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Retrofitting Seismically Deficient Concrete Structures
Retrofitting Seismically
Deficient Concrete
Structures
Retrofitting Seismically Deficient Concrete Structures Murat Saatcioglu PhD,P.Eng. Professor and University Research Chair Department of Civil

Murat Saatcioglu PhD,P.Eng. Professor and University Research Chair Department of Civil Engineering The University of Ottawa Ottawa, ON

The Problem  A large proportion of current building infrastructure consists of non-ductile reinforced concrete frame

The Problem

  • A large proportion of current building infrastructure consists of non-ductile reinforced concrete frame systems, especially those;

  • built prior to the enactment of modern seismic code provisions,

  • built in areas where code enforcement can not be ensured.

Seismic Retrofit Strategy?  Retrofitting individual non-ductile elements (jacketing, FRP etc.)  Bracing the structure so

Seismic Retrofit Strategy?

  • Retrofitting individual non-ductile elements (jacketing, FRP etc.)

  • Bracing the structure so that lateral drift is minimized and non-ductile members are not forced beyond their elastic limits.

Seismically Deficient Concrete Elements  Columns  Beam-Column Joints  Beams  Shear Walls

Seismically Deficient Concrete Elements

  • Columns

  • Beam-Column Joints

  • Beams

  • Shear Walls

Deficiencies in Concrete Columns  Shear  Concrete Confinement  Reinforcement Splicing

Deficiencies in Concrete

Columns

  • Shear

  • Concrete Confinement

  • Reinforcement Splicing

Shear Deficiency Kobe Earthquake 1995

Shear Deficiency

Shear Deficiency Kobe Earthquake 1995

Kobe Earthquake

1995

Lack of Confinement San Fernando 1971 Nortridge 1994

Lack of Confinement

Lack of Confinement San Fernando 1971 Nortridge 1994

San Fernando 1971 Nortridge 1994

Lack of Confinement San Fernando 1971 Nortridge 1994
Splice Deficiency

Splice Deficiency

Splice Deficiency
Possible Retrofit Strategies for Columns
Possible Retrofit Strategies for
Columns
  • Steel Jacketing

  • Reinforced Concrete Jacketing

  • FRP Jacketing

  • External Prestressing

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing

Design for Confinement:

  • Determine the required plastic rotation of the plastic hinge, q p

  • Determine the plastic curvature,

f p = q p /L p

where; L p = g + 0.044 f y d b

Find the required curvature; f m = f y + f p

  • Compute the maximum compression strain from e cm = f m c

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing

According to Priestley (1996), the maximum compressive strain is related to the volumetric

ratio of steel jacket through;

e

cm

0.004

1.4

s

f

yj

e

sm

'

f

cc

Where; e sm is the strain at maximum strain in the steel jacket

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing

Substituting s = 4t j /D and solving for t j ;

t

j

0.18(

e

cm

'

0.004)Df

cc

f

yj

e

sm

f’ cc = f’ co + 4.1 f = f’ co + 8.2t j f yj /D

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing

Design for Lap Splice Deficiency:

t

j

2.42A

b

f D

y

4p

s

(0.0015E )

sj

Where; s is the lap splice length and p is an equivalent perimeter of cracked concrete around the longitudinal bars

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing

Design for Shear:

t

j

V /

f

s

(V

c

V )

s

0.5

f

yj

DCot

q

V

sj

2.24f D

yj

Steel Jacketing
Steel Jacketing
R/C Jacketing
R/C Jacketing
External Prestressing (RetroBelt)
External Prestressing (RetroBelt)
External Prestressing (RetroBelt) Hardware required
External Prestressing (RetroBelt) Hardware required
External Prestressing (RetroBelt) Hardware required

