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Coal and Peat Resources of


01 September 2016
What is Coal ?
Coal is a readily combustible
sedimentary rock composed
essentially of lithified plant
materials. More specifically it is a
readily combustible rock containing
more than 70% by volume of organic
material formed from induration of
plant remains.
Rank of coal
1. Lignite or Brown Coal

2. Sub-bituminous Coal

3. Bituminous Coal

4. Anthracite Coal
Coal Resources Of Bangladesh
Coal field (district) Year of Discovered by Depths of coal No. of coal Reserve (million
discovery seams (meter) seam metric ton)

Barapukuria 1985 GSB 18-5106 6 390


Phulbari (Dinajpur) 1997 BHP 150-204 2 572

Khalashpir (Rangpur) 1989 GSB 257-480 8 685

Dighipara (Dinajpur) 1995 GSB 328-407 7 600

Jamalganj 1962 SVOC 640-1158 7 1053

Geological Origin of
Coalfields in Bangladesh

Major deposits of high quality bituminous

coal are found in the Bogra-Dinajpur-
Rangpur areas of the Bangladesh. A very
large forest and swampy environment
existed during that time in the northwest
Bangladesh and adjacent Indian state of
West Bengal and Bihar. The coal is called
Gondwana coal because these were
formed within a vast super continent
known as Gondwanaland that existed at
that time.
Coal Reserves in
The total reserve of coal in four coal
fields (Barapukuria, Phulbari,
Khalashpir and Dighipara) is
estimated at about 2250 million
tones. The Jamalganj field has an
estimated coal deposit of about 1050
million tones, but not economically
Coal field
The Barapukuria coalfield was discovered
by the geological survey of Bangladesh
(GSB) in 1985 at depth of 159 meter. This
was the first major coal discovery in
shallow mineable depth in Bangladesh.It is
located the Parbatipur thana of Dinajpur
district, at a distance of about 50 km
southeast of Dinajpur town. The
Barapukuria underground coal mine
commenced operation in 2005 and
continues coal production to date.
Barapukuria Coalfield
Geological structure of
Barapukuria Coalfield

 The Barapukuria coalfield basin is located in the tectonic

unit Rangpur saddle of the stable platform in the
northwest Bangladesh.
 It is a half graben type asymmetric cratonic basin
bounded in the east by a major fault known as Eastern
Boundary fault.
 The coal bearing sedimentary rocks of the basin lie
unconformity on the Precambrian crystalline (granitic)
 The basin is elongated in north south direction and has a
length of about 4.5 km and an width of about 1.5 km.
Age Stratigraphic unt (thickness in meter)

Pleistocene Madhupur clay (10 m)

Pliocene DupiTila formation (194 m)

Predominantly medium to coarse grained loosely consolidated
sand with few clay/shale interbeds. A shale/clay unit occurs at
the basal part in some part of the field.

Permian Gondwana group (475 m)

Medium to coarse grained, often pebbly hard arkosic sandstone
with conglomerate and few shale. Coal layers interbedded with

Percambrian Basement
Igneous and metamorphic rocks
Coal Seam–Depth and Thickness

There are six coal layers (seams) reffered to from

top to bottom , as seam 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 , 5, 6 ,encounted
within Gondwana rock unit in Barapukuria basin (
Wardell Armstrong 1991 ). The coal seams occur at
depth ranging from 118 m to 506 m below the
surface. Three of the coal seams, i.e. 2 , 4 ,6 are
major . Among these three seams, 6 is the thickest
and most consistent over the basin,. Seam 2, 4 are
relatively less consistent though significant. The
average thickness of coal seam 2, 4, 6 are 8 m, 6 m,
36 m respectively. The remaining three coal seams
i.e. 1, 3, 5 are discontinuous and irregular. The coal
seams contain occasional bands of carbonates
mudstone and thus show inhomogeneity in quality
across their thickness.
Coal Quality

The Barapukuria Coal is low

sulfur, high volatile bituminous
coal. Coal seam 6 is the
thickest among the six seams
and contains 90% of the total
reserve & this is the only seam
which will be mined.
Prox. Analysis of coal sample
from different zone of seam 6
Zones of Average Average characteristics of seven zones of coal seam 6
Coal Seam 6 thickness
Ash % Volatile Fixed Total sulfur Gross
matter % carbon % % calorific
A 6.2 21.5 24 44.2 0.52 9615

