

* No matrices in Eqtn 4. Each term 𝐜𝒊 𝛌𝒊 is a scalar. Matrix

multiplication has been reduced to simple linear

combination of vectors.

* If we know eigenvectors & eigenvalues of a matrix, there

is no need to store the matrix. The matrix can be written

as linear combination of eigenvectors multiplied by

associated eigenvalues.

* Eigenvectors turn matrix multiplication into simple

multiplication by scalars.

*

* Transpose-

* Transpose of an n*m matrix W is an m*n matrix denoted 𝐖 𝐓.

* i,j th element of 𝐖 𝐓 is j,i th element of W .

* Example:

𝑇 3 1

3 4 5

= 4 0

1 0 2

5 2

* Row vectors of 𝐖 𝐓 are column vectors of W, and column

vectors of 𝐖 𝐓 are row vectors of W.

* Algebraic properties of Transpose-

(𝐖 𝐓 )𝐓 = 𝐖

(𝐜𝐖)𝐓 = 𝐜𝐖 𝐓

(𝐌 + 𝐍)𝐓 = 𝐌 𝐓 + 𝐍 𝐓

(𝐌𝐍)𝐓 = 𝐍 𝐓 𝐌 𝐓

* A matrix W is symmetric if 𝐖𝐓 = 𝐖.

*

3 0

* Let 𝐯 = 1 & 𝐮 = 4

2 1

0

* Then, 𝐯𝐓 𝐮 = 3 1 2 4 = [6] is inner product of

1

vectors 𝐯 and 𝐮.

0 0 0 0

* Consider product 𝐮𝐯𝐓 = 4 3 1 2 = 12 4 8 .

1 3 1 2

* 𝒏𝟐 inner products are calculated.

* i,j th element of resulting matrix is equal to product 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 .

* Products of the form 𝐮𝐯𝐓 are called as outer products.

* If 𝐖 = 𝐮𝐯𝐓 , then ith row of W is given by

𝐰𝐢 = ui 𝐯

u𝐢 is ith component of vector 𝐮.

*

* Simple linear PDP systems are modelled by the equation

𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯

* Case I: 𝐮 has only one component u.

Find a weight vector w such that it gives

output u when input vector is v.

u = 𝐰. 𝐯

u and v are given, w is unknown.

* If we choose w=v, then w.v = v.v = 1≠ u.

* If we choose w=uv, then

w.v = (uv).v = u(v.v) = u.

* Geometrically, finding w corresponds to

finding a vector whose projection on v is u.

Any vector along dotted line will work.

* Case II: u has more than

one component.

* Each o/p unit has a weight

vector & they form rows of W.

* Each unit calculates inner product b/w its weight vector & i/p

vector v, which are components of o/p vector u.

* i th weight vector is given by: 𝐰𝐢 = ui 𝐯

* Find weight matrix W when i/p v and o/p u is given.

* Let W=𝐮𝐯𝐓 , then 𝐖𝐯 = 𝐮𝐯𝐓 𝐯 = 𝐮 𝐯 𝐓 𝐯 = 𝐮

* This is called Hebbian learning rule or local learning rule where, a

matrix W is chosen that associates a particular o/p vector u to an

i/p vector v.

* Given n-D o/p vectors 𝐮𝟏 , 𝐮𝟐 ,….. 𝐮𝐧 to be associated with n-D i/p

vectors 𝐯𝟏 , 𝐯𝟐 ,….. 𝐯𝐧 . For each i, we wish to have

𝐮𝐢 = 𝐖𝐯𝐢

Case I:Assume vectors 𝐯𝐢 form a mutually orthogonal set & 𝐯𝐢 is of

𝐓 1 if i = j

unit length: 𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐣 = ቊ

0 otherwise

𝐓

Form a set of matrices using learning scheme as: 𝐰𝐢 = 𝐮𝐢 𝐯𝐢

Form a composite weight matrix W which is sum of 𝐰𝐢

𝐖 = 𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐 +. . +𝐖𝐢 +. . 𝐖𝐧

For any arbitrary i,

𝐖𝐯𝐢 =(𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐 +. . +𝐖𝐢 +. . 𝐖𝐧 ) 𝐯𝐢