Hardware required

Installation on Circular Columns 1 2
Installation on Circular
Columns
1
2
3
3
4
4
Installation on Square Columns
Installation on Square Columns
Installation on Square Columns
Installation on Square Columns
Installation on Square Columns
Installation on Square Columns
Shotcrete Cover
Shotcrete Cover
Shotcrete Cover
Shotcrete Cover
RetroBelt Design
RetroBelt Design

Design for Confinement:

A

ps

2.1

f'

c

f

pi

ε

t

E

p

h

s

p

P

f

P

ro

δ

Where; e t = 0.003

P

f

P

ro

0.2

s p

h

4

or

150 mm

Confinement Deficient Column Drift (%) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Confinement Deficient Column
Drift (%)
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
600
L = 2000 mm
400
P = 15% P o
200
0
P
F
-200
BR-C6
L
-400
M = FL + P
-600
-120 -100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Lateral Displacement,  (mm)
Moment, M (kN·m)
Retrofitted for Confinement Drift (%) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Retrofitted for Confinement
Retrofitted for Confinement
Drift (%) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 600
Drift (%)
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
600
L = 2000 mm
400
P = 15% P o
200
0
P
F
-200
BR-C7
L
-400
M = FL + P
-600
-120 -100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Lateral Displacement,  (mm)
Moment, M (kN·m)
Retrofitted for Confinement Drift (%) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
DESIGN OF SPLICE REGION
DESIGN OF SPLICE REGION

Experiments have suggested that the splice

failure occurs when the transverse strain is between 0.001 to 0.002

A

ps

2.1

f'

c

f

pi

ε

t

E

p

h

s

p

P

f

P

ro

δ

ε

t

0.001

Splice Deficient Column
Splice Deficient Column
Splice Deficient Column 800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -10% -8% -6% -4%
800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -10% -8% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2%
800
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
-800
-10% -8% -6% -4% -2%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8% 10%
Drift Ratio
Moment, M (kN·m)
End of test (5% Drift)
End of test
(5% Drift)
Retrofitted Splice Deficient Column 800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -10% -8% -6%
Retrofitted Splice Deficient
Column
800
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
-800
-10% -8% -6% -4% -2%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8% 10%
After the test
Drift Ratio
(10% Drift)
Moment, M (kN·m)
Design for Shear Deficiency
Design for Shear Deficiency

V

V

p

s

p

 f V  f V  f V

c

s

e

p

h

s

p

2 A

f

0.002E

p

pi

p

h

50MPa f
4

0.5f

pi

pu

Shear Deficient Column Drift (%) 200 0 80 60 40 20 100 -100-80 -60 -40 -20
Shear Deficient Column
Shear Deficient Column

Drift (%)

200 0 80 60 40 20 100 -100-80 -60 -40 -20 2 6 0 -2 -4
200
0
80
60
40
20
100
-100-80 -60 -40 -20
2
6
0
-2
-4
-6 --66
4
mm
400
600
M
L
P
F
-600
-400
-200
#10 Hoops @ 300
BR-S1
0
12 # 25 Bars

Lateral Displacement (mm)

Shear Deficient Column Drift (%) 200 0 80 60 40 20 100 -100-80 -60 -40 -20
Retrofitted Shear Deficient Column Drift (%) -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 600  F
Retrofitted Shear Deficient Column
Drift (%)
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
600
F
P
400
L
200
M
0
-200
BR-S2
Ext. Prestressed
-400
to 25% of ultimate
with a spacing of
-600
150 mm
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20
0
20
40
60
80 100
Lateral Displacement (mm)
Retrofitting Non-Ductile R/C Frames A large number of reinforced concrete frame structures, with or without masonry
Retrofitting Non-Ductile R/C Frames
Retrofitting Non-Ductile R/C
Frames

A large number of reinforced concrete

frame structures, with or without masonry infill walls, are seismically deficient. They

were either designed prior to the

enactment of modern seismic codes, or built in areas where code enforcement poses challenges.

Retrofitting Non-Ductile R/C Frames
Retrofitting Non-Ductile R/C
Frames

In general, it may not be feasible to

retrofit each and every critical element in

such structures. A more rationale retrofit

strategy may involve lateral strengthening and stiffening to control overall drift.