B 5.4 9.0 29.9 51.1 0.61 11525

C 4.3 16.2 28.2 45.6 0.58 10435

D 3.9 10.8 30.2 49.0 0.57 11320

E 4.9 13.3 29.3 47.4 0.54 10915

F 4.8 20.2 25.9 43.9 0.57 9760

G 5.5 16.9 26.5 46.6 0.56 10205

Average 36.5 16.2 27.6 46.2 0.57 10450

Coal Reserve in Barapukuria coal field
Coal Seam Nature Average Reserve (million ton)
(meter) Demonstrated Inferred

Irregular, discontinuous 4.6 - 1

1. and limited
Relatively consistent 8.2 14 -
Irregular, discontinuous 2.0 - 4
3. and limited
Relatively consistent 6.4 18 -
Discontinuous, limited 4.1 - 17
Consistent 36 271 64
Total Coal Reserve 303 86
Water Drainage of Barapukuria coal

Barapukuria Coal mine is situated under the water

bearing layer (aquifer). The average thickness of the
water bearing Dupi-Tila formation is around 107m
and situated above the coal bearing Gondwana layer.
Dupi-Tila formation is fully saturated by water.
Besides this enough water is available in the coal
bearing Gondwana formation also. The mine water
mainly coming from those above layers during
development and production period through of the
mine by different fracture, fissure, faults, Dykes and
damaged Gob area. At present, the toral water
discharging from Barapukuria coal mine is around
Mining Method
There has been considerable debate on the
issue of mining method best suitable for
Bangladesh coal field. But govt. decided to
establish an underground coal method. At
first Underground coal mining in
Barapukuria used Longwall multislice
mining method but now Longwall Top coal
caving method (LTCC) is being used in
Barapukuria underground mine.
Coal Production
S.N Financial Year Producton (MT)
1 2015-2016(6 months) 564,615

2 2014-2015 675,775
3 2013-2014 947,124
4 2012-2013 854,804
5 2011-2012 835,000
6 2010-2011 666,635
7 2009-2010 704,658
8 2008-2009 827,845
9 2007-2008 677,098
10 2006-2007 388,376
11 2005-2006 303,016
12 During Construction 178,181

13 Total 7,623,038
Coal production in Barapukuria mine (TMT)

827 835


700 677 666 675

600 564





91 87

Mine Risk Components

i. Water flood in rush

ii.Spontaneous combustion and
toxic gas emission
iii.High temperature and
iv.Shock bump/weight bump
v. Methane gas explosion
Coal field
The Phulbari coal field was discovered in 1997 by
the Australian mining company BHP Minerals. The
discovery was the result of an exploration
program undertaken by BHP during 1994 -1997 in
several blocks in north Bengal which were lease
out to the company for the coal exploration .
The Phulbari coal field is located about 10 km
south of the Barapukuria coal field and in the
vicinity of Phulbari town ship. The coal extends
towards southeast from the town .The coalfield
is located close to the new dual gauge rail line .
Geologic Structure

Phulbari coalfield lies in a half graben

basin located in the Rangpur saddle and
just south of the Barapukuria coalfield
basin. The Permian coal bearing
sequence which fills the graben basin,
unconformity overlies the Archaean
basement complex and is overlain by
flat lying Tertiary sediments.
Alluvium 6 to 10 meter
Modhupur Clay

90 to 100 meter
Tertiary Upper DupiTila
Fine to medium sand, major
clay, minor gravel

20 to 50 meter
Lower DupiTila
Mudstone, clay Basal quartz

60 to >150 meter
Permian Gondwana Group
Sandstone, minor shale, coal
beds, basal conglomerate

PreCambrian Granite basement
Coal seams and coal quality
Thickness Ash (air dried) Specific Energy Total Sulpher
Seam (ad) (ad)

Range Average Range Average Range Average Range Average

(m) (m) (%) (%) (MJ/kg) (MJ/kg) (%) (%)

Upper 2.6-11.6 10.6 11.9- 16.5 25.8- 27.3 0.6-2.8 1.1

24.6 28.6

Main 8.8-39.5 22.6 12.4- 15.8 25.7- 27.7 0.5-2.1 0.9

21.3 29.1
Coal Resource

Category Tonnes (millions)

Measured 288

Indicated 244

Inferred 40

Total 572
Proposed Mining Method

Asia Energy confirmed the

resource of 572 million tonnes
of high quality bituminous coal
in Phulbari basin. The study
also established that open pit
mining is the only economically
and technically viable option
to extract this coal resource.
Khalashpir coalfield is located
in Pirganj upzilla of Rangpur
district, about 13km west of
Pirganj town. The coalfield is
about 35km to the southeast of
Barapukuria coal field. Its
discovered in 1989 by Geologic
Survey of Bangladesh.
Geologic Structure