𝐓 𝐓 𝐓 𝐓

= (𝐮𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + 𝐮𝟐 𝐯𝟐 + ⋯ 𝐮𝐢 𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ 𝐮𝐧 𝐯𝐧 ) 𝐯𝐢

𝐓 𝐓 𝐓 𝐓

= (𝐮𝟏 𝐯𝟏 )𝐯𝐢 + (𝐮𝟐 𝐯𝟐 )𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ (𝐮𝐢 𝐯𝐢 )𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ (𝐮𝐧 𝐯𝐧 ) 𝐯𝐢

𝐓 𝐓 𝐓 𝐓

= 𝐮𝟏 (𝐯𝟏 𝐯𝐢 ) + 𝐮𝟐 (𝐯𝟐 𝐯𝐢 ) + ⋯ 𝐮𝐢 (𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐢 ) + ⋯ 𝐮𝐧 (𝐯𝐧 𝐯𝐢 )

= 0 + 0 + ⋯ + 𝐮𝐢 . 𝟏 + ⋯ + 0

= 𝐮𝐢

* Case II: When set of i/p vectors is not orthogonal, Hebb

rule will not correctly associate o/p vectors with i/p

vectors.

* But, a modification of Hebb rule called Delta rule or

Widrowhoff rule can make such associations.

* Requirement for delta rule to work is that i/p vectors are

linearly independent.

* Case III: For square matrices, knowledge of eigenvectors

permits an important simplification: matrix multiplication

of a vector can be replaced by scalar multiplication.

* We can fit in Hebbian learning with the idea of

eigenvectors.

* We want vectors 𝐮𝐢 = 𝐖𝐯𝐢 = 𝛌𝒊 𝐯𝐢 , where 𝐯𝐢 are i/p

vectors.

* Using outer product learning rule,

𝐖 = 𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐 +. . +𝐖𝐢 +. . 𝐖𝐧 where

𝐓 𝐓

𝐖𝐢 = 𝐮𝐢 𝐯𝐢 = 𝛌𝒊 𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐢

Presenting vector 𝐯𝐢 to matrix 𝐖 thus formed,

𝐖𝐯𝐢 =(𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐 +. . +𝐖𝐢 +. . 𝐖𝐧 ) 𝐯𝐢

𝐓 𝐓 𝐓

= (𝛌𝟏 𝐯𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + ⋯ + 𝛌𝐢 𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ 𝛌𝐧 𝐯𝐧 𝐯𝐧 ) 𝐯𝐢

𝐓 𝐓 𝐓

= 𝛌𝟏 𝐯𝟏 𝐯𝟏 𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ + 𝛌𝐢 𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐢 𝐯𝐢 + ⋯ 𝛌𝐧 𝐯𝐧 𝐯𝐧 𝐯𝐢

= 𝟎 + ⋯ + 𝛌𝐢 𝐯𝐢 . 𝟏 + ⋯ + 𝟎

𝐖𝐯𝐢 = 𝛌𝐢 𝐯𝐢 ------------------eqtn 1

* Eqtn 1 shows that 𝐯𝐢 is an eigenvector of 𝐖 with

eigenvalues 𝛌𝐢 .

* When we calculate a weight matrix 𝐖 using Hebbian

learning rule & associate i/p vectors to scalar multiples of

themselves, then those i/p vectors are eigenvectors of 𝐖.

* Once we have eigenvectors & eigenvalues of a matrix, 𝐖

need not even be calculated.

* All input-output combinations can be done using equation:

𝐮 = 𝐜𝟏 𝛌𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + 𝐜𝟐 𝛌𝟐 𝐯𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 𝛌𝒏 𝐯𝐧

*

* Inverse of a matrix 𝐖 is another matrix 𝐖 −𝟏 that obeys

following equations:

𝐖𝐖 −𝟏 = 𝐈

𝐖 −𝟏 𝐖 = 𝐈

𝐈 is identity matrix.

* Example:

𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑

𝐖= 𝐖 −𝟏 =

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑

𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑 𝟏 𝟎

𝐖𝐖 −𝟏 = =

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑 𝟎 𝟏

𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑 𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 𝟏 𝟎

𝐖 −𝟏 𝐖 = =

𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏

* Consider equation 𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯 where 𝐮 and 𝐖 are known & 𝐯

is unknown. Multiply both sides of equation by 𝐖 −𝟏 .