The Problem
The Problem
The Problem
The Problem
The Problem
The Problem
Formation of Diagonal Struts z z h h m d m Load Lateral w q Compression
Formation of Diagonal Struts
Formation of Diagonal Struts
z z h h m d m Load Lateral w q Compression Strut
z
z
h
h m
d m
Load
Lateral
w
q
Compression Strut
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee-
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee-
Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e
Braced Frame Behaviour
Lateral
Load
h e
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h
Sliding Shear in Masonry and Knee- Braced Frame Behaviour Lateral Load h e Flexural hinging h

Flexural hinging

h e 0.5h

Shear cracks

Bracing by infill R/C Walls
Bracing by infill R/C Walls
Bracing by infill R/C Walls
Test Specimens
Test Specimens
60 300 f10/150mm f10/200mm f10/100mm 150 150 150 300 Column and Beam Ties: f4/100 mm Column
60
300
f10/150mm
f10/200mm
f10/100mm
150
150
150
300
Column and Beam Ties: f4/100 mm
Column and Beam Longitudinal Bars: f8
130
60
300
200
150
All the dimensions are in mm
2-f6/150 mm, Both Faces (all specimens)
200
1300
100
150
150
750
150
750
100
150
150

100

  • 100 All the dimensions are in mm

60 300 f10/150mm f10/200mm f10/100mm 150 150 150 300 Column and Beam Ties: f4/100 mm Column
With and Without R/C Infill Panels 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -45 -40 -35
With and Without R/C Infill Panels
250
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
-50
-100
B4-no splice
-150
B3-bare frame with no splice
-200
-250
DISPLACEMENT (mm)
LATERAL LOAD (kN)
Retrofitting Masonry Infills with FRP

Retrofitting Masonry Infills with FRP

Retrofitting Masonry Infills with FRP
Retrofitting Masonry Infills with FRP
Retrofitted Frame with Infill Wall

Retrofitted Frame with Infill Wall

Retrofitted Frame with Infill Wall
Retrofitted Frame with Infill Wall
CFRP Layout Fiber anchor, inserted into hole in column with epoxy Strip width: 2 feet
CFRP Layout
Fiber anchor,
inserted into hole
in column with
epoxy
Strip width: 2 feet
CFRP Layers Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer

CFRP Layers

Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin
Masonry Wall Primer Coat Epoxy Putty Filler First Resin Coat First Carbon Fiber Layer Second Resin

Masonry Wall

Primer Coat

Epoxy Putty Filler

First Resin Coat

First Carbon Fiber Layer

Second Resin Coat

Second Carbon Fiber Layer

Third Resin Coat

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place

FRP Anchors

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place

Anchors

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place

Predrilled holes

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place

Wooden guides

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place

FRP anchors in place

FRP Anchors Anchors Predrilled holes Wooden guides FRP anchors in place
FRP Anchors
FRP Anchors
TEST SPECIMENS 250 1825 2- #15 62.5 750 400 400 1- #15 350 2-#15 #2 (U.S.)
TEST SPECIMENS
250
1825
2- #15
62.5
750
400
400
1- #15
350
2-#15
#2 (U.S.)
@ 125 mm
8 - #15
Lap Splice:
24 d b = 390 mm
(ACI 318-63)
500
#10
Concrete cover :
#25
10 @ 150mm
12 d b + (6d b )/2 + d b = 256 mm
#15 Hooks
25 mm (typ.)
(ACI 318-65 Manual of Standard for
1825
Preparation of Specimens