Khalashpir Basin is a NW-SE elongated

Gondwana Basin defined by gravity anomaly.
The basin has a total area of 25 sq. km of
which 14.78 sq. km is suggested to be coal
bearing. Drilling data reveal a prominent NNW-
SSE fault in the northeastern side of the basin.
This fault, suggested to be a major boundary
fault, appears to have a throw of 150m. The
Basin, like other Gondwana basins in the area,
is filled with Permian sediment and is covered
by Tertiary sediments.
Age Stratigraphic unit
(Thickness in meter)
Recent Alluvium
Plestocene Modhupur clay formation (6m)

Plicene DupiTila formation (162 m)

Predominantly medium to coarse grained
poorly consolidated sandstone with few shale

Miocene Jamalganj formation (184 m)

Subequal properties of interbedded
sandstone and shale

Permian Gondwana group (815 m)

Medium to coarse grained, often pebbly, hard
arkosic sandstone with some conglomerate and
few shale; coal layers interbedded with
Coal seam- Depth and
Well name GDH-45 GDH-46 GDH-47
Coal zone I 285 318 257
Coal zone II 353 341 269
Coal zone III 369 364 281
Coal zone IV 416 368 288
Coal zone V 467 379 310
Coal zone VI 449 398 317
Coal zone VII 462 407 322
Coal zone VIII 481 425 378
Coal quality
Coal zone Average Average characteristics of coal in different zones
thickness of
coal (m) Ash % Volatile Fixed Total Gross
matter % carbon % sulphur % calorific

I 16.9 18.0 21.8 57.4 0.84 11753

II 9.9 18.3 17.4 60.4 0.96 11505

III 1.2 24.9 40.42 51.3 0.69 10782

IV 6.9 17.5 24.0 57.0 0.90 11757

V 2.2 26.7 22.6 49.8 0.74 10725

VI 2.6 27.3 23.4 48.6 0.65 10436

VII 1.6 19.9 25.3 54.3 0.87 11580

VIII 1.3 19.6 23.7 53.9 0.51 11575

Average 21.8 22.8 54.1 0.77 11264

Coal Reserve in
khalashpir coalfield
Coal zone Area Average Proved reserve Total
thickness (million ton) probable
Proved Probable (m) Individual Total reserve
zone (million
I 16.9 56.3

II 9.9 33.0

III 1.2 4.0

IV 6.9 23.1
2.52 sq. 12.26 sq. 142 685
V km km 2.7 7.5

VI 2.6 8.8

VII 1.6 5.5

VIII 1.3 4.3

The Jamalganj coalfield is located
in Jaipurhat district in the vicinity
of jamalganj town and to the west
of the north-south broad-gauge
railway line. The coalfield was
discovered in 1962 by the Geological
Survey under the UN sponsored coal
exploration program.
Geological structure

Jamalganj coalfield is situated in the

Bogra Shelf unit of the tectonically
stable PreCambrian Platform. The
structural information on the coal
deposit is based on seismic and borehole
data. The basin is bounded to the north
by an east-west trending major fault
known as Buzrak-Durgadah boundary
Stratigraphic unit (thickness in meter)


Modhupur clay

Pliocene DupiTila formation (275 m)

Poorly consolidated, medium to coarse grained sandstone, few shale
and pebbly horizons

Miocene to Oligocene Jamaganj formation (413 m)

Alternation moderately compacted medium to fine sandstone and

Eocene Kopili FM (42 m)

Sylhet sandstone
Cherra FM (104 m)

Triassic Upper gondwana formation (250 m )

Medium to coarse grained highly compacted hard sandstone with few
shale interbeds

Permian Lower gondwana formation (305m)

Medium to coarse grained hard arkosic sandstone often pebbly, some
conglomerate and shale interbeds and thick to thin coal layers
Coal seams-depth
Well Western part Eastern part
EDH-5 EDH-6 EDH-7 EDH-8b EDH-9 EDH-10 EDH-11

Seam I 913 Missing Missing Missing Missing 867 Missing

Seam II 940 786 699 614 876 892

Seam III 1000 930 838 725 659 909 977

Seam IV 1037 995 882 807 679 967 1005

Seam V 1070 1018 942 866 Hole 1024 1036

Seam VI 1126 1102 981 902 ed 1109 1093
Seam VII United with seam VI 1014 Missing 1124 1101
Coal seams-thickness
Borehole Western part Eastern
# part
Seam# EDH-5 EDH-6 EDH-7 EDH-8 EDH-9 EDH-10 EDH-11