𝐖 −𝟏 𝐮 = 𝐖 −𝟏 𝐖𝐯 = 𝐈𝐯 = 𝐯

* Thus solution of 𝐯 is given by: 𝐯 = 𝐖 −𝟏 𝐮.

* Example: Find vector 𝐯 that satisfies the equation:

𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 𝟑

𝐯=

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟑

𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑 𝟑

Here 𝐖 = , 𝐖 −𝟏 = ,𝐮 =

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑 𝟑

𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑 𝟑 𝟏

𝐯 = 𝐖 −𝟏 𝐮 = =

𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑 𝟑 𝟒

* Equation 𝐯 = 𝐖 −𝟏 𝐮 is a linear mapping . Domain of mapping is

range of 𝐖 and range of mapping is domain of 𝐖.

* 𝐖−𝟏 represent function from one vector space to another.

* For every 𝐮 in domain of 𝐖−𝟏 , there can only be one 𝐯 in the

range such that 𝐯 = 𝐖 −𝟏 𝐮. If 𝐖 maps any two distinct points 𝐯1

and 𝐯2 in its domain to same point 𝐮 in its range, (𝐖 is not one-

to-one) then there can be no 𝐖 −𝟏 to represent inverse

mapping.

* A matrix has an inverse only if its column vectors are

linearly independent.

* For square matrices with linearly dependent column

vectors & non-square matrices, an inverse called

Generalised inverse can be defined which performs part

of inverse mapping.

* Rank of matrix- number of linearly independent column

vectors in a matrix.

* An n*n matrix has full rank if its rank is n. The condition

that a matrix has an inverse is equivalent to condition

that it have full rank.

*

* A basis for a vector space is a set of linearly independent

vectors that span the space.

* To make a change of basis, we need to describe the

vectors & matrices in terms of new basis.

* Numbers that are used to represent a vector are relative

to a particular choice of basis. When we change basis,

these numbers, called coordinates also changes & we

have to relate coordinates in a new basis to coordinates in

old basis.

* Example:

2

* Consider vector 𝐯 which in standard basis have coordinates

1

* Change basis by choosing two new basis vectors:

1 1/2

𝐲𝟏 = , 𝐲𝟐 =

−1 1

* 𝐯 can be written as linear combination of 𝐲𝟏 and 𝐲𝟐 by using coefficients

1 & 2.

2 1 1/2

𝐯= = 𝟏. 𝐲𝟏 + 𝟐. 𝐲𝟐 = 1. + 2.

1 −1 1

* Let 𝐯 ∗ represent 𝐯 in new basis, then

1

𝐯∗ =

2

* The coordinates of a vector 𝐯 in a new basis 𝐲𝟏 , 𝐲𝟐 ,…,𝐲𝒏 is the

coefficients 𝐜𝐢 in the equation:

𝐯 = 𝐜𝟏 𝐲𝟏 + 𝐜𝟐 𝐲𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝐜𝐧 𝐲𝐧 ------- eqtn 1

* Form a matrix 𝐘 whose columns are the new basis vectors 𝐲𝐢 &

let 𝐯 ∗ be the vector whose components are 𝐜𝐢 . From eqtn 1,

𝐯 = 𝐘𝐯 ∗

where 𝐯 ∗ is unknown.

* To calculate unknown vector 𝐯∗ , use inverse matrix 𝐘 −1

𝐯 ∗ = 𝐘 −1 𝐯

1 1/2

* Example: Letting 𝐲𝟏 = −1 , 𝐲𝟐 = , we have

1

𝟏 𝟏/𝟐 −1 𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑

𝐘= &𝐘 =

−𝟏 𝟏 𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑

𝟐/𝟑 −𝟏/𝟑 2 1

Thus 𝐯 = 𝐘 𝐯 =

∗ −1

=

𝟐/𝟑 𝟐/𝟑 1 2

* Consider a square matrix 𝐖 that transforms vectors using

equation 𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯.

* We change basis & write 𝐯 and 𝐮 in the new basis as 𝐯∗ and

𝐮∗ .