Preparation of Specimens

Preparation of Specimens
Preparation of Specimens
TEST SETUP 400 kN 400 kN Three hollow structural sections (40 kN) (20% P 0 )
TEST SETUP
400 kN
400 kN
Three hollow structural sections
(40 kN)
(20% P 0 )
(20% P 0 )
(3"x3"x0.375") welded together
Anchors
#15 Prestressing
Stiff Bars
wire strands
running externally
running externally*
Loading plate
Reaction Frame
#9 Prestressing
wire running
externally on both
sides **
Strong
Floor
* Seven Wire Strand, Size Designation: #15, Grade 1720 MPa
** Seven Wire Strand, Size Designation: #9, Grade 1720 MPa
Observed Behavior Wide Flexural Cracks at Beam Ends (1.5% Drift)

Observed Behavior

Wide Flexural Cracks at Beam Ends (1.5% Drift)

Observed Behavior Wide Flexural Cracks at Beam Ends (1.5% Drift)
Observed Behavior Crushing of Blocks at 2% Drift

Observed Behavior

Crushing of Blocks at 2% Drift

Observed Behavior Crushing of Blocks at 2% Drift

End of Test

Observed Behavior Crushing of Blocks at 2% Drift
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship
-40 60 -60 (3%) (-3%) Force, kN F  0 0 40 20 -20 -300 300
-40
60
-60
(3%)
(-3%)
Force, kN
F
0
0
40
20
-20
-300
300
200
100
(1%)
(2%)
(-2%)
(-1%)
BL-1
Displacement, mm (Drift)
-100
-200
Observed Behavior at 1% Lateral Drift

Observed Behavior at 1% Lateral Drift

Observed Behavior at 1% Lateral Drift
Observed Behavior at 1% Lateral Drift
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship Retrofitted Specimen Force, kN BL-2 800 Retrofitted 600 Unretrofitted 400 200 (-3%) (-2%)

Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship

Retrofitted Specimen

Force, kN BL-2 800 Retrofitted 600 Unretrofitted 400 200 (-3%) (-2%) (-1%) 0 -60 -40 -20
Force, kN
BL-2
800
Retrofitted
600
Unretrofitted
400
200
(-3%)
(-2%)
(-1%)
0
-60
-40
-20
0
20 40
60
-200
(1%)
(2%)
(3%)
Displacement, mm
-400
(Drift)
-600
-800
Retrofit with Diagonal FRP Strips

Retrofit with Diagonal FRP Strips

Retrofit with Diagonal FRP Strips
Observed Behavior Local delamination of FRP sheet under tension compression reversals (0.75% drift) Rupturing of FRP

Observed Behavior

Local delamination of FRP sheet

under tension compression reversals (0.75% drift)

Observed Behavior Local delamination of FRP sheet under tension compression reversals (0.75% drift) Rupturing of FRP

Rupturing of FRP anchors at 1.75% drift

Observed Behavior Local delamination of FRP sheet under tension compression reversals (0.75% drift) Rupturing of FRP
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship Retrofitted Specimen -400 -60 (-3%) Force, kN BL-3 0 0 (3%) 60 20

Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship

Retrofitted Specimen

-400 -60 (-3%) Force, kN BL-3 0 0 (3%) 60 20 40 -20 -40 -200 200
-400
-60
(-3%)
Force, kN
BL-3
0
0
(3%)
60
20
40
-20
-40
-200
200
-600
-800
(1%)
(2%)
(-1%)
(-2%)
(Drift)
Retrofitted
Unretrofitted
Displacement, mm
800
600
400
Dynamic Analysis of a 5-Story Building  Four interior and two exterior frames with capacities equal

Dynamic Analysis of a 5-Story Building

Dynamic Analysis of a 5-Story Building  Four interior and two exterior frames with capacities equal

Four interior and two exterior frames with

capacities equal to 1/3 the

level required by NBCC-2005

  • Exterior frames were retrofitted with FRP strips

  • Single layer of FRP was used either on one side or both sides of walls in the middle bay

  • The structure was subjected to design earthquake compatible with uniform hazard spectra