Coal 1.52 - - - - 12.68 -

seam I
Coal 4.56 12.46 4.26 7.9 5.17 2.56 3.19
seam II
Coal 19.41 4.26 20.37 20.67 8.87 40.76 46.82
seam III
Coal 20.22 7.9 10.34 24.78 4.55 5.22 8.97
seam IV
Coal 2.36 5.17 13.68 20.98 - 16.42 16.42
seam V
Coal - 2.56 7.6 10.99 - 6.04 6.04
seam VI
Coal - 319 15.05 - - 15.8 15.81
seam VII
Coal rank and quality
M/s Robertson research M/s Waheduddin and
International (1976) Zaher (1965)

Ash Av. 24.2% Av. 22.4% (range 10-60%)

Volatile matter Av. 36.9% - (range 30-40%)

Fixed carbon Av. 36.7 Av. 47.0% (range 33-54%)

Moisture Av. 3.58% -

Sulphur Av. 0.55% Av. 0.65%

Calorific value Av. 11.878 Btu/lb Av. 12100 Btu/lb

Coal Reserve of Jamalganj
Coal seam number Range of thickness (m) Coal reserves (million ton)
After Rahman & zahan after M/S fried Krupp
(1980) (1969)
I 1.5 m to 2.6 m Ignored

II 2.5 m to 12.4 m 39.5

III 4.2 m to 46.8 m 526.8

IV 4.5 m to 24.7 m 32.4

V 2.6 m to 20.9 m 30.0

VI 2.6 m to 10.9 m 50.83

VII 3.1 m to 15.8 m 374.4

Total Reserve 1053.9

Nature and Origin of Peat

Peat is a heterogenous mixture of partly

decomposed plant matrials accumulated
in water saturated environment. It has a
calorific value between 5500 Btu/lb and
7000 Btu/lb.
Peat originates from decomposition of
plant materials in a water saturated
anaerobic environment, commonly in
swamp, bogs and lake.
Peat deposit in Bangladesh
Location Districts Arial extent Average Reserve (dry
(sq. km) thickness of peat) (million
peat later (m) ton)

Baghia Chanda Madaripur and 518 2 125

beel Gopalganj
Kola Mouza Khulna 39 2 8

Chatal beel Moulvibazar - - 6.2

9.5 N.A 2.1

Moulvibazar Moulvibazar
4.5 N.A 0.76

Pagla Sunamganj 11.5 1 1.8

Chorkai Sylhet 11.6 0.8 1.8

Katenga- Brahmanbaria - - 0.75

Hakaluki lake Sylhet and 100 - 200
Baghia Chanda beel peat deposit

This deposit is located in Baghia Chanda beel

area of Madaripur and Gopalganj area. The
peat is brown to black in color, soft when wet
but hard when dried. It has a fibrous texture
because of the presence of undecomposed
plant materials. The specific gravity of the
peat ranges from 0.5 to 1.3. Khan (1991)
classified into 3 categories:
i. Immature Peat
ii. Moderately mature Peat
iii.Mature Peat
Kola Mouza peat deposit

A large deposit of peat has been discovered

in the Kola-Barasat area in Khulna
industrial area. The peat deposit is located
in a topographically depressed area within
the deltaic flood plain. The peat is dark
brown, soft when wet but hard and brittle
when dried. The estimated reserve of peat
in the Kola Mouza deposit in dry state is
about 8 million.
Moulvibazar peat deposit

A major peat deposit is found in the

Chatal beel area in Moulvibazar
district. The peat occurs at 0.5 to 4.7
meter below the surface and has
thickness ranging from 3.3 to 7 meter.
The estimated reserve of dry peat in
this area is about 6.2 million tons.
Pagla and Chorkai peat deposit

Two deposits of peat are found, one at

Pagla (Sunamganj) and a second at
Chorkai (Sylhet), 3 miles to the east of
Pagla. The peat deposits occurs in the
low lying alluvial flood plain area of
Maha singh and Surma rivers and
covers areas of 11.5 sq. km and 11.6
sq. km respectively. The areas remain
under flood water for a considerable
period each year.
Hakaluki lake peat deposit

Very recently Geologic Survey of Bangladesh

(GSB) has announced the largest peat
deposit of 200 million tons in the Hakaluki
lake of the Sylhet region. According to the
preliminary assessment of GSB, the total
area of the peat is about 100 sq. km of Juri,
Kulaura and Baralekha Upzilla of
Moulvibazar district and Fenchuganj and
Golapganj of Sylhet district. The age of the
coal estimates of 6000 years. The quality of
the coal is very good for fuel use.
Thank You