* Find a matrix 𝐖∗ such that

𝐮∗ = 𝐖 ∗ 𝐯 ∗

* Convert 𝐯∗ back to original basis,

then map from 𝐯 to 𝐮 using matrix 𝐖,

and finally convert 𝐮 to 𝐮∗ .

𝐯 = 𝐘𝐯 ∗ ,𝐮 = 𝐖𝐯,𝐮∗ = 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐮

Putting these 3 equations together,

𝐮∗ = 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐮

= 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖𝐯

= 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖𝐘𝐯 ∗

Thus 𝐖 ∗ must be equal to 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖𝐘.

* Matrices related by an equation of the form 𝐖 ∗ = 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖𝐘 are

called similar.

* Consider matrix 𝐖 and change its basis to eigenvectors of 𝐖.

* Find matrix 𝐖∗ in new basis.

* For each eigenvector 𝐲𝐢,

𝐖𝐲𝐢 = 𝜆𝐢 𝐲𝐢

* If 𝐘 is a matrix whose columns are 𝐲𝐢, then

𝐖𝐘 = 𝐘𝜦

where 𝜦 is a diagonal matrix whose entries on main diagonal

are eigenvalues 𝜆𝐢 . Now multiply both sides by 𝐘 −𝟏

𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖𝐘 =𝜦= 𝐖 ∗

Thus matrix 𝐖 ∗ = 𝜦. When we use eigenvectors as new basis,

the matrix corresponding to 𝐖 in new basis is a diagonal matrix

whose entries are eigenvalues.

* Change of basis for PDP models-

* A linear structure of a set of vectors remain the same over

a change of basis. i.e., if a vector can be written as a

linear combination of a set of vectors in one basis, then it

can be written as the same linear combination of those

vectors in all bases.

* Example: Let 𝐰 = a𝐯𝟏 + b𝐯𝟐 . Let 𝐘 be matrix of change of

basis, then

𝐰 ∗ = 𝐘 −𝟏 𝐖

= 𝐘 −𝟏 a𝐯𝟏 + b𝐯𝟐

= 𝐚𝐘 −𝟏 𝐯𝟏 + b𝐘 −𝟏 𝐯𝟐

= 𝐚𝐯𝟏 ∗ + 𝐛𝐯𝟐 ∗

Thus change of basis is a linear operation.

* Behaviour of a linear PDP model depends entirely on

linear structure of i/p vectors.

*

* Consider one unit of PDP model which computes closeness

of its weight vector & i/p vector in space.

* Draw a line perpendicular to weight vector

at some point. All vectors on this line

project to same point on weight vector,

their inner product with weight vectors are

equal.

* All vectors to left of line have smaller inner product & all

vectors to right have larger inner product.

* Choose fixed number as threshold for unit such that if

inner product>threshold, unit outputs a 1& if

inner product <threshold, unit outputs a 0.

* Such a unit breaks space into 2 parts.

* The use of threshold & unit can be used to classify

patterns as belonging to one group or another.

* The threshold permits unit to make a decision. All i/p

vectors on same side of space lead to same response.

* A function relating activation of unit & its output is shown

in Fig. It produces a 1 or 0 based on

magnitude of activation.

* Also possible to have probabilistic

threshold. The farther activation is above

threshold, more likely unit is to have an

output of 1 & vice versa.

* Another example of an underlying linear model modified with

a nonlinear function is subthreshold summation.

* In biological systems,2 stimuli presented separately to

system provoke no response, although when presented

simultaneously a response is obtained. Once the system is

responding, further stimuli are responded to in a linear

fashion.

* Only if sum of activations

produced by vectors exceeds T will

a response be produced. There is a

linear range in which system responds

linearly.

* Subthreshold summation suppresses

noise. System will not respond to small random i/ps that are

assumed to be noise.

* All physical systems have a limited dynamic range. i.e.,

response of system cannot exceed a certain maximum

response.

* Figure shows a linear range followed by cutoff.

* System will behave linearly until o/p

reaches M, at which point no further

increase can occur.

Figure below shows a nonlinear function

Which also have a maximum output M.

It is called sigmoid & combines noise suppression with a

limited dynamic range.

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