Dynamic Analysis of the 5-Story Building 6 5 4 Unretrofitted 3 2 1 FRP on one
Dynamic Analysis of the 5-Story
Building
6
5
4
Unretrofitted
3
2
1
FRP on one side
FRP on both sides
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Max. Interstorey Drift Ratio (%)
Storey
Retrofitted specimen, diagonally prestressed to 30% of ultimate on both sides Retrofitting through Diagonal Prestressing built

Retrofitted specimen, diagonally

prestressed to 30% of ultimate

on both sides

Retrofitting through Diagonal Prestressing built conditions
Retrofitting through Diagonal
Prestressing
built conditions

Reference specimen, reflecting as

Retrofitted specimen, diagonally prestressed to 30% of ultimate on both sides Retrofitting through Diagonal Prestressing built
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship
-40 80 -80 Force, kN BR-1 (-4%) (3%) (Drift) F  0 0 60 40 20
-40
80
-80
Force, kN
BR-1
(-4%)
(3%) (Drift)
F
0
0
60
40
20
-800
-60
-20
800
600
400
200
(1%)
(2%)
(-2%)
Displ. mm
-200
-400
-600
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship
Force-Displacement Hysteretic Relationship

Retrofitted

800

BR-2
BR-2
Retrofitted 800 BR-2 -200 80 (4%) 600 Displacement, mm (3%) 60 400 Unretrofitted -40 -60 -80
-200 80 (4%) 600 Displacement, mm (3%) 60 400 Unretrofitted -40 -60 -80 0 0 (2%)
-200
80
(4%)
600
Displacement, mm
(3%)
60
400
Unretrofitted
-40
-60
-80
0
0
(2%)
-400
-600
-800
200
(Drift)
(-3%)
-20
(1%)
(-2%) (-1%)
(-4%)
40
20
Analysis of a 5-Story Building
Analysis of a 5-Story Building
Analysis of a 5-Story Building  Four interior and two exterior frames with capacities equal to
  • Four interior and two exterior frames with capacities equal to 1/3 the level required by NBCC-
    2005

  • Exterior frames were retrofitted with 15.2 mm diameter 7-wire strands in the middle bay

  • Pushover analysis was conducted

  • Dynamic inelastic analysis was also conducted under design earthquakes compatible with uniform hazard spectra

Push-over Analysis of the 5-Story Building
Push-over Analysis of the 5-Story
Building
2500 2000 Retrofitted with 100 kN of prestressing 1500 Retrofitted without prestressing 1000 Unretrofitted 500 0
2500
2000
Retrofitted with 100 kN
of prestressing
1500
Retrofitted without
prestressing
1000
Unretrofitted
500
0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Max. Interstory Drift Ratio (%)
Lateral Force (kN)
Dynamic Analysis of the 5-Story Building 6 No. of strands Max. strand stress 2 1728 MPa
Dynamic Analysis of the 5-Story
Building
6
No. of strands
Max. strand stress
2
1728 MPa
2 S t r a n d s
U n r e t r o f i t t e d
5
6
1702 MPa
10
1660 MPa
4
3
2
1
10 Strands
6 Strands
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Storey

Max. Interstorey Drift Ratio (%)

Lateral Bracing with Structural Steel
Lateral Bracing with Structural Steel
Lateral Bracing with Structural Steel
Seismically Deficient Walls
Seismically Deficient Walls
Seismically Deficient Walls
Seismically Deficient Walls
Retrofitting Walls with Steel Strips  Reinforced Concrete Walls  Unreinforced Masonry Walls  Reinforced Masonry

Retrofitting Walls with Steel Strips

  • Reinforced Concrete Walls

Retrofitting Walls with Steel Strips  Reinforced Concrete Walls  Unreinforced Masonry Walls  Reinforced Masonry
  • Unreinforced Masonry Walls

  • Reinforced Masonry Walls

Retrofitting Walls with Steel Strips  Reinforced Concrete Walls  Unreinforced Masonry Walls  Reinforced Masonry
Seismically Deficient Reinforced Concrete Wall
Seismically Deficient Reinforced
Concrete Wall
  • Reinforced Concrete Wall

Reinforced Concrete Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit

Without

Retrofit

With

Reinforced Concrete Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit

Retrofit

Reinforced Concrete Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Reinforced Concrete Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Seismically Deficient Unreinforced Masonry Wall
Seismically Deficient Unreinforced
Masonry Wall
  • Unreinforced Masonry Wall

Without

Retrofit

Unreinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit

With

Retrofit

Unreinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Unreinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Seismically Deficient Reinforced Masonry Wall
Seismically Deficient Reinforced
Masonry Wall
  • Reinforced Masonry Wall

Without

Retrofit

Reinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit

With

Retrofit

Reinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Reinforced Masonry Wall Without Retrofit With Retrofit
Modification of Dynamic Characteristics of Buildings Increase Damping with Supplementary Energy Dissipation Devices (effective in flexible

Modification of Dynamic Characteristics of Buildings

  • Increase Damping with Supplementary Energy Dissipation Devices (effective in flexible buildings) Viscous dampers (hydraulic cylinders) Yielding plates Friction pads

  • Base Isolators (effective in stiff buildings) Often done by means of Bearing Pads. Isolates the structure, while also providing supplementary damping

Viscous Dampers

Viscous Dampers

Viscous Dampers
Friction Dampers Quebec Provincial Police H.Q. in Montreal

Friction Dampers

Quebec Provincial Police H.Q. in Montreal
Quebec Provincial Police H.Q.
in Montreal
Friction Dampers Boing Airplane Factory in Everett, Washington

Friction Dampers

Friction Dampers Boing Airplane Factory in Everett, Washington
Friction Dampers Boing Airplane Factory in Everett, Washington

Boing Airplane Factory in Everett, Washington

Active seismic control Structural response and ground motion are recorded by sensors, control forces are computed

Active seismic control

Structural response and ground motion are recorded

by sensors, control forces are computed and applied

to minimize deformations.

Active seismic control Structural response and ground motion are recorded by sensors, control forces are computed
Equation of motion with control
Equation of motion with control

M x Cx



K x Ex (t )



g

Du (t )

u (t)

Control Force

Equation of motion with control M x Cx     K x  Ex

( )

u t

F

1

F

2

F

3

F

4

 
F 4 F 3 F 3 F 4 F 1 F 2
 
F 4 F 3 F 3 F 4 F 1 F 2
 

F

4

F

3

F 3 F 4

F

3

F

4

F 3 F 4
F 1 F 2

F

1

F

2

F 1 F 2
F 4 F 3 F 3 F 4 F 1 F 2
 
F 4 F 3 F 3 F 4 F 1 F 2
Hysteretic Relationships First story column of a 5-story building -150 M (kN-m) 0.006 -0.006 0 0

Hysteretic Relationships

First story column of a 5-story building

-150 M (kN-m) 0.006 -0.006 0 0 50 200 150 100 -50 -100 Ductility=6.55 -200 0.003
-150
M (kN-m)
0.006
-0.006
0
0
50
200
150
100
-50
-100
Ductility=6.55
-200
0.003
-0.003
0.0015
-0.0045
-0.0015
0.0045
Deformation
Uncontrolled
element #6

Uncontrolled

Hysteretic Relationships First story column of a 5-story building -150 M (kN-m) 0.006 -0.006 0 0
200 150 Controlled - c/r =1E 7 Element #6 100 Ductility=3.85 50 0 -0.006 -0.0045 -0.003
200
150
Controlled - c/r =1E 7
Element #6
100
Ductility=3.85
50
0
-0.006
-0.0045
-0.003
-0.0015
0
0.0015
0.003
0.0045
0.006
-50
Deformation
-100
-150
-200
Controlled
M (kN-m)
Conclusions… Thank you … Questions and comments?
Conclusions…
Thank you …
Questions and comments?